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B812 ^Ig?Wl -ac*
D?RISOE, SEE SE & CO.
EDGEFIELD, S. C, APRIL 15, 1868. .
VOLUME XXX III.-No.- 16.
PUBLISHED EVEEY WEDNESDAY M0KNIK.6
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3. of W.-E. MIDDLETON. dec'd'j-an? not?Ectl
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J. T. MIDDLETON, Adn/otT
A Highly Interesting Letter from Texas
Our much esteemed young fellow-citizon Dr.
B. F. OUZTS, whVhas foft old Edgefield to sock
more smiling fortunes in Texas," writes tho fol
lowing intelligent and instructivo letter to Gov.
M. L. BONHAM. We publish it with much pleas
ure ; and would like to hear from Dr. 0. often :
Ecr?w, LIMESTOSE CO., TEXAS,
Ex-Gov. M. L. BOHOAM,-Dear Sir: Accord
ing to your request and my.promise, I now pro
pose to give you some account of my travels in
Texas. I came from New Orleans up Red River
to Shreveport, Lai .Frost there ? came by Rail
road to Marshall, Harrison County, Texas. Hav
ing purchased a horso, saddle and bridle, I started
alone, and traveled through a portion of North
Eastern Texas, then West to tho Northern part
of the State-thence South through Collin, Dallas,
Ellis, Johnson, Hood, Hill, McClcnnan, Fa'.ls, to
this, Limestone County.
By drawing' a line from tho Western part of
Red River County to the South-Eastern corner
of Kaufman County, you will find^that^portio.n
east ?f this line to compose what is called North-.
The soil of this portion- of the State is for tho
.mostjpirt sandy, with an occasional section' of
ferruginous red soil, and some .whits 6tiff jtost
oak'plats. In many places this sandy country
resembles the piney woods of Edgefield, but the
soil is more productive. Water is tolerably plen
tiful-tho country being traversed; by varions
branches, creeks and rivers. Tho most produc
tive lands lie on the water courses, and will pro
duce with favorable seasons 500 lbs of lint cotton,
or 40 bushels of corn per acre. The upiands pro
duce about half these quantities ; but are preferred
by many, on account of the groatcr casa with
which they mav bo cultivated. This is a timbered I
country, which adds greatly to its value. Thc
timber is post oak, black jack, pine, with some
hickory, red oak, Ac. I havo seen sandy black
jack lands here which produce very well, while
thc same kind? of land? ?w South Carolina wouid
not be worth cultivating. Unimproved lands can
be bought in this section for ono and two dollars
per acre-speei? ; and improved lands 'or '.he-ad
ditional value of tho improvements. Previous to
the war this country produced cotton and cora
thnost exclusively. I understand some of the
farmers are now turning their attention to tl.e
cultivation of thc grape and cantor oil Dean." The
various kinds of fruit grow well herc, but arc not
extensively cultivated. Wild grapes grow abun
dantly in the woods and several gallons of wine
are frequently made from a single vine. The
most of this country has thc appearance of hnv
iug-bcen settled fur a long time, though in some
.sections the settlements are some distance apart.
Thc population is composed principally of small
farmers, who are- neither very rich nor very poor.
The people hore call thi?a very healthy country,
bu: cbils and fevers arc yoi considered sickness
with them. They have become so accustomed to
malarial di-eases that they aro scarcely noticed
unless they assume u congestive or malignant
form. Malarial diseases prevail to a groat extent
on thc water courses, during the summer and fall,
and very frequently prove f.tul. Tho people
have a palo, or swarthy appearance, where th*
miasmatic diseases prevail.
' Tho country west of thc ab^vo described sec
tion is prairie, of the best qhnlity, and extends to
the Lower Cross Timbers, milich is a bely o!
timber from five to fifteen miles in width, exten ;
ing from Red River to thc Brazos, through thc
Eastern portions of Cook, Dcrt"n, Tarrant and
Johnson, and Western part of Hill Counties. The
soil of tho Cross Timbers is sandy and assimilates
very nearly to the timbered section already de
scribed. Tho timber 's' short and Fcrubby post
oak aud biack jack-such as thc people of the
old States would never think of using for fencing
purposes, but they use it here and arc glad to git
it. There is no pine timber in the Cross Timbers.
The soil of the prairie is as black, (and when wet)
is almost as sticky ns tar-some of it hog wallow
prairie of the finest quality. This prairio is tho
great wheat growing region of Texas, and is des
tined some dny to bo the garden spot of the State
It produces.frora 20 to .'!0 bushels of wheat and
from 40 to CO bushels of corn per aero. The
other cereals also grow in this section, but are
not much cultivated. Cotton too produces well,
but on account of thc great distance from market,
it is very lit'.le plantod. Stock raising is carried
on to some extent here, but not so profitably as in
the section west of this. The grass is not so good
. here and th* country becoming settled to some ex
tent by farmers, most of tho stock raisers have lett.
The scarcity of timber and water is the great
disadvantage tho people of this prairie havo to
labar under. There ar? very few springs and al
most no running streams during dry weather. I
traveled through this section during thc first of
February and there had been no rain here since
tho middle of October, though thoy had had two
light snows. The roads were as hard and firm as
turnpikes, aud scarcely any water was to be found
in the creeks. Strange to me, tho lands which
were in cultivation la t year wore in good plow
ing order, and tho farmers were " speeding the
plow" preparatory to planting thoir crops. The
peoplo uso cistern wn'.or for their family use,
(when they catnot get wells) and tanks fer their
stock. Those who have neither cisterns nor wells
frequontly havo to haul drinking water scvornl
miles. What they call a tank here is a pond of
water, made by building a dam across a hollow or
ravine and collecting the water when it rains.
Most of these tanks contain water dMring tho dry
est weathor. Nearly oil the creeks beve some
timber on their borders, brft it is of a very inferior
quality, and thc farmers frequently havo to haul",
their fencing timber from t?-n to lii'tecn miles.
