Newspaper Page Text
THOS. J. ADAMS, PROPRIETOR.
EDGEFIELD, S. C., THURSDAY, OCTOBER 26, 1893.
_ - r-? -----
VOL. LVIII. NO. 39.
BRANDING TEXAS STEERS,
HARDEST PIECE OF WORK IN THE
Duties bf the Ropers, Bulldoggers
and Punchers-A Queer Thing
' is the hardest piece
rork that a man in
has to do?"
"Well," remarked Joseph Keith, of
Bolcherville, Texas, who certainly has
been at the business long enough to
know what he is talking about, "there
are a good many things he has to do
that haven't much fun in them. Stand
ing guard in tho rain or liding around
'em on a dark night would neither
one be considered a picnic by most
people, but when it comes right down
to sweating and tugging and good old
hard words, I believo branding beats
any job I ever tackled,
Perhaps the reader may be; as I
was, a littlo inclined to wonder how
the mere making of marks on a cow's
hide can involve any really hard man
ual labor ; but if he once learns the
j details of the process all wonder on
J this point will cease. Ke will learn,
j furthermore, that it requires not only
)' muscular strength, but experience and
Courage and brains. The average
hard-working Missouri farmer would
find it about as hard to make a suc
cess of branding cattle in Texas as at
building ships in Maine.
Of course, in order to brand cattle
One must have havo the proper tools.
Branding irons are of two kinds
'stamping irons and dotting irons.
! The former consists of a wrought-iron
stamp containing all the characters in
the brand. For instance, if tho brand
Were X I T, there would be un iron
Stamp composed of these three letters,
With an iron handle running back
from some convenient point, as the
middle of the L These stamps were
formerly much in use, but have now
become almost completely abandoned,
except among the very largest outfit3.
Their place has been takeu by the dot
ting irons, whicn consist merely of a
straight iron rod and a half circle
with a long handle attached. "With
these two implements any letter in
the alphabet can be made, and an as
tonishingly large variety of other
characters as well. For instance, the
reader can easily understand how the
X I T outfit makes its brand by five
applications of the straight rod. "?"
requires one application of the
straight rod and two of the half cir
cle. This may not make a very beau
tiful B, but it makes one which any
child that knows its letters would be
apt to recognize. If more elaborate
designs axe wanted, the simple dot
ting irons are found sufficient to pro
duce them. The straight rod is gen
erally about a yard long, and has
a ring in j the \handle end. Tee
handle to tho half circle is about the
Bame length. They are generally
IU-A in ???fcigfe ?ie oa. the open
prairie, though on the large ranches
there is sometimes a furnace built es
pecially for the purpose.
For K-.:rv?."ug any class of cattle
properly at least four men are re
quired. Of these four, one is the
roper, two aro bulhloggers, and the
fourth is the puncher. As I am writ
ing in the English language, I take it
for granted that my English-speaking
readers all have a perfectly accurate
idea of what these words mean. O:
course, we all know that a roper ?3 one
who ropes. If necessary, one man can
do all the roping required, but two
men do better. The roper throws his
lariat around the neck of some animal
to be branded, and then, by the main
strength of his horse, hauls it np with
in a reasonable distance of the fire.
The horse he rides is called the cut
ting horse. He is called tho cutting
horse, not because he can cut, but be
cause he is used in cutting ont cattle
from thc herd. Some idea of the hard
ness of the work may be derived from
the fact that during the branding sea
son each roper is allowed from ten to
twelve horses for his own individual
When the roper has driven and
dragged the steer to be branded to the
usual place, he turns him over to the
bulHoggers. These men catch hold
of the animal and hold him while the
puncher applies the hot iron. Does
the reader imagine that he and some
other man like him could tackle a big
full-grown Texas steer and hold him
down? Possibly they could if they
knew how, but knowing how is
the trouble. Even one good
able-bodied man can do so if he
can manage to get the right kind of
grip. Usually, when there is ouly
one bulldogger, he plants his knees
squarely in the flanks of his prostrate
victim, passes tho animal's tail back
between its legs, and grips it firmly
with both hands. It might ho well
for the reader to remember this tho
next time he wants to hold a vicious
cow down. The attitude may not be a
very graceful one, but ir. gives the
man a death-like grip on the brute.
The horns may toss viciously and the
forefeet pound away at a vindictive
rate, but as long as the grip on ine
tail holds the hinder quarters stay
close to the ground. It is hard on tho
cow, but it is al30 hard on the muscular
strength of the mau who does the hold
ing. For this reason the bulhloggers
generally work in pairs. One of them
takes tho grip just described, while
the other one grasps a fore hoof of the
animal in each hand, as if iu the fervor
of a double handshake. When it is a
colt that is being branded tho atti
tudes are varied. One man holds the
head down, ur .sits on it, white the
other sits down Hat on the ground and
grasps the upper one of its hind legs
firmly in both hands. One might
think that for two men to hold a caft
down is not very hard work, but when
it comes to doing so for hour after
hour the work becomes exhausting.
