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"We will cling to the Pillars of the Temple of our Liberties, and if it must fall, we will Perish amids the Ruin."
SIMKINS, DURISOE & CO., Propriesu E MARCH 9, 18
luI E ERY, THE MILLER.
A BALLAD. .
Beneath the hill you may see the mill,
Of wasting wood and crumbling stones;
The wheel is dripping and clattering still,
But .aerry, the miller, is dead and gone.
Year after year, early and late,
Alike in summer and winter weather,
He pecked the stones and calked the gate,
And mill and miller grew old together.
"Little Jerry !"-twas all the same
They loved him well who called him so;
And whether he'd ever another name
Nobody ever seemed to know..
'Twas " Little Jerry, come grind my rye ;"
And "Little Jerry, come grind my wheat;"
And " Little Jerry" was still the cry,
From matron bold and maiden sweet.
'Twas "Little Jerry" on every tongue,
And thus the simple truth was told;
For Jerry was little when he was young,
And Jerry was little when he was old.
But what in size he chanced to lack,
That Jerry made up in being strong;
rve seen a sack upon his back
As thick as the miller, and quite as long.
Always busy, and always merry,
Always doing his very best,
A notable wag was Little Jerry,
Who uttered well his standing jest
"When will you grind my corn, I say ?"
"Nay," quoth Jerry, "you needn't scold;
Just leave your grist for half a day,
And never fear but you'll be tolled !"
How Jerry lived is known to fame,
But how he died there's none may know;
One autumn day the rumor came
"The brook and Jerry are very low."
And thean 'twas whispered mournfully
4be leech had come, and he was dead;
And all the neighbors flocked to see:
"Poor Little Jerry !" was all they said.
They laid him in his earthly bed
His miller's coat his only shroud
"Dust to dust" the parson 9 tid,
And all the people wept aloud.
For he had sh'unned the deadly sin,
And not a grain of over-toll
Had ever dropped into his bin,
To weigh upon his parting soul.
Beneath the bill there stands the mill,
Of wasting wood and eoumbling stone;
The wheel is dripping and clattering still,
But Jerry, the miller, Is dead and gone.
From the New York Times.
SID STORY OF DOMESTIC RUIN AND'BLODY
WASuINTON, Sunday, Feb. 27.
The vulgar monotony of partis.an pasions and
political squabbles has been terribly broken in
upon to-day by an outburst of personal revenre.
which has filled the city with horror and con
sternation,-1 cannot unfortunately add, with
For months past the social world of Washing
ton, always as quick to relish the details of pri
v ste scandal, as it is always lax in its judgments
of those by whom such scandal may be caused,
1,as been busy with the names of Mrs. Sickles
and of Mr. Key. Their intimacy was of that
marked and peculiar kind irhich may perfectly
well consist in the innocene of any absolute
guilt-since while it was open to public obser
vation, it was hardly concealed from Mr. Sickles
himself, who having married his wife, Miss Bla
gioli, of New York, in her early .youth, had
always treated her with extreme kindness and
tenderness, and doubtless looked upon her rela
ti ,ns' with Mr. Key as the mere expression of a
girlish love of admiration, and of a vanity'de
lighting in the sense of power over a man of fine
presence, graceful address, and a certain local
renown in the District for high spirit, resolution
During the whole of the last session of Con
*gress the tall figure of Mr. Key was constantly
t., be seen in President's square, oppos.ite Mr.
Sickles' Washington residence; and Mrs. Sickles
was as constantly in his company at all places
of public entertaiinent. In the interval of
the Congressional recess, Mr. Key made a short
visit to New York, still without exciting any
absolute suspicion of positive impropriety in the
'mind of Mr. Sickles: although other !riends of
the unhappy lady, and among them her mother,
repeatedly warned her of the fatlal precipice on
the brink of which she was permitting herself
to trifle. It was hoped that the affair would
came to an end of itself, and that one or both
of the parties most nearly implicated, would
perceire the real drift of theIr conduct in time
t. avoid its almost inevitable consequences.
But on the re-assemibling of Congress, and the
return of Mrs. Sicklcs to Washington, Mr.
K(ey's attentiona, and the iscandal consequent
upon them, were revived- alth greater ardor
thin bef...r@. Mr. K(ey was a particultarly no
tice.able man in point o'f per.-onal sppearan~e
tall, well-f -rmed, a much more athletic man
thant Mr. Sickles, and especially fond of'eier
cise on'horseback. lie rode ani iron-gl'eylhorse,
and scarcely a day hias passed since the-return
oif Mrs. Sickles to the capital, on which.his tall
fi;ure, his white riding-cap, well-trimmed inous.
tache and iron-grey horse might not. have- been
seen two or three times in the course.of. the morn-.
Ing on the circuit of President's-square, or at tihe
door of Mr. Sickles' house, whicta .standls quite
..alone on the north side of the square, and is a
ver y conspicuous building of' white stucco. It
was but on Tuesday last, (so swift and fearful a
dream does the whole story seem.) that, on vis
iting Mrs. Sickles, Tuesday being her 'day of
reception, I found Mr. Key there, liis horse
waiting for him at the door. The rooms were
filled with a pleasant company ; the soft Srinx'
sunlight poured in at the open windows; and
Mrs. Sickles herself in all her almost girlish
bieauty, wearing a buquet of crocuses, the'tlrst
lings of the year, seemed the very incarnation
of Spring and youth, and the beauntiff promnise
of life. What is the twilight--what the house
that then was the synonym of hospitality, the
*most frank, and generou4 and easy !
In the early partyof the week before last Mr.
Sickles went un to New York. Dujring his ab
sence the busy spies of society observed that
the attendance of Mr. Key, at his house was
even more unremitting than usuel. Mr. Sickles
returned to Washington on the morning of the
day of the Napier Bill, and frzin tiiit time up
eo sMday last snothin5 neenrred to make the
matr of his wife's relations with Mr. Ke3
ma6bsn ordinarily prominent in his mind. S<
far he from manifesting anything like inor
din or tyranical suspicion, that he allowe
Mr..Y to escort Mrs. Sickles as usual on Penn.
sylvia avenue, and I saw then,, in company
withar. Henry Wikoff, at the theatre on Wed.
n night. On Thursday Mr. and Mrs
Si. entertained a large party at dinner
Ov tbat gay and brilliant company how near
andaaiful a doom impended!