Post-oak rails aro worth herc when delivered from
*$5.0D to $0.00 por hundred. These rails pro from
C to 8 feet long. Tine lamber for building pur
poses is hauled from 100 lo 150 miles, and ia
worth on delivery ;o.00 pt r 100 ft. The dwelling
houses of this section aro generally of a very in
ferior order ; such as the people of thc east would
not like to I'.vo in. The BoU d'aro or Osage Orango
grows abundantly in this prairie. This tree
makes a splendid hodge fence, impenetrable to all
animals, but I suw very few'farms where any at
tempt had been made at hedging. I Ftipposc five
y^irs is ample time to grow a hedge fence.
The climate of this region is pleasant during
the summer, from thc constan Sooth winds which
blow hero. I have been told a strtrnger can neV^
er get onoifgb sleep herc during the sumine'r. Thc'
nights are cool and agreeable. The> temperature
is changeable in tho winter season, from tho cold
" Northers," which sometimos blow there. Thcso
arc cold Northern winds, which give no premoni
tion of thoir advent, except that tho nir usually
T becomes warmjand sultry forj^'fewhours preced
ing fheso blows, and by looking to tho North a
low black cloud may bo soon. The sudden changes
from hot aro cold is extremely trying to tho sys
tem, and although the temperature does uot get
s > kw as in many places in the North, yet in re
ality it seems to bp moro so. I heard of ono man
in this country who wa3 in his shirt sloovos when
the'Norther'atrjick him. Ho attempted to put
on his coat (and succeeded in getttng his arm
.into ono sleeve,) but wes frozen before-bc couldj
Accomplish it. I havo not found the man who
saw the corpse. Thoso Noj^bersnsually last from
a few^bonrs to'a day or two, and aro frequently
accompanied with sleet and snow.
Thia prairie is yery healthy during the summer,
and the poo plo are very little troubled will
matic or indignant diseases. They ar? i
*to rheumatism, pneumonia, pleurisy and c?
diseases during tho winter, owing to the i
Farming is not conducted on very EC!
principles in this section. There being ni
trees, or stumps in this country, it is wei! rv
to tho uso of all agricultural labor-savin
chines, such as the buggy or gang plow, rc
mowers, ?c. Tho modern improvements ii
culture aro not extensively used hore,
seen eight yokes of oxen drawing ono plow,
plow was constructed like a wagon, with
beams and plows attached. These plows co
raised* and lowered at pleasure, hy means
fulcrum and lover.
Thero was a short crop of wheat made hoi
year, and another is expected again this ye
thc grnss-hoppers destroyed nil the whea
had come up before thoy disappeared. Thc j
hoppers made their ingress into Northern ',
last fall, and destroyed all green veget
They caioo hero through tha air, and I havo
told the sun was obscured by tfcoir number
ring the timo they were coming. They rem
hero a few weoks, and having destroyed e
thing green, gradually disappeared. The fal
could not finish sowingthcir wheat until tho g
hoppers loft, as thoy would cat thc grain b
it could bo plowed in tho ground. Aftei
grass-hoppers disappeared, some of thc far
finished sowing wheat, but it was so late that
are fearful il has been killed by tho extremo
waathorsinci! Christmas. In all my travels thr<
this country I could not soo any wheat ii
Gelds whore it had been planted. , (I trav
through Che wheat section during the first of I
Theso fino prairio lands can bo bought, from S
to $S.OO per acre, according to improvements,
This is not the country for n person of s
capital, to livo "sy, with little labor; hut tc
eapitali.-t who r s energy, spirit, ambition,
ingenuity to dev:lop the profusion Intent in
most exuberant soil, it offers tho most powc
I suppose thc country West of the Lower C
Timber; is also a desirable country, hut thc
habitants of this section aro now subject to r
from the Indians, "who frequently carry off t
stock, commit murder, orson and other train
CTi?? itt which civilized pcoplo blush and shud
There aro n few garrisons of U. S. troops statio
on tho frontier, but thoy arc very littlo protec
to thc people Thc red tkin? frequently m
their raids into tho interior without these trc
inakiug -uy attampt to arrest them. That ]
tion of tho Statt .viii never prosper, until st
more efficient pinn shall bo adopted, by the gc
r.r.1 g-.vcrnrasut, to protect tho people from
Thc Brazos River country fr; m tho Lower Ci
Timberi South bas splendid land, well adaptci
the growth of cotton, but tho cen als do net gi
so ?ell boro. Out from thc river this is als
pr.iirio couti try interspersed with some timber,
1 have net been farther South than Itolcrt
County and know very little of that portior
thc State. Thio section (r,?:ACrt:?no County)
nc-.ir thc divining linc between thc grain and c
ton section, and both arc cultivated to some
tent hero. These people also ruisc considers
I think this is thc most desirable portion of
S'atd for i ?a rn i era uta from the old States, w
come hero with limite! means and wish to 1
cafy. With ? littlu labor a in:.:i can raise
provisions sf all kinds and sufficient cotton
purchase his family suppl!;?. This lund proi
ces :'r :u 20 to 40 bushels of corn, and fr
1000 lbs. to iiCO lbs: of cotton per tere. Land
worth from $2 lo $ln per aero hero, improve
unimproved buds can bc bought cheaper. Tin
is sufficient limber herc fer fencing purpos
This will undoubtedly bo a prosperous aud de
rablc section iu a few years, nu thc Texas Cent
Railroad will jooa bc running through herc, a
thc country in Texas always prospers where t
people can h-vu au eas}* outlot to market a
communication with the outer world.
Texas is certainly au over rated country, ant
will not tb to bolievo every pen and ink skct
you may ft-c concerning it. It seems enticing i
deed (after reading a nattering account of t
State) to V?9W it with tho mind's eye, but there
not so much pleasure in iii" reality. Perso
coining herc must not expect to lied tho Fldorat
nor gardens ot Eden ready made for their rccc
lion. A great many people wine hero with tht
expectations too high, and arc disappointed ni
dissatisfied. Persons frcT :nc old States w
meet with many petty annoyances and inconv
niencc? herc, which they wiil r-oon become accu
tou.cd to, if they ure deter miii-d to remain. Tex
is undoubtedly a great country, but a man,
Buoeeod and prosper herc, must work, and wo
faithfully too. If he is content to merely mal
a support be cando that with very littlo Jabe
Thc people generally of Texas hr.vo very lilt
energy, ingenuity, cr enterprise, and aro for tl
moil part careless, lazy and indolent. Most
them iu thc up-country aro satisfied to make
few hundred bushels of corn or wheat and a lilt
cotton, and lei their net proceeds bc derived fro
their stock, bo that much or little.