Even at best the bulldogger's position
lacks a grrtat deal of being a sinecure.
The time of year when most cattle
are branded is in the spring or fal!.
Most of the calves are of suitable ag?
in the fall, but for grown cattle the
spring is preferred, because they shed
most of their superfluous hair then.
Calves arc branded any time after they
are two weeks old, but from three to
six months is tho usual age. Stock
men say that a full yearling is the
hardest animal they have to brand. If
any man thinks one at that age isn't
tough aud muscular just let him try
to hold one down. There is one pecu
liar feature about branding calves; and
opinions in regard to its cause vary
widely. Sometimes when a yoting
calf is branded the brand will grow a3
the calf grows and when the animal is
full grown will be fully twice as large as
it was originally. Then, again, some
times it will remain just as it is, not
growing a particle. This seems to me
really a remarkable phenomenon, but
it is undoubtedly a fact. Some stock
men account for it by saying that it
depends upon whether tho calf is
branded in the dark or the light of the
moon, while others are inclined td
think it depends more upon the depth
to which the branding iron burns the
hide. It is a fact that branding is
sometimes done much more deeply
than at others. If the iron is hotter
than it ought to be-red hot, for inst
ance-the hair may catch fire and a
needlessly sore place bo made on the
animal. If it is just hot enough, an
application for two seconds is long
enough. If the iron is getting cold,
it may be kept on the animal for half
a minute. Sometimes the bulldogger
have to hold tho animal down for ten
or fifteen minutes, while the puncher
goes and heats his irons a second
Perhaps the reader understands by
this time that branding a big herd in
volves a large element of real, bard
work. Ho should also understand
that in selecting a new brand, a cattle
man has to exercise a good deal of dis?
criminating judgment. To originate
a really good brand is about as hard
as to devise a catching title for a
modern book or story. In fact a now
brand is selected very much as is the
title of a modern novel. It is not ce:- j
essary that either one should mean
anything in particular, provided only
it is something nobody uses. To get
an altogethrr new brand in Texas is
now a very difficult feat. Every letter
in thc alphabet has been used long
ngo, many combinations of letters,
and all reasouablo combinations of
figuress. A man must bo very hard
up when he would devise one like this i
(7777). A student, by the way, would
read that ' 'seven thousand seven hund
red and seventy seven in parentheses, "
but the cowman calls it "four sevens
in brackets." Sirrilar ones are as ?oh*
lowt,: (9999), (663). These three are
well-known brands iu actual use in
Western Texas-St. Louis Globe-De*
Liverpool, England, ships 40,003
tons of salt yearly to Africa.
Naval salutea to the flag are as old
as the time of Alfred the Great.
Percussion caps wero first used in
the United States army in 1830.
Every gem known to jewelers has
been found in the United States.
Breast-plates inlaid with gold were
found in an armorer's shop in Hercu?
An onyx seal ring belonging to an
ancient Athenian was latley dug up
There recently died in Maine a man
who had spent forty-seven years in au
Six hundred and ten pairs of twins
were born in Boston in 1393, and nino
sets of triplets.
Several flutes, still capable of mak
ing music, have been taken from the
The Emperor of China has had two
astronomers put to death for getting
drunk va the night of an eclipse.
At the Bombay (India) Zoological
Gardens the skin of a sea serpent sixty
four feet in length is on exhibition.
The. White House, at Washington,
has cost the Governmont in repairs
and maintenance about.$2,500, OOO.
The skin of a rattlesnake exhibited
at Jefferson, Ga., is seventy-nine
inches in length and has twenty-one
A pair of shears with blades ten
inches long is among the 6poils of
Pompeii. The instrument belonged
to a tunic maker.
New Yorkers are said fco prefer oys
ters that have laid for some little tima
m fresh water, as it makes them
plump and white.
A black basalt statue covered with
fine inscriptions has been found on
the site of the great palaco of tho
kings of Babylon, where Belshazzar
held his feast.
Mrs. Joseph Donnally, of Evergrc ? o,
Ohio, died from the effects of rain
water which she drank. The water
was caught from a roof that had re*
cently been painted with white lead.
A baby boru to Mrs. Hales, of Knox
ville, Teun., weighed only one pound
aud six ounces when three weeks old.