QA'the next day (the day before yesterday:
Mr.Sickles received from some enemy of man
kiuft' anonymous letter, stating with precisior
so i' ute as to make suspicion imperative, that
Mr.ey had rented a house on Fifteenth-street,
abo*K-street, from a negro woman, and that
he 9s in the habit of meeting Mrs. Sickle.
theritwo or three times a week, or oftener.
Thaeprson and dress of Mrs. Sickles were acJ
curqly described, and the usual time of the
in 'ew specified. Accompanied by a friend,
Mr. ckles went to the house designated and
foundeverystatemerst of.the anonymous writer
corr orated. Mr. Key had taken the house,
and-& had constantly met there a lady answer
ing *y closely in description to Mrs. Sickles.
- MISickles still clung to the hope that the
pers .who had stooped to the baseness of ma.
ki pich charges under the veil of secresy,
mnige.bave thoroughly deceived him,. and that
.Mr. ckles was not the lady in question. He
secoalngly requested his friend, Mr. George
W6|ie, of New York, to watch the place
from,'oe window of a house just opposite.
On|Baturday, no meeting took place, and the
wonmiin eharge seems to have stated that none
had-aourred since Wednesday.
O4turday evening, Mr. Sickles resolved no
longCP play the spy upon his honor, deter
minod4o confront hi- wife directly with his ter
rible icone. At first Mrs. Sickles strongly
den r guilt; but on her husband's asking
her ther. on the Wednesday previous, she
had n4entered the house on Fifteenth-street.
in a 'particular dress, and concealed by a
hood, cried out, "I am betrayed and lost !"
and ned away. On recovering her sensei,
she ted her guilt, and besought mercy and
pa Mr. Sickles calmly said he would not
injure , since he believed her the victim of a
scounnd, but that lie had right to a full con
fess Two ladies in the house were sent for
as wi , and in their presence, Mrs. Sickles
made 11 confession in writing, stating that
her tion with- Mr. Key had commenced
in Apr ast, under Mr. Sickles' roof, but that
Mr. Kq had since hired the house in Fifteenth.
street,, which they had constantly met. Mrs.
Sickle irfession was made in the midst of
the bi st contrition and niisery. Her Lus
band ~py asked her to give him back her
weddi ring, and desired her to write to her
mothe~o coie and take her fromi his house
forever. Mrs. Sickles made no objecti ns, ad
mitti he justice of her punishment in the
most ting language. Her mother will ar
rive t ow to remove her from this fearful
scene uit, remorse and bload.
- - ' t -ence of his wife,
Mr. S' es gave way to the most tert ible emo
tion, passed the night borderin.. con distrac
tion esling which was worked into madness
this' in- on seeing the cau-e of his misery,
Mr. . with gay audacity pass opposite the
wind a t his wife's noon, anI waive his hand
kerci I the usual signal for asigiatiosi.
Akk Mr. Butterworth, whn was athis
house tfolow Key and engage him in conver
sationt that he would not get out of sight, lie
rusedp stairs for his pistols, and quickly fol
loinjfund Butterworth and Key together,
at thelesner of sixteenth-street, when the trag
On ~ inl up Sickles walked directly to Key,
and it 'ou have dishonored my bed a-id
famil. you scoundrel-prepare to die ! -:t
the a'time drawing his pistol. AlmoSt si
mutaeously Key pla-ed hi hand in-ide his vest,
and diawing what appeared to be a pistol, but
what pas really an opera-glass, said, " You had
bette.net shuot !"
Siciles at once fired, Key at the same time
throwsig his glass at him. Thbis shot only graized
Key, ~ltly rai~ing thbe skin of his side, and he
imui4 ly leaped behind a tree to avoid an
ather ib. Sickles followed, and Key, cat.:hing
his arii endeavored to prevent him from firin.x,
but Sipkles disengaged himself, and firing again,
shot It in the upper part of the right thigh,
lose to the main artery.
Fallig on his hip and mupporting himself
with his hand. he cried, " Murder ! don't shoot!l'
Sckles still following, fired again, with his pis
tol elus-to Key, the ball passing through his
body below the breast.
In the'mneantime the report of the pistol and
Key's 6ries start'ed those ini the neighborhood.
M. Thomas Martin, a Clerk in the Treasury
Departent, who happened at the moment. to
be leaving the Club, rushed back, and calling
ut, "-Key is murdleredl!" Mr. Doyle, Mr. Up
sher anil Mr. Tidball, who were in the Club at
tie timesproceeded hastily to the ..pot, when
thy lelnti Sickles standinig over the body of
Keyith his pistol presented at his head, and
which he tried twice to di~charge, but which
snappeboth times-.and Mr. JButterworth stand
ing by composedly.
On hr. D~oyle's touching Sickles on the shoul
der, the latter at once desisted, and turning
around, said: " Gentlemen, this man ha4 dis
honored my bed !" Upon this he took Butter
worth's arm, and walking' from the spot with
the most self-possession, proceeded to A ttorney
General Black's, and delivered himself into
Oil Mr. Sickle'., Icavingr Mes'ira. Doyle, Tisbhall
LPnhera I Martin coavey ed ti e be:Iy, whhl'h
still hbhfaint gasps of breathing, to tae porleut
of the UIab.house, when the Aama ant Sunrva'u
Genefti ganat tnee ini attenidance, b'U..Key'
wts beo' all medical skill, le hi eathed but
twice af*being lai-l upon the tIiur..
Wj ati~n and i tlpher rasi-e*l Key fromi
the gtu , the f.ormner inquired if he hadl any.
ting t&hay. Key made no reply, amid was
In akr minutes the news spread over the
city andthe streets became thronged with visi
torte the seene of terrible event, and groups
were eiTrywhere noticed engaged in excited
dicsso about it. Th~e Club Ihouse was speeda
ly urrnded by an immuiense~ crowd, eager to
view the'kbdy c'f the ill fate.l Key. Many Mi
ttio leadii gentlemen of WVasington drove up
in their arriages, anin abu uatro an
ein M.ndleton, of 'Ohio, arrived.
At a~the Coroner's Inquest was
held in thq parlor, where the body lay, when
suicient &cts were el;ctel to show that de
esed'Waskilled 'by Daniel E. Sickles, and a
erdit wa rendered accordingly.
Whilheite, the body of K~ey-is being re
moved to:h'is late residence on C. street, nearly
>Pposite Colonel Benton's house.