We uced industrious, enterprising, pcrsevoric
men herc to develop the resources of thi3 countr;
The people live very common owing altogether I
their indolence and indifference. Tho fewest nvn
ber of them have any iniik or butter during tl
winter, simply because ic would bea little troubl
to kacp np their cows nnd feed them. I ha?
?topped with mon in my travels who owned froi
100C to ?1)1)0 head of cuttle, and they did not eve
have milk to put in their coffee. Some of thei
put up butter during tho summer for winter usi
but it is so rancid I cannot eat it. Theso pcopl
ara grf?at offee drinkers and have-itatovory moa
and frequently between times. Corn bread, ba
con and bee/ is their principal diet. Flour brea
?3 very little used among tho poor class. Thc
pay very little attention to garden vegetables, not
withstanding in somo sections they could have a
f:no gardens as you will lind any whero. Irish an
.weet pot itoes grow very fino, and nrc cultivate!
to sorao c:\tenf.
Th.e majority of thc peop'.o here have neve
considered them iel ves settled for life, and hav
not turned their attention to tho improvement o
their farmnor the adornment of thoir houses
yards or gardens. Tho houses generally are o
I logs, and some of them arc very inferior. Tin
I averago intelligence of thc people boro will com
parc favorably with that of tho older States, bu
you will not find tho education, refinement anc
polish of manners among tao masses here, tba
you have in many sections of tho East.
The?? people oro keon and shrewd in, all kindi
of trado, and persons coming hero "green /ron
? (he Staten," as thoy ?ny, mus? keep their oyes open
j or thoy will suffer the consequonces. ? imagin?e
j th? inhabitants of Texas did not have thut np
? prcciation of money that we of tho East had, and
i a person coming here and acting sharp and shrewd
I could gather money without much trouble. Ii
j this I hai'e been sadly mistaken. [ Tho pooplc
j hero love money equally os well as those of tho
I old Stoics and, most of theaa, know.Mow to take
t1 care of it. -~
j I Cnd money Wry ^emreo-'tnVJrill thiS-country.
f Tr/e-'psople'sfiy Hiy?or?Mn'T^nr>#inTtri'during
! tho war. Confederate money never circulated.to
j much' exton* here/and specie is tho circulating
modiatn now. Texas was cut off from commuai
ca'ion with the East-daring tho war, and-thc
ey then ia the S tato had nev outlet. G?ns
ble specie was also brought into the State c
tho rebellion through thc trade with Mexico
people wero then doprivod of many nccei
and luxuries. At the olose of the war this t
was freely spent fer dress, luxuries, ?tc, as i
plentiful. This money hos now boen carri?
of-ihe -State. The failure last year in the '
crop, tho Elicit cotton crop, andine low prie
little, demand for stock and provisions o
kimi, willaccoant for tho present scarcity of
.ey in the country. The financial crisis i
wo of tho East have been passing through
tho war, seems just now to bo coming ot
pooplo, and they are only now beginning to fl
their situation. This ?snot now the placo to
money easy, but I am in hopes wo will soon
Amount tho difficulties which now prevent us
being a prosperous, happy people But the
poet of. tho future does not look very natte
A abort crop of wheat is oxpectcd,-a groat i
of thc stock have died (his winter, and the g
hoppers hero lost fall deposited their ova i
ground-the eggs are now batching, and i
merable quantities of these young grass-tro]
-are to bo seen, and many are fearful they wi]
stroy vegetation this spring. They are too s
to do much harm as yet, and somo of thc far
think they will leave as .sosn as they get 1
enough to fly.' The farmers arc afraid to i
monee planting until they seo what the gi
honpors will do. They have already inj
. Professional men of all kinds are plcntifi
Texas, but physicians are more numerous I
any othor class. They are as thick as pig tn
in many places) and they all tell n they
poorly paid. Quack Doctors *? rn nearly an ci
showing with regular gradua of medicine,
this floating population. I expectrto try my h
amongst them, but my prospects aro not very
toring. I would rrot advise physicians of the
States lo come hero to practice physio. 1
might be successful in finding a good location,
on the other hand they might travel around fi
long time, (as I have done,) and have a good p
just ahead but never bo able to reach it. Law;
are not so plentiful as physicians, but in m
sections they aro not much needed now-a-di
" every man being a law unto himself." Sci
tjnehers arc somewhat in demand, anda good
can bc appreciated. He must bc posted in Mi
"Railroads will do more towards developing
resources of this vast country than anything c
Tho Texas Central Railroad, which will ruu fi
Galveston, up the Brazos, and through tho gi
growing sogion, intersecting with a Railroad
Grayson Counly, Texas,) running through fi
Kansas, is destined to bc of immense advant
to this.State. -They aro now working on b
onds of this road. The Texas Central road ii I
completed to Bryan in Brazos county, and
contractors afc to complete thirty miles of t
road yearly. Th vy expect to got it lo Horn 1
io this (Limestone) count}' next year, at wh
pine J it w?l bsintorscct:dby a road running fr
Waco. Othrr roads arc being built, but neni
ttfvtd ore in ta flourishing condition as the Tc:
- I aui nowsquatfiDgan -tho' linc of-tTrr3~n>
hoping to in iko .'otuething by it at some ital
time. 1 would advise friends frcm the old SU
chining here, to settle s'lincwhorc on the lin?
this rjud, as they will have an outlet to marl
a-id communication with thc outer world.