At the age of seven months and two
weeks the child weighed fivo and one
During a recent thunderstorm near
Vienna, Austria, hailstones fell so
thickly that the railroad tracks near
by were covered to a depth of threo
feet, thereby impeding travel for
In the house of aPompciian sculptor
were found ^thirty-two mallets, fifteen
compasses, three levers, several chisels,
together with jacks for raising blccks,
and nearly thirty statues and busts,
in every stage of manufacture.
Shells were tho original trumpets
of mankind. The fishermen of New
foundland blow a Strombus gigac as a
foghorn ; the Welsh once employed
the same shell as a dinner call, and
tho miners of the Guernsey granite
quarries used it as a blasting signal.
While digging at the foot of an an
cient tumulus near Kertch, in the
Crimea, a workman carno across tho
colossal figuro of a lion carved out of
tho finest white marble and of the best
Greek workmanship. This interest
ing effigy, which is over seven foet in
length, weighs about 6even hundred
The Dogs ol Paris.
Late returns show that Paris hna
30,000 registered dogs, or one to every
tweuty-eight inhabitants. The larg
2?t number are in the poorest quar
ters of the city. It cost S2,()0U,000
per annum to feed them, but the dogs
in turn nffbrd a living to twenty-fivo
inauufacturers of collars and rauzzleE,
four bakers of dog's bread, fivo fac
tories where dog biscuits, consisting
af meat fibre, are made; threo special
log pharmacies, a dozen infirmaries
ind two dog hospitals.-Chicago Her
OVER THE STATE.
INTERESTING BITS OF NEWS
PICKED UP AT RANDOM
And Boiled Down iii Readable Shape
For Hasty Readers.
Treasurer Bates is feeliug good over
the rise in price of 6tato bondj>? the
last four a ?alfs being sold for 104J.
Clerks Bartlett, of the railroad com
mis8ionfc?.:., office, ie busy prepariug
the reports of the commissioners for
tho month of July, August; Septem
ber, October and November. Tho
July report will be issued in a few
Chief Clerk Laval, of the treasury,
says that notwithstanding the exten
sion of tho time for the payment of
taxes considerable money has already
been received at the office, and iu
amount compares very favorably with
Another ono of tho train wreckers
on the Short Cut bas been arrested
and has been lodged in jail at Flor
ence. His name is James Love. It is
to be hoped the whole gang will be
caught soon, and that a good term in
the penitentiary will bo tho portion of
each ono of them.
People generally are wondering
when the metropolitan police thum
screws arc to be applied, or if they are
to bc applied at all. Those nearest
the governor express the opinion that
he does not wish to put the law iu op
eration at all, aud that he will not do
so unless ho finds that the polico of
the cities and towns do not do what he
conceives to be their duty.
The constables arc working up the
case of the looting of the dispensary at
Lewiedale. A telegram has been re
ceived 6tating that two hundred and
forty-seven bottles of liquor have been
recovered by the state's officers. It is
charged that the entire stock of avail
able liquor wo8 taken out of thc dis
pensary and that a good portion of it
was found in the yard of an ex-liquor
Tho Charlotto Observer observes:
"No mon may now have liquor in
South Carolina in any other than a
properly labeled dispensary bottle,and
this is somethingthat all men liable to
go thero should kuow. It is a custom
of many men going from home to put
a flask of whisky in their grip for fear,
? ' - ?.i.. . * . . - .?
ever is guilty of murder Bhall suffer
the punishment of death provided,
however, that in each case where the
prisoner is found guilty of murder the
jury may find a spocial verdict recom
mending him or her to the mercy of
thc court, whereupon the punishment
shall bo reduced to imprisonment in
the penitentiary with hard labor dur
ing line whole lifetime of the prisoner."
Adjutant Watts is anxious to have
the work tn the Confederate rolls com
pleted as soon as possible. He thinks
that most of thc companies have sent
in their rolls and tho others have been
arranged fi.r. It is highly necessary
that this important work should bo
finished and that the record ?hould
be put in some permanent form. As
it is the only data that it is to be had
of the men who fought for their state
duriug the late wur ?6 contained ou
sheets of paper that aro filed awav iu
a cabinet in the office of the adjutant
general. The rolls have never been
published, and should anything hap
pen to the originals now on file they
could hardly bo duplicated.
Owing to the refusal of the legisla
ture to make any provision for au ex
hibit at the Atlanta exposition under
state direction, whatever i?? to bo done
must be done by the enterprise of the
communities and individuals iuter
e8ted or who may hereafter become
interested in the project. Charleston
has taken the lead in the work and
will certainly make up a good exhibit
of local productB and resources and
probably tho best one that will be
made. Other communities in the
state cannot do better than to unite
their forces with Charleston and work
with Charleston, so that together we
may ninke up a collection that will bo
creditable to the state. There is much
to bo done and but little timo remains
in which to do it.