The partes involved in tis~ sad story all lived
within the immediate circle of our daily Wash.
ington life; twa., at least, of them being also as
well kisewn in New York as in the Fe.beral Me
tropolis. Key was about 42 years of age, tal.
in tatre,.,bou:t six feet, with aii ea.'y and fas~h
iunable air, but by no imeaita prepoasesunfg in'
*ppraco-therwise. Ihis face had a sickly
hise1 uzndhe had been for somne time suffering
.k. head as, ~.:..inaAo ha wras. wich
gave him a soured and discontented look. Other
o wise he was extremely popular, and those who
- knew him best said his eccentricities of manner
Icovered a very kind and generous heart. His
father, Francis S. Key, was the author of the
national Song, the "S tar-Spangled Banner."
le was a widower with four children. On his
msrriage he narrowly escaped a duel with Colo
nel May, who conceived that he had unfairly
ousted him from the affections of the lady who
became his wife, and who was a beautiful and
Mr. Sickles, the member fur the Third Dis
trict of New York. is a native of this city, and
was originally a printer by occupation. le is
a man of nearly forty year-s of age; of good
presence and graceful manners. As a aeiber
of the State Senate, as well as in the House of
Representatives, he had made himself remarked
by a quite unusual coolness and self-possession
which gave him great advantages in debate, and
had acquired for him a well deserved reputation
as a rising young leader of the Democratic Par
ty. In 1853, Mr. Sickles was married to his
wife, now ruined and heart broken, then a young
girl, fresh from her school life, and remarkable
then as now for something especially soft, lovely
and youthful in the type of very peculiar beauty.
She is of Italian origin, and possesses all the
Italian lustre and depth of eye, united with a
singular candor and delicacy of feature. .
hir. Sickles had seen her grown up from child
hooll, and was attached to her with an almost
idolatrous affection. Shortly after their mar
riage Mr. Sickles was appiinted Secretary of
the American Legation at London, in the house
hold of Mr. Buchanan, and his beautiful bride!
won universal. adiniration, not more by her
charms or person and manner than by the gaye- 1
ty and innocent joyousness of her 'character.
On their return to America they resided for
some time on the Blooningdalile road, in a charm
ing house overlooking the Hudson river; and on
his election to Congress, Mr. Sickles took his
present house on President's square. It faces
directly the Club house, to which was brought
to-day the corp-e of the man who himself had
slain all that made the lire of thit nmansion, but
a few days since so gay among the gayest, and
a. hospitable among the most hospitable, of the
homes of Washington.
Mrs. Sickles miy be 22, and has twochildren.
She is the daughter of U-igioli, the celebrated
music-teacher, of Fourteenth-street. Amid the
general gloom which this 4-td affair has cast over
the city, many a sirrowing th aught is ca t to.
wards her whose guilty surrender to the wilesi
of a vill.tin has resulted so'tragically, for she
has been much liked, and t boelwho have known
her will grieve sorely at the nece sity of giving
her up m lost. Few womnen are better calcula
ted to win their way in polite society, or to
contribute m-,re to its vivacity.
Popular sympathy, as usnl in such cases, is
almo.-t unaniiimiuy with Mr. Sickles, the pro
vacation beilt deemed ample justifi -ation for
the dee-1, and when the facts a< yet unmikwwna
come to be developed, thti feeling 'will grow
still utronger, and read a fearful lesson to
.thoite wio m-ty attempt to iti'ace the honor -
and happiness of another's h-n'ne-.
A fiw of Key's p-:rs nal frion-l profess to
disbelieve his con'aet to ha.e been actually
criminal, an I in-intain that it was the result
merely of inordinwoe p.is.a d vaini'v which led
liim to seek i e appe:trance at Irin. a favorite
with the lad; in A14su11. T:ir theory is :
terly disi;.aie I b)V the c0i:mfevsij-m of tile now
When Mr. Sickies surren-lere I himself to At
torniy General It ark he rei-e.ted s-teh disuo
.ition to be mintmle of him as wa 3 r per. Tie
Attorney General scnt for a nia-isirate, wh-,
with the U ief of Police, came speedidt. Soon
after the .ay.,ar arrivedl, ana amn:ing the death
of Ky, an ' .\r. Sickfei was eonditI.ed in a c.ir
ria:.,e to tlie j:ail. where lie now is, awaiting
an examinatim. I calletl up n him this even
ing and fimd1 l him surroun le- iv several co!
league.s and other sympathizing friends. IHe
was evidently laboring und-r stro:at mental
excitenent, and his hn-ard cr-mnenance pire
sented marked evid.:nce of the efleets of the
fearful emotions. which htave harrowel b is very
souml durinig the last twent-iour hours. Never
theless, his mianner was calm anm-h collected, with
his nerves stea-hy. 01 course, I dlid not q'restion
him relative to tine alhfair. IIe volaunteered the
remn-irk, however, that it was, unavoidable, an.i
that he could not have done othlerwi.'e. IIe ad
ded: "tSatislied a-s I was of his guilt, we could
not live together upon the same planet."
The Ion. Robhert J. Walker and Messrs.
Carlisle and Ratchiltf hitve been retained 'as his
coun-;el. .Trey will b img him befor'e Judge
Crawibrd to-mnorrowi on a writ of habeas corpus,
anIl move his discharg;e upon bail. There is little
doubt th it it w~ill be allowed, and be be re
leasedJ fromn custod . The gren--ral aipinion seems
to be that no Grand .Jury wiill ever indict hini.
Key left - ito property. Ihis fa-nily connee
tionts it is understojad are able, anal will provide
for his children. Some of Key's friends intimate
threats of summary vengeanmce against Sickels if
he'appears in public where they can reach him.