.Persons coming to Middle or Northern Te:
should eoim to Kc v-Orleans, aud from lhere
Gil.'r-.'.'ii bytUambuat-thence >o.Bryan .Stati
in Brazos County, by Railroad. Stages i
through various sections of thc State from Bry
i'e.-?uns wishing to vi>ii Eastern Texas i-hoi
also come lo Kew Orleans-then take stetting
up Rod River to .Shreveport, La, and then tr
Railroad to Marchall Texas, if they wish lo
hi^h up. They can purehaso horses cheap
M:irisb:?ll. aud thuti gu whore tb?y wish,,or iii
exu take staje to nImo.-tuny point in that poi ti
of the State.
I have attempted to give you a plain, uevi
Dished statemout of Texas ai I have seen it, a
I might write you nt more length, lu?. I mn lei
ful you will not have pa'ici.ccto road what I h i
aiieidy written. Ii ba? been hastily writt
amidst noue and confution, and if it does i
prove interesting j ou must tako thc good will !
tho bad -deed.
I havo numerous fri' nos in South Carolina
whom I promised to wri'c, :ind it will*be impos
hie f?r me to write to all. If you sec any ll, in rr
this scribble which will bc likely to interest t
pooplo of old EdgcGcld, you are at 1,berty lo hu
it published, although il was not written with
intention of publication. If tho Editor of I
Advertiser wants something to fill up space, a:
would prefer copying from such a source, to wr
ing an original-let him havo this.
If you wish to soe a flattering account of Text
cend for tho Texas Almanac for 1SC8. This is
book of 250 pages, published by W. Richardo
<fc Co., Galveston, Texas. Prico $1.50. It al
contains some very useful information.
I would take pleasure is hearing from you
any timo. My address is Eutaw, Limestone Cou
ty, Texas. Any information in regard to Tex
you wish, I will tako pleasure in giving you if
my power. I am yours, truly,
B. F. OIJZTS.
. fi 0 ?
ARRESTS IN COLUMBUS.-Last aftemoo
between three aud live o'clock, nine gcntli
men and a negro were arrested and place
under a guard at tie Court House in the Ii
ferior Court roon;. Friends were allowed t
I sec them last evening, and furnish beddin
and food, but none were released from oust'
dy, though any kind of bond w?s ?fFerei
Captain Mills stated to some of them that h
thought they would bave a heiring thia mon
ing. Thc officers appeared to evade the d
rcct questions of why the arrests were inadt
and up to dusk yesterday they were not ir
formed of any charges, except suspicion:
against them. These suspicions started wit
the League without a doubt. The majority (
.the gentlemen arrested move in our highes
social circles, and Bli are honorable.
? The arrests were made by Lietit. Alwooi
of the garrison. He was piloted by on
Tom Grier, an ex-marshal, overwhelming!
defeated after a twelve months of office,
discharged policeman and, hence, now a Loy
al Leaguer. - Grier would ^ointout the men
the lieutenant would a?1 ?oein to come to th
Court IIuu. .-o pair would go or
while the parties went to the place designa
ted. This might have been done withou
that unnecessary display of eight or len sol
diera tramping up and down, first on one sid
of Broad street, aad then on thc other, anti
. the affair was over. Every arrest could havi
been made without this show. The militar
men wcrfi simply obeying orders. There wa
no excitemeut-only wonder.
WA noticed in tho Washington papers whiol
came Sunday night, that Gen. Grant had di
rectcd Gen. Meade to have the Ashburn trag
edy investigated. The Atlanta papers statt
that Gen. Meade has issued directions tc
have'suspected persons (and wo suppose th<
Leaguers furnish the suspicions,) tried before
' a military commission. Nearly every one o
I the yountr inen "arrested was a prom?nen!
? member of Ure D?mocratie;Ol?b, lately form
'ed. This givc?a cluo-to tito arrest*; Thal
j thc gentlemen had tho slightest ehadow ol
I connection with tho Ashburn assassination,
-aw .. ,i -_
j neither whjte man nor negro believes fo
infinitesimal part of a second.
Wo,, purposely omit the names of !
who are in custody. The negro was p
the guard house. He, too, is a Democr
Columbus Sun & Times, 3d.
Special Correspondence of tho New York Ti
: The Impeachment Trial.
Wir! thc President be convicted?
Taking counsel from neither hope nor
but from the history and present aspe
the.impeachment in the Senate, I am
?prepared to believe that he will.
There are many arguments in Washinj
to the*coutrary. When President John
on the. 21st o? February, startled Congres
his message lo the Senate announcing th(
moval of Mr. Stanton, it seemed, fora
ment, hs if'he had not only, made his for
enemies more bitter, but alienated som<
his best friends. Everybody who has i
the W;orld will recollect tho picture, draw
one of these dispatches about that time
the exodus of members from both Houses
the purpose of consulting as to what
bese he done. Before the Senate wen!
to executive session, nearly every Bad
Senator had been seen by influential Irad
Impeacher* of the House. The fires u:'in<
nation"; lit in.tboso Senator's. breast by
President's audacious coup d'etai, were la
edhjgji by windy discussion ; and, in
meantime, Democratic Senators and frie
of Mr; Johnson could do nothing but i
questions and wonder why they had not b
told beforehand that this bombshell was
bc exploded at their feet. For more "tl
half an hour the halls and corridors of
capitol were filled with hurrying forms ?
anxious faces, and the last words of som?
the most incensed Radicals, as they vauisl
through the doorways of the Senate Chi
ber ti attend the secret session in which
resolution was parsed declaring the Pr<
dent's course illegal, were passionate, thre
Ever since thru memorable 21st of Febri
ry it has been alleged by Democratic me
hers of Congress, and intimated among th
friends by certain Radical members, that I
resolution was adopted in accordance wit]
compact entered into between the leaders
the majority ia the House and the loaders
the same iu the Senate. Also, that duri
the progress of the ensuing House debate
thc.impeachment resolution offered by t
Recorislruction Committee-Messrs. Binghi
Boutwcll, Bu'-or, Logan, Schcnck, and th?
confederates-succeeded, through much p
vate confabulation with Senators of their o'
partyytin cutting and drying tho certaiuty
Mr. Johnsou's conviction in the Senate up
the charges then and there mutually ogre
upon. A good many Radical Senators m
present on thc ibor uf the House while t
debate was going on, aud the apparently hi
moiiious feeling which prevailed leut sot
color to this idea.