The legislature appropriated S10,
000 to the militia this year, aud under
the provisions of tho new law this
money will be distributed under tho
direction of the board in such a way as
may be deemed best. Under the old
law it was distributed pro rata, aud tho
company having tho largest turnout
received the largest slice of the state's
appropriation. Thc new law ?8 intend
ed to change this, and the chances arc
that the money will not be used direct
ly by the companies, but will prob
ably bo used for tue purchase of uni
forms, equipment and such things.
Noshing has however been decided in
this direction. It is expected that the
now appointments willie announced
in the course nf the next two wrnkfi
At that time the brigadier genoral for
the 4th brigado will bc named.
Reorganizing tho Militia.
It will not be long before tho militia
of the state will be reorganized if tho
present plans aro carried ont. Under
the provisions of the recent act the
adjutant general is given very much
more authority than ho has heretoforo
had, and Adjt. Watts intends to exer
cise that authority. Together with
the governor and a mnjor general tho
adjutant general will undertake thc j
organization of tho entire militia lo j
snit the idea? of the present officers.
It is more than likely that the matter
will be largely kit to Adj. Watte, and
as Le is yuuirr, f?ll of ambition, and
desirous of making something out o'
thc militia. Ke intends to get hard at
work and sec what if anything can be
done. There aro now two hundred
aud eleven companies in the volunteer
service of the stale. To use an agri
cultural pbfase, tho companies will be
weeded down to a stand, by reducing
thc number to one hundred.
The new law provides that the mili
tia companies "shall bc distributed
among tue several counties of tho state
as nearly equal as possible." Under
this provision of the law it is intended
to divido the state militia, and not
concentrate the companies as much as
they have been for the past few years.
If the plau as conceived is carried out
it will act as a boomerang to several
ol the counties in which thero are half
a dozen cavalry companies, and where
thero are as tuauy colored military
commands. Tho intention is to divide
the huudrcd companies aa nearly among
tho counties as eau be done, and then
if the commands do not come up to
the scratch they will be retired and
room will be made for the companies
that may he on thc outside waiting.
THE NATIONS' LAW-MAKERS RE
The Proceedings of Both Houses
The senate re-assembled at noon
Thursday after the holiday reee?s of
about ten days. About thirty senators
were present when Vice-president Ste
venson called the body to order and
more came in during the reading of tho
journal. Mr. Quay, of Pennsylvania,
introduced his proposed amend
ment to the urgency deficiency bill,
amending tho tariff Jaw by striking
out all provisions for an income
tax and substituting a new wool
leu schedule, including a duty on raw
wool. At 2 :30 o'clock the eeuato re
sumed consideration of the Nicaragua
canal bill, Senator Morgan speaking.
After the presentation of sundry reso
lutions and memerials, Mr. ShermaD,
from tho committee on foreign affairs,
reported, and the senato passed the
resolution heretofore introduced by
Mr.-Lodge, of Massachusetts, calling
on thc president for the correspond- j
ence and other papers relative to the
delivery of the United States consul !
at Shanghai of two Japanese !
prisoners to the Chinese authorities, j
mi. _ --rent ovc md tho |
td ed to t
_._0 M HiuN v<uu lavorcu mc .....
motives other than patriotic. Ho ele- J
feuded the constitutionality of the
present bill, which had been attacked.
The holiday recess being ended, the
house presented an auimated scene as
it was called to order by Speaker
Crisp Thursday. The galleries were
crowded and over half tho members
were in their seats. In the diplomatic
gallery were the Japanese minister
and his secretary and many prominent
personages looked down on the foren
sic arena from the reserved gallery.
After the call of the committees for re
ports, Mr. Quigg, republican, of New
York, attempted to offer a resolution
relating to snlaries in the New York
postoffice, but Mr. Springer, in charge
of the currency bill, cut him off with a
motion to go into committee of the
whole for tho further contideration of
that bill. Accordingly the house went
into committee, of the whole, Mr.
Richardson iu the chair, and Mr. Black,
democrat, of Georgia, a member of the
banking and currency committee, took
the floor in favor of the bill
Tho president sent the following
nominations to the senate Thursday:
Herbert Walcott Bowmen to be United
States consul at Barcelona, Spain ;
Andrew J. Patterson, of Tennessee, to
be consul at Demara, British Guina;
T. Frank Clark, of Florida, to be at
torney of the United States for tho
western district of Florida; Walter P.
Stradley, of California, to be commis
sioner of immigration at the port of
Colonel Normal Lieber, assistant ad
vocate-general, to be judge advocate
general with tho rank of brigadier
general. Lieutenant Commander
Franklin Hanf orel to be commander.
Past Assistant Engineer Robert W.