SPIRITUI1I-PACICAL MINIFESTITION IN
Our sprightly contempory, the Pulaski Times,
whose attention has been drawn to spiritualism,
gives the following rearkable manj'estation in
that county, the narration of which was over
heard by one of the editors from the lips of a
yenerable and truthful negro claiming to be a
n Ingu7R." It is the fiest spiritual manifestation
we nave ever read about, which pro'inised to be
of miuch use, undl it is a pity it abouldl have been
pMldI lai the provei of develo~pment bay the
comnewhat " hrrgvereilt curk.dty" f the' ' ium
afor'esaid. We will premi< tiur clippling fromn
.t~history by.. stating that thme s'enrable narra
tar apid "mjyto'.' Was oiut o-n a' 'possumn hunt,
.and hyl treed his game ain an inmmense black
gaint tree, too big in his judgment for his own
cutting--andl he tthereuiion betook himself to
the "spirits" for aid:
'. So [ goes up to de tree and stuck my axe, as
hard as I cauld, an lef it dar,~an step off from
the tree, and seal:. Ef da,;e is de spiri hetec ob
any black ma.a dat .is dead, awha2 .has eber been.
possum hauntin' wid m'e, Lidah tank him to let me
fInow it by cuIuing dlnon dis Lre". I say the
samne ting over tree time, an den [ see de axe
comin out ob de tree, an afore I could snuff my
torch, away it was gwine cutting like blazes,
jes like sutmm body ; but I swar af-,re God, Josh,
dar was not a soul dare bitt me an de dog. Ob
course I knowedl for troof it was a spirit ; my
doug raise he brisseh< and growl-I make him
lie dawn and hush he mnouf. Bime-by, arter de
axe had cat a big keerf, it stop and set do in 0:1
de gruni, jes like when you stop to blow, an.
take de chips outena de place data cut, widl your
handa you know, and de chips fall outen de place,
but I could'uat see no hand naar niuflin.
W~ell, I want skeered a bit ; I stood dare an
dle ixe stood adare jest leanin up ginst nuilin.
Tinks I dat must be Bill Chizzum, what use to
go wid ume postum huntin afor'e he died. Sez I,
is dat you DIIl Chizzamn, an when I say dat,
down fall de axe on de grouna, anal all de suadin
I could do, it nebber cut. anather bit. Den I
knowed it was Bill, an he tink I gwine to ax
him for do quarter dollar he owed me wheni
hoaipe.aheet ant for trne- I tll yon. Josh.
I didn't cotch dat possur; no sirree bob-di
chile take he axe and cut or home, sartin."-Ma
From the Charlestoeivening News..
RE-OPENING THE AFR N SiE TRADE.
The advocates of the Slave Trade lay down
as the basis of their poli" be hypothesis that
re-opening it will 'educe e price of negroes to
an average of $300 per h . Our calculation
of the present number oslaves in the United
States, makes them 4,0000. The average of
their price to-daf is at le: 000, and gives a4
their total. value $2,40( ,000. The first
positive step in the pro policy is to reduce
the v.lue of this vast pro one half, or twelve
hundred millions. Ttis i th cool and daring
-is it not reckless? T loss is something
positive, substantial and o -a tremendous scale.
What compensation for - is proposed ? The
reduc; ion of the price o labor. Mr. Iarper
demonstrates that such re etion does not benle
fit, but damages the Sou The reduction of
the price of land. If %V t.e the tobacco cot
ton, rice and sugar States which embrace to
within a few hundred thot nd, the entire body
of our slave population, to it, Virginia, North
and South Carolina, Geo Florida, Alabama,
Mississippi, Louisiana, Ar and Tennessee,
leaving out Texas, whose mense area is but
in small part yet cultiv ed, and- we have
495,000 square miles, or G,800,000 acres of
land. These States are a ady quit-e densely
populated, have much af. t eir lands worn out
and irreclaimable und.er o system of culture,
and as much iore incaprb of cultivation. Mr.
Spratt's estimate of an av we value or $6 per
tcre is high enough, and es $1.900,800,000
-an amount not equal the value of their
daves. An increase of tw ty five per cent on
he value of their lands w Id be an enormous
md rather fanciful estim . The immense
territories of the United S tes bring into the
narket three times the qu. tity of land, afford
nuch wider margin fur Ia -speculations, and
Iraw off, even from the So h, our white popiu
ation. The newly inmpor d Africans would
Lso in large proportion seel the Western wilds
2ot embracei in the area of the States named.
Che population of these Stktes, both white and
:lored, is steadily increasing in density, and in
he same ratio advances thq.value of the land.
So that the increase of valuA which may be at
:ributed to the importation of Africans is large.
y estimated if put at twedty-Pve per cent.
Chis gives $175,000,000 to those States, in
ncrease of value (f land as comtpen.sation for the
oss of $1,000,000,000 or more than.double, on
he value of their slave property.
Let us come nearer home agd apply the argu
nent to South Carolina. Sie has ut preseat
1,91,000 slaves, worth .$274,400,000. A reduc
ion of one half would entail~a loss to the peo
dl of the State of one hunred and seventeen
nillion of dollars. She can 1ow sell all her ne
;roes at the amount fir.t staed. Why should
ibe incar the los<? 1I.r area is 29,385 square
iiiles or 18 806,400 acres,C in value $112,
38,400-an amount nut mi, to the o"< The.
ompeiieation-Tfr it in- r price wo, d be
inly twenty-eight millions. It N evident that
South Carolina has far more interest in raising
iative negroes, than in importing Afriems.
In ad lition to the loss here pnaven, Mr.
Eirper in the extract to-day procee-l6, afler
i:ving estab.ishmed imite depreciationi which would
olt to Southern Laoir ani-l our system of in
lustry, to lring to view the los;ses on c ,tton and
0l 1be S.uthern proilncts-a los on income a*
.reil si capital, and the additional burden of in
rea'ed expenses. Hie shiows that for the mas
e1, of our people, and especially the poor. they
rould havo to pay higher for the necesKaries of
ire, while they would get less wages or means
a pay with.
Why should the porer man be enablel to
my a negro at a reduced price, when the land
for their cultivation is increase:d upon him in
price, and when the protits iuon his whole in
restment an-1 inlustry would be diminished in
uqual if not greawer propo:tion to the reduction
st iegro property ?
Why should. the investments of the South to
the amounmt of t wenty-five hundred amillions of
loll:fras in negrn property lhe disturbed in all its
relations, be depurived of its guarantees of thme
Law and society under which they were made,
be prostrated in value and security, and the en
ire~ syhtem of economy on which they rest,
Why should thme holders of those investments
be brought, in order to preserve their values,
into divisions from andl antagonim to those who
seek their diepression, to the political, social and
ecnomuic distraction or thme Soth ii
What is the attemplt to dcestroy or rather
riivert twelve hundred millions of value from
our present slave property, for the pretence of
benefit to the non-slaveholdling class, but agrari
anism-yes, agrarianism on a vast an-d startling
scale, and sought under the sanctions' of politi
cal demagogueism I Mr. Spramtt had as well
propose at once a general dividing-out among all
the people of the entire property of thme South,
both blave and landed, and have a general scram
ble over it. Does he suppose that our intelli
gent, honest and conservative people will coN
sent to have attempted under the forms of law
and-order, what strikes at their very vitals and
AN ARGUMENT AGAINST THE MdICY OF RE
OPENING THlE AFRICAN SLAVE TRADE,
Dy Roldert G. Har per, Esq.