But hasty words and pledges are somctim
peogevideuce; What, if I indulge the pr
sumption, that tnucb that was said in t'.o
dayVwas,said so lor nuder the influence
partisan feeling and wounded pride, that soi
honorable Senators haye came to regret i
I am aware that any allusion to duty and cc
-eci?ri50,-in conjunction with an allusion
4r^?cVr Senators ot' the United States, w
strike most people as being absurd, lnoc
hued as the atmosphere ol Washington
with bad opinions of men in Congress, ai
filled as the newspaper press of th'o count
is with flippant inuundocs concerning near
every distinguished gentleman who sits
the Senate Chamber, there is but little c
couragcoiciit for men to hep - ?hat pood c.
come out of this Nazareth. Yet i will ve
tar? to siv that it can ; and also to suggest
few other considerations which will add mo
force to the judgments of .those who belie
that prejudice and partisanship ure still bou?
to control thc issue.
Whatever tile managers of the impcuc
ment on tba part of the II tuse may have h;
lu encourage them, uo Senator who has ni
been base enough <9 express rfu opinion '
the merits o' thc case within the last lV.r
night can be justly claimed to have committi
himself at ?ill ; tor, since lie has taken an o:v
to act in this trial in all respects according I
tbe Constitution and laws, his former opii
iot's as a Senator arc as nothing to his dui
as a dispassionate judge. Now, certain Sei
atonal.chair* on the Radical side aro fillc
hy tuen whose national reputations, befoj
and since they entered the Senate, sprur
from their anilities ?uni achievements as hu
yera. S^nK- of them had w.-n reputatioi
for statesmanship and integrity of charftcti
in positions evcii more distinguished ilia
ino-e they now occupy. Men, for instand
like Lyman Trumbull-, of Illinois; Wm. 1
Pesscndcn, of- Maine ; Edwin D. Morgan, t
New York-; and ?. P. Morton, of indian!
are of a '.'judicial mind' which will at leas
enable them to comprehend the great lejc
issues to"he brought up by counsel dunn
thc trial. Nor is it fair to assume that the
will be quite as careless in thc capacity <
judges, os they sometimes arc it) the ctpucit
ol legislators, in respect to equity, justice, at.
the verdict of history. There are *oth?r Rad
?cal Senators including Grimes, of Iowa-th
celebrated ,; honest man ;" Spraguc, of Rhod
Island ; Ross, of Kansas ; Sherman, of Ohio
and perhaps even Conkline, cf New York
whose well-sustained individuality warrant
thc hope that they will boas impartial as the
The "other consideration" to which
?Itided above as likely to influence the resul
' of tho trial arc, first, and chiefly of course
ihosc of party.
At the outset, Thad. Stevens' dcciaratioi
that the Republican party would be ruinet
if this impeachment should not go through
i was accepted a? gospel by almost everybody
here. It was mouthed as a sort of politica
axiom; and when the articles ol impeach
ment passed the House the friends of tin
President could not help being discourager
by it. Politica being a great game, and thc
Radical majority in the House having tumcc
up a trump to which they held the cards
nobody could suppose that they would fail tc
play out their bauds. Unforeseen combina
tions arise iu aU games. If I am riot mucb
mistaken a serious difference has arisen in
this between the players.
The Scnato is distinguished from the House
by a certain aristocratic air of sell-respect,
which has more than oucc provoked the
sneers, the wrath, and the abuse of the House.
It hus thr> appearance-except when old Ben
Wade descends from hiseminence, and ramps
and snorts along the floor, or when tho fiery
Chandler foams at theBritislrlion, and makes
believe his fingers are strokiug the Eagle's
back-of a deliberative body. And, although
it has permitted tho House to dictate to it in
many matters, the whip which Bingham,
Stevens, Butler, and thc restare now cracking
over it, is just as likely as not to make it kick
-as a gentleman kicks an insolent boor. The
dictatorial attitude ol the managers has gain
ed them, thus far, nothing but dislike; and
instead of agreeing with tho extremists of the
House upon Mm ,: party necessity," which
demands hat impeachment shall be "put
through," 'lia* N-.Jical Senators have lately
expressed a contrary opinion. The grounds
assumed at present are as follows :
L Mr. Johnson, although an execrable
j President, a bad mao and a traitor to tho par
*j ty which elected.him, has a very brief time
j to remain in office. The Democratic party
I appears to have thrown him overboard; so
I that he has no chance of a re-election. Con
; g'ress, until his term expires, has tho power
1 to euact auch laws and take such measures as
will prevent bim from doing additional mis
chief, even if, not sufficiently thankful for
his escape from public disgrace and official
disqualification, he should persist in defying
2. Of the two evils? Johnson and Wade,
which is the least ? Which one of these two,
during thc short period toelapse between this
time and .tho next Presidential election, will
be likely to do most harm, not only to the
popularity of the great Republican party,
but to the fair prospect now opened before
certain among us, Senators?
Aye, there's the rub! For Ben Wade, "hon
est," " eturc!yr' old Ben Wade, is avery thorn
in the sides of his compeers. Too obstinate
and self-willed to be used ; too eccentric to be
depended upon, and too vulgar and profane
Dot to disgrace any high official position, he
is regarded with eyes aslant by all, except
the very extreme Radicals,of the Senate, who
have it ip their power to elevate him into the
Presidential chair. Even the extremists,
who are Wade's friends, perceived one diffi
culty in the way at first, and that was the
[langer of his using hi? influence as tempora
ry President to obtain tho nonv'nation For
Vice-President on the ticket with Grant. An
Dther ticket was therefore talked of by these
tinkers, at the head of which Wade's name
iprears as President, leaving the candidate
fer Vice-President unnamed. It was thought
[hat the several Conservative Republican Sen
utors, who are known to be anxious for the
latter nomination, would be pacified by this
arrangement ; but in some v/ay or another,
Stanton has L:ea mentioned for the Vice
Presidency, and all save the madmen of the
party are getting more and more disgusted
with tho unseemly programme.
The suggestion that Wade will resign if Mr.
Johnson be convicted is next to ridiculous.