Gult to be chief engineer. Assistant
Engineer H. G. Liepold to bo past as
A LABOR DEMONSTRATION.
Shoo Workers Determined to Break
Up the Contract System.
Haverhill, Mass., witnessed a big
labor demonstration Monday forenoon.
A procession of shoe workers, num
bering four thousand, marched to
Chick Bros. and to Spaulding &
Swett's shoe factories. At Chick
Bros.' factory nearly all women stitch
ers, numbering about 125, including
those who work in Barrow & Cald
well's shoo stiching rooms, in an ad
joining building, left their work and
carno out. About one hundred men
including all the lasters, also came
out. About 150 employes quit work
at Spaulding & Swett's factory. Upon
thc return of tho marchers a mass
meeting was held in tho city hall. The
shoe workers say they are determined
to break up thc contract system ^.d
also to secure tho adoption of new
Will Not Give Up His Office.
Surveyor General Bickford, of Wy
oming, does not intend to surrender
his oiliee to General Thompson, who
waa appointed his successor, without a
tight. General Thompson has tele
graphed friends nt Washington to lgpfc
after his interests.
NEWSY ITEMS PICKED UP AT
THE NATIONAL CAPITOL.
Sayings and Doings of the Official
Heads of the Government.
Senator Davis, of Minnesota, a
member of the committee on foreign
relations, says that the war between
China and Japan will result in a great
extension of commerce between the
United States and both of these coun
Guarding Against Disease.
The commissioner of pensions has
issued an order which will prevent
clerks in the pension department from
praoriciflg medicine while off duty.
The order Btates that if any clerk or
employe of tho pension bureau shall
attend patients as a physician or medi
cal advisor it will be regarded as suffi
cient ground for removal from the bu
reau.' The danger of bringing conta
gious diseases to the other clerks is too
great, so the commissioner thinks.
Moreover, it is a calling likely to keep
tho clerks and employes up at night
and thus unfit them for work during
the day. *
: Wanted Carlisle's Scalp.
Inklings of an unusually sensational
story; leaked out at Washington Wed
nesday. The story, too, has many of
the ear-marks of verity. It relates to
Secretary Carlisle and the rumors of
his removal published recently by the
New York newspapers, and comes
from- a southern congressman, who
gives Secretary Carlisle himself as his
informant. It seems that on Monday
J. Pierpont Morgan, the big New York
banker, called on the president. He,
it is ?alleged, made a formal demand
upon the president that Secretary Car
lisle's resignation bo asked for. He
presented also a letter from the bends
of many of the strongest financial in
sti'utions in New York.
He-informed the president that, in
case this was not done, the administra
tion, instead of securing the aid of the
New York bankers, would meet, with
their opposition. President Cleveland,
it is reported, politely but firmly as
sured Mr. Morgan that he would not
ask for Mr. Carlisle's resignation, but,
on the contrary, he told him that Mr.
Carlisle was making a splendid offi
cial, satisfying both the oountry ?nd
the administration, and, instead of re
questing his resignation, he intended
to back him up in his financial plans
to the fullest extent of his power. Mr.
Morgan is said to have returned to
New York in high dudgeon.
The dissatisfaction over Mr. Car
known in this country and then launch
ing legiumtion which t?ok away mucb
of their value.
The Census Almost Complete.
The eleventh census will be practi
cally completed within the time allot
ted by congress, March 4th next
Colonel Wright, the acting superin
tendent, stated that there wan no
question of the ability of the office
to complete its work by that time. The
only volumes where manuscripts not
yet in readiness for printing are the
last volume on population and part
of the volume on vital statistics
The latter cannot bo completed un
til the former is finished. Twelve
reports are at the government print
ing office out of tho control of the
bureau, and several volumes a month
will hereafter probably be issued.
The text of the final report on manu
factures, farms, homes and mortgages,
pauperism and crime, and one or two
other reports are in courso of revision.
The force of the office has been reduced
to 290 and dismissals will bo fre
quent during tho next two months,
probably about 150 remaining on Feb
Awful Fate of a Christmas Party in
At Silver Lake, Lake county, Ore
gon, Christmas eve,while a large party
was attending a Christmas tree, a lamp
exploded, causing a fire, in which for
ty-one persons were burned to death
and fifteen injured. The gathering
had assembled at a hall above Christ
man Bro.'s store and consisted of
children who, with their parents and
relatives, were having a grand time,
enjoying what Santa Claus had brought
them, little dreaming that many of
them would never leave tho building
alive. Tho Lakeview Examiner suys:
"Some one attempted to get where
he could see and hear better by jump
ing upon a bench in the middle of tho
hall. In doing so his head struck a
lamp hanging from the ceiling, caus
ing the oil to run out, which immedi
ately caught fire.