Pablshediln pamphlet forms, at Atlanta, Georgtp.]
EXTInAVT wo. 2.--coTTox.
Tho importcd Africana, too, would " multiply
dnsd replenish" the Sulttt, andI the generatioJns
born on otur soil, andi tInder the ge'lhi inhluence
of outi'ern instiltations, Wondd ho well educated
by th~e time they were old enough to labor.
Would .not that souarce of the increase of. sup
ply affect the price of the nrgroes already mn
the couitry 1 Not only is it clear, therefore,
that the increased supply of slaves from this
traffic inould reduce the price of negroes gen
erally in the couutry, by changing the relative
state df the supply and demand-but, as gill
apiear in the sequel of this Essay, the price of
negroes will be further affected and reduced by
a redaction of the price of Southern staples,
which are the products of slave labor. .For,
althcaagh wve speak of the relative state of the
suply and demand influencing and governing
the price of an article, we do not mnean that
thee constitute the-sole elements of price. We
allele to the effects of -that law upon an article
added to its intrinsic value, or its cost of pro
du:ion,. or its own productiveness, as the case
may be. And as a matter of course, any cause
wbch goes beyond the fluctuations of the sup
py and demand, and -affects the intrinsic value
of an article, or the cost of the production of
that article, or the productive value of that ar-'
tide, will strike more directly at it-s price than
ra other cause. This I shall make appear
mre clearly in the argument which I propose!
i-the next place to enter upon, in reference to
the cotton interest of the South, as it is con-'
peted with the African Slave Trade. When
a-e have ascertained what effect that traffic will
save upon cotton and tihe other great staples
hich are dependent upon slave labor, we shall
~ha be better prepared to judge of the effect
t these ew anses the price of neerne; And
the definition and constituent elements of price
as applicable to that species of property, will
then be more fully explained, and the conse
quences of this policy in their bearing up.ni the
destiny of this institution, traced.
We have.now in the Southern States about
three and a half millions of slaves. If the
trade from Africa was re-opened, how longi
would it be before that number would be dou
bled ? In Western Aftica, whins contains a
population of 40 or 50 nijllions, slaves tire sold
at X: or ?3 a head. The supply which that
entire country would firnish is incalculable
and inexbaustible. The vast profit of the trade,
considering the diference in their value here,
and the cost of their purchase of kidnapping inl
Africa, and their transportation hither, would
mtake it the most lucrative trade in the world,
and would consequently enlist in it vast means
of importation. The kidnapping proien-ities
of New Ewgland would return to her, with an
accumulated shipping capacity of a half centu
ry, and with an apliitite increa;ed inl proportion
to the advanced value of the negro. She wold
undoubtedly reap her full share of the trade. I
She is skilled in the arts of the business, having
practiced it long upon the negro property of
her sister States. Ier conscience is prepared t
for its horrors, having long been seared by fa- 6
naticism as with a hot iron. Aud as long as t
there was a dollar to be made in the tralile. she I
would cling to it AE her mercenary soul cings c
to filthy lucre. How long would it be before
the number of slaves in the South would be
seven millions, instead of three and a half?
Even the feeble state of Brazil imported, prior
to 1850, about 70,000 .Javes a year from Africa,
aid did it under the discourageiments and liar- C
rassments of a British ,qua Iron on the African t
C)ast, which oppressel and coerced her traders, I
as Great Britain will ever do a weaker power. '
How much greater would be the commercial C
ability.of this country to import than that of t
Brazil ? And great. as the demand now is in
this country for slaves, the low prices at which
they could be imported and sold,. would m:ni
festly tend, at first, to expand the demand, by
bringing negro property within the reach of a .
larger class of purchasers. So that it must be
admitted that it would not be many years be-.
fore the slave population would be doubled.* I
At that point of increa~e, le' us examine the T
result. Of course the productions of slave labor 8
would be doubled. How wou!d that alliect the I
price of tho-e staples ? Suppose I should put I
the question to every speculator and every coin
tission merchant, and every faimer engaged in
tiu business of cotton-wh it effcct would it
have upon the price of the article to double the
qaitity of the crop, is there one who would
not say that it would reduce t ie price ? We F
are accutomed to calculate with much concerln
the probable aimnount of the growing erop, witb
a view of estimating the chanees of a good price.
And yet, some men will stand ip aid fius the
plain bu,ine-s men of the South, and deniv t 1at
this hicrease of the cotton crop would alt-ct 1i.- c
juriously the price of c tton. If ib hi y (o nit
deny it directly, they do indirectly. Ttey deny
.tlarih4ancreaLscoL Jav.-labir, .by-the.palicy r
u:idcr cot-i lerat:on, would result in this reduc
tion of lrice in proportion to the increase f Y
the crop produced. This report to the South- t
ern uonvention, which, with due re-pect to the 6
patriotism and ability of its distinguished an
thors, I must say, seem4 to me, to set at difi- a
ance all established piic liiplhs, as-erts th.t "ir.
is nt situpoitble tihat t he foreict Slav.- Tra.le r
will nmuc reduce it." Th -y wvubl duibti.-s
a huit, it t Ie vaIl, y of tl Amaz n was .-ncl- c
deidy about to be converted into a cU: ton gniaw
ing irovince, and .upp led with it half i ulilion
negro laboir,-ts from A frica--so thbat a miillion
ba!es wouldl be add.-d to the cIttojn pui11alictoni
of the worl--that the price of ou' cot ton would
be alrected itjurionL.ly by it. Biut the same re
stilt, worked out by the other process, they ab
surdly reject. We were jealous enough COf the C
experiment made by Great Britain, to prodice
cottio in the Indies; and of the experinient a
now being nade to promote the growth of cot
ton in ti he western portion of Africa ; and of
the cuture of cotton ini t.tiina. We really nil
mit that the cotton grown out of ur hits
which is abouit tine-ithirnt (f ithe amnount con
sumied in the world. ten I sof miuch ani infe.rior I
gnality thtat it mnust be tmixed with American
cotton to umake it available, has the inevitab,'e I
eftet of keeping down the market value of our I
own product, to a dlegree corresj.ondiing to theo
quantity and quality of the toreigm article. And
yet this plait law of political economy, Csme I
are ready in the zeal of the:r enthushumn, to I
deiny, when mna/e apsplicab~le to thme question hii I
haind. Rediuce the g'tuitity of. the erop one
alf, and it is eas'y to piercive that the prire
would rise. IDoumble that crop anud the price
will fall, by reason of the coniverse operation of
the sanme principle.