If he ever intimated his intention to do so,
the intimation could notberclit^ upon. Here
in Washington he bas a reputation for un
L Jthfulness, or, let us say, recklessLess of as
sertion, which detracts from his charucter as
a man aR well as from his fitness as ri Presi
dent. . And, though he should resign, Colfax
might prove, to thc hopes of ambitious Sena
tors, a dangerous substitute. Just now the
Senate may be said to hold the Presidential
jame in its own hands. To put either Wade
ar Col fax in possession of the vast executive
machinery and patronage of the Government
might disarrange the whole Radical plan of
action. Neither of them are popular with
the majority of men ii the Senate ; and nei
ther of them are so powerful with the people
at this time as to do serious revengeful
harm if the Senate should, acquit Mr. John
son. J. B. S.
LETTER OF THADDEUS STEVENS IN FAVOR OF
GRANT AND WADE.
The following letter from old Thad. Stevens
to one of the Pennsylvania delegates to the
Chicago Convention sufficiently explains itself.
WASHINGTON, March 20, 1868.
My Dear Sir-I received your letter of the
24:h inst, this morning, and am glad you in
tend to bc at Chicago personally. If your
constituents and mine have indicated a pref
erence for a Vice President, as I rather think
they have from their vote, I should deem it
your duty, as a matter of personal fidelity, to
begin by voting for that person, whether he
be a friend of mine or not. No man seems
to me justified in violating the wishes of his
constituents, to please any other person. But
il" thc person thus indicated as their first
choice should fail of a probability of election,
or gradually decline, then, il I wore there, or
my wishes were to be consulled. I should usc
all my efforts m favor ol' B. P. Wade. Ile is
a true mon, in whom you and I, '.ad every
lt-idical iran, can confide j ~.z? you will find
ti.at the country, ?*a well as our particular
friend.-, will profit by his success. I wish you
WOidd show this letter to your colleagues I
shall bc kept from the convention, but desire
to see an hornet man placed in that position
of groat contingent responsibility. A's .J the
candidate lor tt:c rre.iidency, I presume you
?til agree that none other than General Grant
is lo be thought of. Honest, firm and well
indoctrinated in principle, without ostentation
and without pride, I do not see how a better
selection can be made. His judgment of men
is so sound that I have full faith that he will
edi around him the ablest and purest men of
thc nation. With Grant and Wade to guide
and defend us, this nation in four years will
have acquired a prosperity which will be the
wonder'of the world. Universal freedom,
maintained by universal suffrage on this coq
lineut, caunot fail to have that effect.
To ll. J. HOUSTON, Lancaster, Pa.
TUE TWENTY-SIXTH OK AMIL-DECORA
TING CVJNFKDKHATE GRAVES-The ladies will
not forget (says the Macon " Journal and
Messeim-r") and the Southern pre?5 are re
quested to remind them, that the 20th of
April is the Anniversary for decorating the
graves cf o.nr heroes who fell ia thc late war.
As that flay occurs this year on Sunday, it is
suggested that the Saturday prerious bo uni
versally adopted in its s-tcad.
Let the fail ladies of the Soulh from the
Potomac to the.Rio Grande, gather around
the little hillocks and tho tombstones which
contain the ashes of those who fell defending
their hemes and their coun'ry, and deck them
with flowers-wreatho thoir sweetest gar
lauds, and kneeling on thcsod.let their holiest
prayer go up to h.-aven for the eternal repose
of their souls. If the spirits of the dead are per
mitted to view the scenes of this earth, uo doubt
the whole army of the five hundred thousand
dead wi.il look down upon the work of that
day and think that, although the cause for
which they fought was lost, they did not die
in vain ; and that they are still embalmed
within thc memory of thc- purest daughters of
DEPRECIATION OF SOUTHERN LANDS-By
the report of thc Commissioner of Agricul
ture for February wc fiud an estimate of the
present, value ol' Southern lands compared
with that of 1860: '
lu Virginia the decreaso is 27 per cent.
In North Carolina the decrease is 50 per
In South Caroliua tho decrease is CO per
In Georgia the decrcas is 55 per cent.
In Alabama the decrease is 60 per cent.
In Louisiana the decrease is S3 per cent.
In Arkansas the decrease is 30' per cent.
The causes of this decrease are stated to
be various, among which are enumerated gen
eral indebtedness, scarcity of money, paupe
rism, loss of capital in slaves, the unsettled
condition of the country, the fear of confisca
tion and thc dread of negro domination.
These causes are numerous enough and
powerful enough to cause any country to
wither away. Tho wonder is not that the
whole South is blighted, but that there is any
vitality left in it at all. That such is the
case is the'best proof in-tho world of the for
titude of the Southern people in bearing np
against a load of adversity, such as has never
been the lot ot any other people under the
sun. Had it not been for such a spirit of en
ergy, oven under persecution, they must have
long since sank; for no other people in the
world could have stood the trials to which the
South has been subjected.-Norfolk (Va.)
Tho ex-King Louis, of Bavaria, received
a telegraphic blessing from the-Popo before-he
died. It is said he loft 20,000,000 florins to his
From the Southern Home Journal.
The Death of the Christian Warri
" Let us cross the river, and rest in the sh(
the trees."-[DyiuK Words of Stonewall Jae
A hero and Christian lay dying :
The friends in his chamber were hushed
To his faint but calm breathings replying
Low sobs from their bosom that gushed
Already he seemed with the angels,
So brightly his palo featnres shone;
They were showing him-holy evangels
Their home, which would soon be his ow
Thus, ero he was silent forever,
The last words he uttered were these :
" Let us cross," said tue bero, " the river,
And rest in the shade of the trees."
O'er fields freely fought mem'ry hovered,
He thought of the shade and the breeze ;
But the vision hy angels discovered
Suggested the stream and the trees.
Though thinking of duties still, even
While drawing his last feeble breath,
Yet he spoke of tho life-trees of heaven
Beheld o'er tho river of death.
Seeing heaven-his homo heneo forever,
With angel-companions like these
? Let us cross," said the hero, " the river,
And rest in tho shade of the trees."