"People were compelled to go
through the flames in order to reach
the door and frantically rushed to
their doom. Five of the injured will
likely die. The building was a two
story structure, including the post
office, and the entire stock of goods of
Christman Bros. was consumed."
Silver Lake is over a hundred miles
from Klamath Falls, and a Btago with
Lakeview papers brought the nows to
the latter place.
Ex-Seuator Fair Dead.
Ex-Senator James F. Fair, the bo
nanza millionaire, died nt San Fran
cisco Friday night. Tho cause of his
death was diabetes and Bright's dis
ease. He leaves a|fortuue estimated ai
$40,000,000 and by Ibo terms of his
telegraphic will, mado some two
months ago, this vast sum, it is stated,
will be equally divided between his
tbree surviving children, Mrs. Her
niDU Odriehs, of Now York; Miss Vir
ginia, now studying with her sister in
New York, and Charles L. Fair.of San
THERE are some people so good that
ar? gpqd for nothing.
THE NEW REGIME.
?EW YORK'S REPUBLICAN OFFI
CIALS TAKE CHARGE.
Horton Inaugurated Governor and
Strong Takes tlie Mayor's Chair.
At Albany, Tuesday, Hon. Levi P.
Horton was inaugurated as governor
if tho state of New York for the
?nsuing two years. He is tho
irst republican to assume the du
its of this office since 1879. In
mguration day broke cold and clear
?nd the sfreets of Albany were enliv
ned by the gay uniforms of stuff and
nilitnry officers on their way to the
Although the inaugural cere-monies
rere set for ll o'clock, tho assembly
bamber was comfortably filled an
lour before that time. The ceremo
iie8 were presided over by Secretary
if State Palmer. It was but a few
niuutes after ll o'clock when Rt. Rev.
?ishop William Crosswell Doane open
;d the exercises with prayer. Gov
Tnor Flower then welcomed tho gov
(rnor-elect. Mr. Morton then took
bc constitutional oath of office and der
ivered au address.
Mayor Strong Installed.
For the first time in twenty-two
?ears a mayor not of the democratic
loliticism is at the head of the New
fork city government.
Shortly before noon Tuesday the
lutgoing and incoming mayors met at
he city hull. After the usual formal
ties an interchange of greetings and
he introduction of the several heada
i the departments to Mr. Strong,
?Lomas F. Gilroy took his departure
rom the mayor's office, and, as he has
.nnounced, from political life.
The new mayor will have a clean
late to work on, as Mr. Gilroy loft
lothing unfinished in the routine
Fork of his office when he retired.
The new board of aldermen will not
irganize until next week. Th? new
herjff,.Mr. Tamsen, entered upon the
luties of his position and so did the
lew coroners. Conditions for the new
?fficials will be somewhat different
rom those that have prevailed hereto
ore. Under the new state legislation
?very species of gambling is prohib
tcd and classed as a criminal offense,
?umors of intended resignations of
oany officials in the city departments
re rife, but it is generally believed
hat the men in possession of these
'ery coveted places will hold on until
hey see whether a power of removal
?ill will be passed at Albany.
ni*AT. TN PHOSPHATE.
tavoyuuu ; vice-preside?i, JU. _. -.u_
on, of New York ; treasnrer, R. W.
tatterson, of New York; secretary and
.ssistant treasurer, H. P. Richmond,
?f Savannah ; directors, George W.
Scott, of Atlanta ; H. M. Comer, Joseph
lull and H. M. Comer, Jr., of Savan
lah ; R. W. Patterson and M. F. Knud
on, of New York.
Tho organization of the Per.ce River
3hospbnte Mining Company is the big
gest move that hos been made in phos
ihato? in South Georgia and Florida
n several months. The matter has
>een conducted very quietly and little
ias been known about the intentions
if those at the head of tho enterpris?
mtil tho meeting was held in Savan
The company is a consolidation of
,11 tho companies now operating on
'eace river-the Peace River Pho1?
ihate Company, the De Soto Phos
ihate Miniug Company, tho Arcadia
5hosphate Company and the Charlotte
larbor Phosphate Coiflpany. The
lew company control about ninety
ailes of the bed of Pence river and the
djacent valley, amounting in all to
bout 2-1,000 acres of phosphate land.
.Tie territory of the company begins at
?owling Green and ends at Charlotte
larbor, Punta Gorda being the ship
nterestlng Figures Regarding Truffle,"
Marriages, Births and Deaths.
Somo of the official statistics of
racksonville for the year 1894 aro of
pecial interest. There wero shipped
rom that port during tho twelve
nonths ended Monday night 92,542,
135 feet of Florida pine lumber, of
vhich about 04,000 feet went to do
nestic and 8,000,000 to foreign ports.