It may be replied that if thii.t reasoning is3
correct, it proves that the kvwer negroe~s we
pssess, the more we would make by i heir Ia
tor; anid, therefore, it would be expedientt to
lessen the number in order to enhance their
value upon this principle. It is undouibterily
triue that the reduction of the number would.l
enhance the value of those that remainiied ; but i
tue conclusion does not follow that there would I
be expediency, goo I policy, or practtcability in
destroying one-half of our property to enhance
the value of the rest. Tue value of that which
remained, when thus etnhancedi, couldl only be,
at most, equal to the whole, and then nothinig
woiuid be gained by the process of diminishinmg
the number. And, on the other hand, it is to
be remembered that thme reduction of the value
of negroes, by an over-supply of negro labor,
and ut reducems the value of thme staples po
deed by ilu labor, in ptropnrtiotn as it apprqixi
tedu~ thlat , phtt of c..eaipntes at whica ie
dlimgers the eXiumit.e slid pepetuity if ite PC
latit.: of shavery, as sn instition. Nor woukld
te jprinciple above mientionied, imake it p'rioper I
r politic (even if possible) to cut off that imit
urial increase of tue pirodtuctio~n of our siaplies
and increase and growth of negro proiperty,
which is thme gradlual and natuiral devel.,pment
of the existing order and condition of thainge.
But a very different thing it surely is, when we
discuss the expediiency -of disturbing that natu- I
ral order and condition of things, of society,
property, production anid prices, by such policy
~s re-opening our ports to the unusual and tin
natural supplies of slaves, in which, bdfore they '
are introduceil, no interest is invested and no
It may be further rep~lied, that the reduction
of the price of cottoni by the increase of slave
labor, and the consequtet. increase ofcrops, ~
would be compensated by the reduction of ihe
cot ,f its pmoduction, which woul.1i anse from
the fact that it w-as produced by negries inm
whom less money was iniveted, and conseqnecnt- t
ly could be sold cheaper, with the samte perC
cent. of profits upon the capital emphye.l inm
its production. This would doubtless be true,t
to somne extent. But the question is, what
would be gained by a policy which cheapened
e' Professor Tucker estima~tes. that the shave piopi- t
ation, of the Uniteil Stites, from naturnl inerease, .t
accordinat to the ratio oft its past munltipticaitin. Witl g
b, in 1100. abo~ut thirty-uine mittions, If this thea
true, there wilt be at that timo negrites enoughi r.ir
our pUSterity, and mnore, I fear, thati they can saifety
manage. And biut three score years lie betiween that V
.sla d - h nresent.9 I
our staple production, and then repaired tme
loss by cheapening the capital invested in their
pi oduction ? This only goes to show that all
wnuld be on the decline together-the produc
tivenesS of capital, and capital itself. IL would
murely be but poor consolation to the owners of
3nr present slave population, when the price of
their staplei is titus reduced by over-production
mnd surpluis supp!iea, to tell thei tbat their ne
;roes were reduced also, by the same. means;
tnd that if they did not make as much as they
lid before, with a given number of hands, they
nust remember that they did not hive as much
noney invested in them as forinerly. Thiis
vould be adding insult to injury, as to that,
!la s. And as f1r those who had invested in
he imported negroes at cheap prices, what gain
xoiild it be to them, that they had bouht cheap
egroes, when ihey can only make correspon
lingly cheap cotton with them ? Had they not
,i well have opposed the Slave Trade, and
ioughit fewer negroes at higher prices, and pro
lueed les cottoi wit Ii themii, at better I rres?
:his view will derive additional strength fiom
lie consideratioi that the prico of t he negro
vhen once introducod. whatever may have been
tis original cost, will tend to conform itself to
he value of his prdnc'ice lab r. This we shall
ce in the course of this argument constitutes
he leading element in the permanet value and
rice or negroes. The price will fluctuate ac
ording to the relative .state of supply and de
nanl ; bit in neazro property it continually
ravitated towards the point I have indicated.
his point will be more clearly demonstrated
rhen it aries in its proper order.
I amn met here, in relation to the suibject of
otton, with an arnitnent of this kind: that as
he supply of cotton is hicreased, the demand
till be enlarged and the consumption increased.
:he idea is entertained, that there is some vast
xpanwive power in the commercial world. rela- t
ive to cotton, which will counteract t lie eflect
f an over-supply, and keep the demand forever
isatiable. This idea, though prevalent. is vague
i its conception andi exceedingly delusive in
s nature. Now how will an increased produc
ion of co:tmn expand the consumption? That
will do it, I do not deny. But the question
thow will it do it ? In the first place it will i
iduce more ctpital in Europe to be invested in t
anufacturing. Now, why will the increased
ipply of cotton induce investments 1:1 factories.
do not deity such an eifect ; but what is the t
rincilile on which it proceeds? Why do not t
bese additional investments now take place ? F
s it because they cannit get the material at c
11? Surely, they cuuld become competitora
i the purcanse of the present supply of raw
tateria!. The new establishinents ccauld uy a
Itton as well as the CI it:li.,Ls alreaWly engaCed
I it. Why, then, du they not invest ? It Is
ceause of the hiih irice of the raw imterial. I
'he limited supply would not deter th:n from
kinIg their c:ianees in the marker, if it were c
ci for the fact, that the limited supply is ac
xnp-mied with correspmding high price4. Now,
reimuve the diffieulhy, and induce them to c
vest and became purcasers of the raw male
ial you umust liptsipply furnigh. themi rith
iore ab liiit supple, at or1gma ,igh prices; I
an must adi to t1.e qtantity the tither essen- t
ial iiducetments of !ower prices. The increai.-d 1
upplY, without a reducti-m of price, would not
nawer the purpose. It is then in that way, I
nd on that princii Ia ahine, that the enhirge
i-ni of our cotton crop will canuse lire fracto. I
ie, in lirope to be pit ito itil.Ction. It will
fect it by d Mgn-ssing lite pri, ,f co't... The I
apitah,t is thia induced to emb.rk in the hu
ineuss, because ItVeu h. buyis Ith 1a,'1 C ,11on 4 il
Fcaper rah's, he c n *ell hi. ahricis c.-ap~er, and
i ia wai opein a wviderjied .!f wnuaw p'ito:.