Then follow his noble example,
Till lifo and its conflicts are o'er,
And like his, your reward shall be ample,
When treading eternity's shore.
Like him, all the wise and good, knowing
Tho issue is anguish or bliss,
Seek for peace in that blest world by doing
The warfare of duty in this.
Death's cold and dark current oan never
Have terrors for spirits like these ;
They will cross, Uk? the hero, the river,
And rest in the shade of the trees.
From the Memphis Avalanche.
Address by Hon. John Everett, o' El
OUR TROUBLES AND THE ONLY REMEDY.
The followiDg speech was delivered by ]
Everett, at Memphis. He ison a tour throe
the Southern States and his advice is tim'
Mr. Everett addressed the meeting in a si
sible practicable styli? at some length. 1
give an outline cf his remarks, which will
found interesting to all classes of our peor.
The speaker commenced by saying he v
altogether out of his place in attempting
speak ; be was a worker and not a talk
His place was in the busy haunts of the ci
Ile lived on Lombard street, London, whi
many of his listeners knew to be a very bc
place, and where people worked a great cl
and talked a very little. His object was i
of a political character, but to promote,
possible, tue material interests of the psop
General Richardson, of this city, when
a visit to London sometime since, had ma
him promise if he ever came to this couu<
to visit the So?th, and in compliance wi
that promise he was here, and had consent
to address the citizens of Memphis. He vt
here to make observations of the character
the cquutry, its interest, resources, conditi
and prospects. He would not moke him:
officious, but he would make some suggi
tions in all kindness. Men here of intelle
education and social position were strick
dowu in spirit, and ready to yield .the gre
race of life. Ue felt it bis duty to do ar
thing in his power for ameliorating the m
fortunes and sorrows of such a people.
He said he regretted he had not met tl
people here in sunnier times, years ago ; b
said we were both too busy then. The pc
pie of England know little more of the peoj
of the South than they do of the inhabitau
of the tuoou, and in some of the Northc
States it is almost the same. lu New Yo
be had heard the most unaccountable ai
false tales of oppression down here. I
came with all these impressions, expecting
fiud a people utterly ruined and passing awa
Coming, as he did, a stranger and not a
quainted with the peculiar troubles aud sc
rows of the people, he could see things in
brighter light than they could.
Here aro found some of the richest lan
and finest resources of the world. The lani
of the South generally are far superior
those of England, and thc climate is unsu
passed anywhere. You can go on with yoi
agriculture three-fourths of the year, instei
of being housed that time by wintry blast
and compelled to keep your stock in cia
quarters also. Your hills that kiss the clout
ure full of mineral wealth, equal to any in tl
world. Some of tho finest surface specimei
he ever saw were shown him by Col. Sa:
Tate. These aro the resources that prop ii
duslry, stimulate enterprise and arouse euc
gy. Tho people of Eoglaud say that you po
. sess tho elements of uatural prosperity, ar
this connery was designated by the great Cr
ator to be agricultural and great. If or
race will not make it so some other certaiui
will be bound to do it. That is what tl
people say on the other side.
Without stern manhood nothing great ca
be established. People may make a countr
but a country can never make a people.
Wherever there is true manhood there wi
be prosperity. In what does manhood coi
sist ? A determination to carry out our pui
I poses, to bear misfortune, to exercise fort
tude in the face of adversity, to suffer an
move forward at the same time. The que
lion then arises, have you this true manhood
If you have not, then whence came such ht
roism, gallantry and endurance in the lat
conflict which you have had ? Whence th
devotion, sacrifices and patient endurance <
your noble women at home when you wet
far away from them ? This is certainly mat
hood of a type not inferior to thc ancient h<
roes whose names are inscribed in history, an
whom we all learn to revere in childhood
and no one can'believe that such men wi!
give up. We cannot believe that this coun
try, rich in all the elements of prosperity
will be abandoned or allowed to go down.
What, then, are the means and how ar
they to be used to bring about that prosperi
ty commensurate with' your resources? N
I oosntry is truly and permanently great tha
is not agriculturally eo. Whence comea th
greatness ot little England ? Her yeomanry
have ever been her power and" glory. Thej
are the foundation of England's prowess
They are prosperous, by tilling almost ever]
inch of the soil to tho highest perfection, am
prosperous people, must make use of everj
foot of soil.
No country is rich long that goes abroac
for everything to eat and wear. " If I go t<
London," said the speaker, " from my country
place, fqr grapes, and pears, and nuts, anc
potatoes, and fruits, when I can raise them ai
well at home, at a trifling cost, itis quite like
ly the constable would soon be closing me out
Forgive me, if I lalk plain to you, for it it
for your own good that I speak ; but I learr.
that your people have been in the habit o:
importing the simplest articles of domestic
use ; that your brooms, oven, are broughi
from Illinois, when your old sedgefields art
full of the material to supply the countrj
with brooms ; tht.t your azo handles corni
from the North when your forests abouuc
: with the finest timbers to be found anywhere;
j-that everything to bo thought of comes frorri
! abroad. When people buy so much from
I abroad they soon have little at home and ari
not likely to stay there long themselves. B.
one thing has been thought'of in this con:
try while all your money lias been sent o?r' i
your more inventive neighbors. It has b*-..
cotton, cotton, colton all the time, while ev
ry other interest has been neglected. Yoi
I climate and soil will produce everything y<
need to eat, drink or wear. The South is [ja.
ticulariy adapted to the Growth of the gt?-i>
He had drank wine a lew weeks ago mtwi
by a planter near Mobile which was eqnn! L
the befit European wine.
He was wearing a bat, he said, mau-; r.
Columbus, Mississippi, by Slaughter &
which was equal to foreign manufacur
You can raise and manufacture right ben
everything you need to wear, from the sole .
your foot to the crown of your head. Tb<
accept the suggestion frc m one who wish
you well. Set to work at once, and do it. a ,*
become really independent. Look at houv
for prosperity, not abroad.
There is a trite old saying that "not j
can make a man." The boy when put or.: i
tho wo::ld niay rise from obscurity and p: w
ty to honor and affluence, i-f there is anything
in him. The same may Da said of a cont-'ry
Nothing can be made of cither a man or i.
country that has nothing in it. Be not di
appointed by discouragements.