There wero also 1,S08,000 cypress, ei
ilusive of crossties, shipped to coast
rise ports. This output of lumber
eas by water, tlie railrood shipments
>eing also very large. During the
arno period 907,277 boxes of oranges
rere shipped from the port to do
uestic points. Tho fire department
ros called ont 143 times duriug the
ear, 112 of the fires being insido tho
ire limits and thirty-oue outside. The
oss by fire was very light.
During 1894 there wero 4G4 mar
iage licenses issued in the county, 157
o white couples and 307 to colored,
h the city thero wero 002 births, of
rhich 233 were whites and 369 colored.
?hti deaths in the city were 597, only
tine short of the number of births,
he division being 234 whites and 359
olored. Thirty-eight of these denths
rere from violence or accidents, and
eventy of them were of nou-resi
lents. With a normal population of
17,000 this makes tho death rate only
. fraction over 2 per cent, or about
wenty to tho thousand.
Under Republican Control for the
First Time in 25 Years.
Tho general nssembly of Missouri
was called to order at Jefferson City'
Wednesday and after thc new members
were sworn in, the republicans, for thc
lirst linn: in a quarter of a century,
Found themselves in eontrr.l of the leg
islature. Thero were uo contests and
Ibo proceedings occupied but a few
Highest of all in Leavening P<
CONTRACTS WITH FARM LABORERS.
In employing farm laborers it is
always advisable to have a written con
tract. In this should be specified the
terms of the agreement, which will be
binding on both parties. Thus the
question if a hired man should have
his wages and board paid for during
a temporary disability by sickness
would be settled by the agreement.
As a rule, the man is paid only for the
time he actually works, and when he
is idle, for whatever cause, his board
is charged to him. It would be most
advisable for every employer to make
a written agreement with his work
men as to all the various canses of dis
pute that arise during the working
season.- New York Times.
Fall and winter are the season in
which to use cut bone. Many far
mers neglect to feed it and give only
grain. The results of suoh an exclu
sive diet are readily seen in the re
duced number of eggs. Others, again,
considering the trouble and expense
of cutting the green bones, substitute
bone meal therefor. They forget that
the great value in the green bones li?e
in tho perfect fresh animal food they
contain, and which is necessarily lack
ing in the bone meal. This animal
food is rich, succulent and easily di
gested ;- besides, it is of a composite
character, containing all the elements
necessary for the support and de
velopment of the body as well as for
the production of eggs. Green bone
is unique in its effect upon the ohick
en frame.- New York World.
Oabbaee will endure a good deal o?
leaves . ..
tightly as possible ; 'rhfe-iaouthjjf the
barrel is filled with some straw ~?T
leaves and covered with a board or
some old carpet. The cabbage may be
taken out at any time ail winter un
frozen and in good condition. If the
outside heads are frozen one layei
deeper in may be taken, and later ic
the season the frozen ones will bc
found to have thawed out and to be
uninjured. Cabbage to be pr?serv?e
for marketing in spring may be pulled
and laid on top of the ground in rows,
and a furrow plowed from each side
upon the inverted plants. The worl
may be finished with a shovel. The
plants should only have the beach
covered, the roots projecting into the
air. In this way they will keep per
fectly until warm weather.-American
It requires rich land to grow good
onions, and it must be fertility thal
has been gradually imparted to the
soil. You cannot take ordinary farm
land and in a single season fit it foi
growing onions. If stable manure is
used, it makes the soil too light while
it is decomposing. The best onions
are grown on mucky soil that has
several seasons been cultivated to
shallow depth, and that is then kept
in fertility with some kind of concen
trated manure. There needs to be a
hard stratum of soil three or foai
inches below the surface. This makee
the onion roots spread out near the
surface, producing onions of flat shape.
When the soil is mellowed too deeply
a large proportion of the crop will
grow to scullions. The seed from
scullions will produce scullions in re
turn. As there is a constant tendency
to deterioration it is highly importanl
that only the best seed be used. The
skilful seed grower understands thu
difference, and his seed from oniom
that have for many crops been selectee
from tboso having the best form ii
well worth the extra price that is askec
for it. The best profits in growing
onions are now made by starting the
growth the previous season, planting
very thickly and saving tho sets whih
they are small. These are transplant?e
in spring, and produce an earlier croj
than can be got from seed. They als(
are much less trouble to keep frei
from weeds, as tho rows of younj
onions can be seen within a few day
after planting, and they grow ver
HOW TO MOVE LARGE MAPLES.