len the cottin fabrici are reiuc .l ihT price,
iIre can lie sold, fur they are brougit :whin f
re' if a /a-,r cisu ,f conm' ,r.<. In f
his way, and on tiis principle, the con-umptive I
apacity of the world wi:l be expan-led. At I
educed prices, a larger class become consnmers,
nd consuie inre btmntifully than at high pri
es. Tile inamilteturer's natket fir citt"n i
uds leigi wideited ; lie can sell at cheaper
ates of proh ti haimelf, because he enn sell I
lore gon 13. Blut lie cumnot go below thle staml
rd of the coat of the moavterial and oh its iinai.u
ctutre. Withini that limnit ihe maiy red~uce the
roltis of his businaes'. The c.mtintliig pr.ie
'Ie with hni, in the stale oif t am matnihea rin dl
rticles, is the cost ohf its inanifactute, a haled
o the co~t of the raw imterial. And when
iu putt the manufactured aricle down, to ac- I
oniuod ite it to a larger clas of con-aumers,
id in that way enlargu t-he consumption, y'ou
mat keel) the coit of' the ra* material at a
orr'e.pitmding rate'. And wht'n you have gait
ui increase of imanifacturedl capitL in Etrope.
a that compeitititi ' uming thxem in selling" their
srics, will tm.uke them .-ell as5 low as they can,
nid thereby reduice the parice of c tton go's
ou force upon the manufwi:turer tie r.ieces.'ity
.1 buying the rawv mat el'ial low. As long as lie
ant buy at good pir.ces, lie cati affordl to pay well
J cotton. The cost of the ciot:a is the great
uver power that coniro!s him. If lie pays high
or that, he must charge iiigh prices for his
oods. And when the comipet itiion of his own
wnt branch of business is reiduci ng himi to low
rohits, lie will endeavor to) threw the loss uploni
he cotton p~roduicer. Now, here is th~e mistake
rhich somie pieople umake, when they talk about
he increase of manufacturing establishments
~aimng the price of cottoni, bay conmpeting with
ach other ini the market for that article? and
t is thus that they over estimate the advantage
rom that source. The.y do not consider the
tron; competition on the other hand, in the
ale of theiir fabrica. t'he lLattr reduces theI
riolte of their budiess tad theo price of tihe
umithotutred article-, and thiareby c atiertmet~s
iom!Elf.et, tI) a gr. al. 4x!~tt titeir sluttp~-:i -
k:t Wi paurhuers Of therWil:t trr~i~ i. Thiel
'ing out of thmi str:"m wi h enskh athum int the
ile of cheir hnmproived valtie, lOS' hble tor wil
ng tU citffl1)te vitrul for the raw Ulat..rIai.
Now, the idea of thme mantfactmirer btein;: al Jb .
at sell cheaper, whno lie canm sell tora 'f his
ibrics, ahd In that way raapaiin'ig ltss tipon ontto
ilt of cloth by the iiicreased agregate i.f heavy
ale<, is a priniciple which, it will he well to re ,
ember, i.s nlot applicabl;e to the cotton planiter.'s
lu-iness. We are Dot rendered the more ablo
o sell cotton low, because we have a double
uantity to sell. Cpotton is not made by steam.'
t comes from the eartb by the toil of the hand
nd the sweat of the brow. A printer of cali
oes, or a printer of newVspaper4 may lower
heir prices, if you will double tbe custom of
he one, or the subscr'iption list of thme other
t is not so with thet man ihmo grows the pro
ucts of' the soil. ie can atford to produce a
iosand balems of cotton at ino cheaper rates
ia he could otne hundredl.
If, then, the increa-e oif our .shaves throuighm
te Africani tralic wotild double the cluaniity of i
ttiun we produce, and that intcreaed stapphly
-ould induce anaextensioan of the m-inurctuirinig I
isine's, as I admtit that it would ; and the-e
svi c.auues conmbined expandls the ecoumpition 1
f cotto:m gaiuds in the worbil, as I aidmit woauldI -.
e trueo, and reduces the prices of thiaie good4, ;
se great qiuestioni i<, who i~s to bear the loss of
at reduction of pri1ce? I might answer this
iestion by , s'ang a nim r generail an I a nmore
stract one. In all conutests betwa'ein the
uoeyed capitalist and the tiller oaf the soil, <
'ho triumphs, anal who is compelled to ba ar
hs?1 J's othser words, the loss of the wheoe i
operation of which I have been speaking, of the
reduction of the price of the m.mufactured arti
cles, conseq'ient on the increase of ianufatir
ing capital, and the increase of the cotun 1 crop,
by the inflhix of African laborers, will be hurled
back upon the cotton- planter of. t he South by
the depression of the exchangeable value t' lis
great staplh. We talk much abouit cottAn he
ing King. Bnt that King his never been abn
to govern the prices for whichlhis suijeotA te1
the produets of their toll. Somebody else was
Kin,; lat ill and Winter When a cotton crop,
unu-ually sinall, and which eutered the ristiket
at flfteeii cents was suddenly put down to eight
aid nine cents. Who was the King then ?
And where dil the loss of that revulsion full I
It did not fall upon Wall-street nor iandmnt
uioniey-ch:angersi. It did not-faill, :1a wa;s suippo
ied by soie, upon the mai:nfacturing c.pituhats.
[t lell upon the poor laborer inf the thetories,
Intl the cot.>n planter of the Smith. The one
went out. of employment and lived upon air and
.he of iler took halfl price for Iis c"tton ; 1ad
:ile En:glih anl Northern cajaitaliLs, Iibose
:stabbshment was s.us;-emled in its operatrn
or a season, while a better specnhition Ya.s go
ng on-and soon re.,unied with an amplle .-ny
ulv of what the " London Cot to., Plant,"* SO
Wxen.,ively circulated in the South, (have you
;een it? ) so glibly calls " Chip CoUaun ;" ud
low they are spinning and printing fabries,
nade out of cheap niaterial, to be sold at profits
miid prices corresponding to I he recove.e.1 con
lition of the cntrency an,[ tle commercial
vorld. They can Coon repair all the loses of
few mniiths suspcnsion in their operat:un,..