When a man gets knocked down he fine
out whether he has any India rubber in bin ,
and whether he has m an bc od to get np. You
cannot keep some men down ; they will ne -
in spite of misfortune. Surely the people < t
the South have been knocked down, at.i
robbed, and beaten, but the American beep <.
are noted for getting up ; and yon will SUP ._,
not deny their character.
Mr. Everett said he knew hut little ah *
politiw 1 reconstruction, and cared notL u
about it. What is most needed is matt. u
reconstruction. You wan* labor-your
tem ba? been destroyed and scattered to : ?
four winds of the earth; you never ' J
enough at any time; 4,000,OOO of people v . .
did tho work aro set I003?, hut 14,000,000
would not be a drop in the bucket, to v.l-n
your immense territory demands, and will
one day contain. Labor and land are nat'.
rally connected together, and yet of ali thin;, H
they aro thc most difficult things to man aye
Your labor is gone and the land is deprecia
ted hundreds of per cent A better syst i rr
will be inaugurated. The African race, wbeV
placed- on equal footing, can never keep p:. 5?
with the active, energetic Anglo-Saxon, though
some of them are very intelligent and highly
educated. They are good imitators, but br r
them i ato active competition with the wi .
man and they will falfeshort in the race. A1
present; they cannot be relied on as labon .-.
In England, thc rule is that a man who v i i
not work shall not eat. Everything depei"-.-.
on labor, and it is tho great problem of ev. i /
?ation:s greatness. Immigration is what this
Fanning in England is very expensive: aU
the small farmers nearly are tenants, ai. j ir
requires a capital of not less than one ihi u
sand pounds, or five thousand dollars, to cul
tivate successfully one hundred acres. T Ix re
are many young mc:: just able tq,make both
ends meet there on a small farm, who, if ?.
ducod to come to this country, could bt:v
land Of their own, and with their industrioi !.
frugal habits and ideas of economy would
soon grow rich and affluent. Suppose you
had a few thousand such tn?n as this, or any
country, the land would soon blossom as ts
garden, and peace and plenty smile on the
land. Such men as these can live where
they are, and they will not come here as la
borers. But if you will give them positive
proof of what you will do j let them bsve
your waste lands in large bodies suitable
colonies, they will come. Give them a guar
antee, that your best men will uuitc in a < ;r
poration to encourage emigration. App< iui
men who canuot alloid to a petty m. ;?:.
thing for the sake of a few uollars. "Unlcfi
your best men will go into thc enterprise, pr* .
posed," said the speaker, " I will not touch
it." This plan is to enrich both sides Mid
not fer the aggrandizement of any- few int.i.
Let an organization be effected, and he wool-,
suggest to cati it "National Freeholders' LAU'
Association" of -State or county.
this was done he would guaranty his honor
and that of his business of England, tc* ?-mi
grants. But the movement must come from
He had bad applications for money by \ cr
' sons who wish to carry on fanning in the ?le*
style. It was worse than folly, and he would
as soon throw his money away as to let it gt
in that manner. The old style cannot bt al
lowed any more; it is impossible now. Ti
only way to farm now is to cut up large plau
.tations into little farms, and have them ve
cultivated; build up homo manufactu.\ :
multiply your industries; serve joorsclve:
first, and theo sell any surplus you may I >
abroad. Many seem to have thought of . i
before ; numerous ninds have been run- . ?
tho same way, and the time seems at b
when action could and should be taken. I! ye?:
are in earnest about this matter, get togei i<
500,000 acres of land, and offer them for -
on tho European market ut readable figc: . < :
you will find buyer.-, and get better peop . .
till the land than ever before. Let lb?!
come in colonies, and bring all their sccu.
ties with them, that nothing may remain L
hind to tempt thom back to ttcir native lane
A Southern gentleman once visited Euroj
to procure labor, and brought over sixty Os
mans. He thought he bad done a gre 1
thing, but there was only ono woman in ti e
crowd, and the consequence was, fifty nine . ;
them went back. Let the men who cr e
bring their wives and children and ncighb ?j
and settle down together, where their sr ai
habitu will not bc changed or tics of afleo .>
broken. They will help develop thc resou
of thc country, anti a new order of things
bo brought about "
A ROMANTIC STORY.-Thc Oxford (Qhun
Citizen gives tho details of a tragedy wbioi
recently occurred near Mount Carmel, Frai.-i
lin County, Indiana. A young girl, th*
daughter of wealthy parents, who was edu
cated at ono of the seminaries iu Oxford, fell
iu love with a young- farmer who was qu u
poor. The parents forbade her to have a- }
thing to say to him, but they managed to x
chango letters through thc assistance 0 :
young minister.' Finally, they proposed b
elope, but the go-between became ena mt <H
of tba lady, and prevailed on her to rur ff
with him instead of the farmer. They clo;
and were married. Thc grief of the ian '.
knew no bounds. Determined upon rever g -,
he armed himself with a revolver, and vov 1
that the young divine should die for ) ?
treachery. A couple of weeks ago the mil '
met, ?nd thc farmer openly shot down thc de
stroyer of his happiness.
RATHER POINTED.-As an illustration f
the pointed style of some of thc preaching ru
the Willtmantic camp meeting, a con ?.
pondant of the Hartford Post gives the l ..
One of tho preachers, Tuesday aflerncM.:
had occasion to refer to tho extremely ba-i
condition of tho sinner and willingness of G1 i
to forgive him, no matter how vile. Said h.
* There sits Brother P-, who used to 1
one of the meanest men in this section of th
country, but thc grace of God took hold ot
him and shook him all to pieces." A hear >y
" aman 1" Was indulged in by the congrega
tion, and the voice of tiwi man" referred to rant;
clear and loud above the rest
f?t" A barrel marked ''Hand Corn Sholl*
shipped at Louisville, for Ann Arbor, Mich: in
diffused such fragrance on the ambient ai? iff Vf." '
Tolodo depot, that it was opened and fotutu .v.
contain a deceased Africa]).