To a correspondent who asked hov
to move and prune some large mapli
trees, six or seven inches in diametef
the editor of Garden and Forest rs
plies: In removing trees the root
are generally injured to a greater o;
less extent, and those which ar<
bruited must be cut away ; it is gooc
practice to prune in the branches to'i
corrcspoueliug extent, no that ther
will be not more leaves than the root
can supply. Norway maples of tb
tize indicated cannot be removei
without the loss of many roots, am
pruning will be necessary. Sue]
pruning will bc perfectly safe, asthes
maples are not injured more than an
osher trees by this operation. A grea
dod of this pruning can be effected b
thinning out the inner branches, bu
there should bo no hesitation abou
Dwer.-Latest U. S. Gov't Report
catting back limbs where this seems
i necessary. When the ends of the
branches are pruned they should be
cut back to a limb, the wounds should
be covered with coal tar, and no stubs
should he left to decay. In removing
such large trees it is good praotice" to
prune the roots back by digging a
i trench about the trees, say five feet
from the trunk, and if this trench is
i filled with good soil new feeding roots
i will start out during the next year, so
that the tree will be in excellent con
dition for removing in a year from the
coming winter. Large trees can ha
removed with success, but it costs time
and care and money. Persons who do
not choose to go to the extra expense,
however, can console themselves with
the reflection that, as a rule, it is best
to plant small trees, and that a tree
ten or twelve feej; high, will probably (
be as large in ten years as one planted ;
at the same time when it was twenty? '
five feet high.
HANDLING CORN FODDER.
John Howat, Iowa, tells in the
Homestead how he handles corn fod
der. Ho says: Take an oak pole
twelve feet long that will square three
or four inches, set it in the rear end
of your hayrack, bolt it to the cross
bar of your rack, use two pieces ol
2x4, one seven feet, the other nine ;
bolt these to the same crosspiece as
the pole, then bolt to the pole at their
upper ends, bracing it afc two plaoes,
(?wing to the different lengths ; use a
2x4 five feet long to brace on the iaz--*^
ward side of the pole to the bottom of
rack ; nail on ; take 'a 2x4 twelve feet
long and fasten with a pivot on the
pole, five feet above the floor of the
rack, fasten the other end with rope
nr nliain wron or oinriif fflAt. lon O' to
I as ic swings up. uou u j?cb? u? cop*
^OJLevery shock, leaving them on till
you uoiPAiiyjvhen yon can use the der
rick to unload^ K<y_our stack gets
high, shorten your rope froa-pole to
swinging arm, raising the lutter, giv
ing more room for stacking high. By
this method all the fodder is saved,
and all the unpleasant part of hand
ling corn fodder avoided. Two men
can tie and load ten shocks in twenty
minutes. We did it, and ''what man
has done, man may do. " For a pivot,
I used a large staple driven into the
pole, with the bolt taken out of an old
neckyoke, with an eye on one end
through which the staple was put, and
the arm driven on the bolt.
FARM AND GARDEN NOTES.
Make your stock comfortable.
Milk quickly but not hurriedly.
Let "serene" good nature prevail.
Feed at regular intervals, changing
the food occasionally and cautiously.
The farmer who attends to his poul
try and gives it proper feed and shel
ter makes it pay well.
It is easy to stunt a growing animal,
but by no means easy to undo the
evil. Bear this in mind.
A clean pen and a clean trough,
good nourishment and proper exer
cise, are the pathways to success.
Many farmers neglect their oppor
tunities. They might to know that hens
will pay well as their cows, sheep
or hogs if taken care of.
Good fences are an important thing
on every farm, and they need to be
kept in good repair. Keep weeds and
brush well culled out of the corners.
Do not neglect your vegetable gar
den. No other portion of the farm is
a better-paying investment. leep
some of your luxuries for the home
During tho winter months small
potatoes may be cooked with bran,
and cut clover seasoned with a little
pepper. This makes a most excellent
hash for fowls.
It should never be forgotten that
poultry need some kind of green food
at all seasons of tho year. In winter
they can be given cabbage, onions,
turnips or chopped ?rye.
Whenever you have any milk left
over, whether it is sweet or sour, give
it to the poultry. It contains much
of the needed egg-making material
and can in no other wily be so profit
ably utilized. Poultry make a good
adjunct to thc dairy.
The advantage of meadow or pasture
grasses for cattle and sheep are that
they afford a variety. Animals have,
preference for certain foods, and
thrive best when they caji select food
which is most palatable and necessary
for supplying their wants.
No well-regulated farm is without -
its flock of thoroughbred poultry.
There is, in fact, no better paying
stock-taking into consideration cap
ital and labor invested. Keep also
turkeys, ducks und geese. They ara
all prolitable on the farm.
It may bo possible to take off profit
able crops and maintain the fertility
of the land without the aid of stock
but the average farmer cannot do it
Selling from tho farm constantly and
restoring nothing to the land is only
selling the farm away piecemeal,