3ut when will t ie cot ton planter recover his
osses on the crop of last year ?
To show that the increase of our cotton by
Urican laborers would not diniiish the price
naterially, the R'port alluded to above says
hat there is an increasing demand in the world
r co:t n a.. ;x per cent. per annum. Hlow tI'o
xact per cent. was arrived at I do not know ;
mt that there may be a certain natural inrreaso -
of demand' going on in the world by the ad
!anceient of civilization and the growth and
nprovement of mankind, in the arts of indus
ry and in commerce is not denipd. But thei e
likewise a natural growth of the cotton ii
erest in the United States and abroad; and
rith us, a natural increase of elave labor, and a
onstant transfer of slaves labor, anil a constait
can-fer of hILves from i tier State a toi tl c cot
on lands of the Southwest. And this latter
narch of improvement is fully eqal to t!e
ther, as is lvident fr.ni the fact I:at thcre is
;o advance of six l.er cent. or other per 'cent.
n the average price or cotton. Tie Irut h is,
i e all know, that slavery is gradually co: -
:eiltrating li I he cotton country. It is receding
r[in Delaware an- Maryland, Virgii.ia, Kei
ucky and Missouri, and in some dlegree from '
ther States, alld concentrating itself in the
-Atoll regi-:n. There are two cau-s powerful
Y operttinag to ieiml- ave it f.-om thn,e States.
)ne is, tile superior valne of slave labor in the
otton lands; the other the rapid increase vf
rihite population and the inevitable conseqnienco
if cheamess of labur. One of..the uiot di. -31
lie re:moning, that this latter cause will id
imiately reioY, The iisiittitin from the Old
Jommiln and from uther State.s. These canies
re natural, and according to the irresistible
ourse of events. We cannot stay these results;
mnt let u< aL least not precipitat I hem. And
I aL 1.Vury 14 nititiitely to find it.s de timna iona Il
..v coJtn reein.: of the South uid Sonithlwest,
rhere its pr ovinte will b limi:e 1, let. niot :o
icrease its nmitiabers as to comipel tinit re'11i Ill
-CIu Ie the! m ini ,elf dt-fence, or to reider thelr
eJ1 v.1ilable ill Ii ! m gslit-'e.
With Ithis reluctioni of ithe price of cot till,
.o: the increase of its p il:in it is nn.-4
:.t t..at, tle lice ofi coito: hilds would de,
Ireciatetd ini :1 cerresjriIIadmiig degr e, iniead of
evinig enhanced, as was said, by I iinicreae of
'4e shave pipulation. Aln aere 'f hnd is valued
.cording to the aim u:glt of m-mev its prodlite
ivenesis will bring to the proprietor. If th it
ere will lruIlce (ile bale of Cotton, :nd11 the
rice of tnit bale ii reduced to five ce-is per
und, the landi i, wvortn just half as much as
hena . same cotton was worth ton cents. IL
veryi true tuat the Ihaiti tiiins (of priceu whii
rii-se from )ccasintiLail c.auses aul- aonily t em
arary mn heir nature. will not'uifee't t ie value
r eal e~st'i~e ao a' toi mg-uke it rise al lull uiiti
very change. But. this i- a fair mi-le andl the
rue rule of' reasonting. And when any cnuse
at a pt' nerm it -nature redceits the price ofn the
i on:et, at' the toil, it hasi a tenideiney, to that
xtnt reduce the vahue of the soil itself'.
9 Thi< Uritish paper' ban.< undrert::ken the e:aee of
heC $authg : iapeocae the re-apenlinag ofl tie Sivo
'r:aaI.:.lay the, Uialie i tiate:- ; the.. wir.trrnwaI uf the
rao.h stulseran fromii the'coa.t of Af.-ic a ; auset its
.rgum.:nt is', "L.ap~j (.,tton" for IBritish manuae.
GoOD Foia rivE YEAIIs OLD.--A lady writimag
romn Loutisiana to liarpecr's Monthly gits the
" When Willie was five years old I often
mungsed himl by taking fromt its shelf a " Pictua
ial Ilistory of Amaeica," showvin.: him the~
lhustrations, and relating the incidents thety
vere designed to represent. One day a q'lant i
;y of cotton-wool was lying near us. Wile
lad been busy with the snowy heap, andi pre.
rntly lbe camne to my side, a paper soldier-cap
mn his head, a wooden sword in his hand, and
he bosom of his frock-for he had not yet been.
idvanced to the dignlity of " unmnentionables"
-filled with cottoni.*
" L aok, sister !" he cried, " I am General
lack -ian at ti;0 Battle of New Orloains !"
ao Genoral dar~k-nni !" I e'xctaeitueil, hnsahing
ti hea 'ei-a!~ 1,tigtartit:ce he [.yAt.rati 'ld
at byII,' t91 rihia lis lu Ii'Iwt~ pleinig with
vaul. r a-s Iho siupl big lIttile hInd *.n his
vell-wa-hded 'che., "in1 yp aeC my cgono
.o The saline deflf little fehliW said. to his sister
mec ::i-.:ht when lhe saw a mist around the ioon! -
-Ol, Eve'--a pet uname for-hter-a sadnies
tealing over tile little nylified fae., "the woori
rasI itz crown of thorns ont to-night !",
Tm late General John MPNiel, brother-in
aw of President Pierce, formerly surveyor of
he port t f Bo.,on, talked of for Governor for
'ew Hampshire, a prominent politician, wa
elzijr-General of' the militia of' that State, and
,main of high military bearing. In the war
rith Great Britain lhe had received an honora
ae wound in the knee that eameed it to 1 o
ti!f durmng his life. Like all othe-r war-wonn
I~ad veterans, Ihe was proud of his sc.ars. At
ime of Isi miliry reviews a dli.tingunished~
it ician, wl.g, hada recenlyIi risen into ntic he,
*lber'vinig thme Genettr~a's huao e es , rmarka'd:
' I p. r'eeive yong hiave- a si of kil e, Gemi ral.
Iaw didl you injure it ?"
The Gene'ral was piued to thinik that aniy
al shiould! be ignorant of so i..emmabl~e an
venit as his wound, and I aoking at hint with
're at contempat, ra-polnde":
" Fell off a hoarse, Sir ! You never read the
istory of your country, did you 7'
Wuhy is it th:at young ladies have a grea:erra~arI
f hig staui.ig than those of the sterner sux?. lie
ause they are sensible of their power of at:rap.