Newspaper Page Text
T1I0S. J. ADAMS, PROPRIETOR EDGEFIELD, S. C., WEDNESDAY, JUNE 5, 1895. VOL. LX. NO. 19. ~
The bioycle, it is paid, has very se?
riously injured the business of Denver
(Col.) street cars.
The Bishop of Londou says ibafc bo
would be glad to seo the women in all
cases holding the franchise on tho
same terms as men.
The present Lords of tho Admiralty
in England are giving the new pro
tected cruisers very effective name*.
Three aro to be called tho Arrogant,
the Furious and Vindictive.
Tho proverbial needle in a haystack
was found by a cow in Watertown, S.
D., a week or two ago. Tho clever
ness of tho animal's performance of
the hitherto thought iinpsssthlo feat
is perhaps marred because of the funt
that she was not hunting for it. Tho
unfortunate animal found the needle
with her tongue while munching ree l,
but a veterinary surgeon removed it
without serions injury to her.
Travelers in Maine say that a sur
prising number of thc "abandoned
farms'' of tho Stato have been re-oc
cupied this year, and that tho new
tenants appear not to bo mero casual
residents, who have occupied th?
places ns n tramp might put np for n
while in au empty house, but indus
trious farmer?, who are brightening
Up tho old farms in a marmor tlmt iu
dicates they have come there lo t>tay.
"Donbtless that is but another evi
dence of the letuming prosperity thai
is brightening up the whole country,"
comments the New York Sun.
Tho principal part of tho cut oi
spruce on the Androscoggin Liver in
Maino is now consumed by the pulp
mills. Bangor lumberman say the pulp
mills of tho Peuuobscot devour the
equivalent of 50,000,000 feet sprnco
logs each year, with also new. pulp
mills in process of construction. IToo.
Charles A. Milliken, Mayor of Augusta,
says thc mills are using fifty millions
of spruce each year on tho Keunebec
for pulp. About 25,000,000 feet
spruce logs are converted into pulp on
the Merrimack Biver in New Hamp
shire, while moro than twice that
amount is annual!}' needed to supply
the FQlp and paper mills ou tho Con
necticut River. Great is wood pulp.
According to the latest Eug:ish
census there are 250,000 persons in
Great Britain receiving Jucomes of
SI000 "each,"and 2,000,000 persons
incomes of $500 a year. There aro
123,000 families in tho United King
dom having incomes of more than
$25,000. In tho United States there
are some -1,000,000 families or about
2,000,000 persons, whoso income ?re
at least $2000 a year and more than
10,000 families with incomes of over
$25,000. Considering tho difference
in population between the two
countries, it is clear, to the Atlanta
Constitution, that the United States
contains the greater number of rich
peoplo and a more nearly equal distri
bution of wealth.
Sr-ys the Philadelphia Bress: The
gift of ?500,000 to tho University of
Pennsylvania by Provost Charles C.
Harrison is one more evidcuo of the
great liberality that has so far in irked
the last decade of the niue teen th ccu
tury. At no time in tho history ol
mankind have such large sums of
monoy bceu piven to further educa
tion, art and philanthropy. It has
been a period of vast enterprises and
of marvelous money making. The
Chicago Tribune prints a table of the
gifts made since January 1,-including
individual sums exceeding $1000. lt
did not include Provost Harrison's
gift, as it bad not then been an
nounced. Adding that, thc table will
stand ns follows :
January.. .?1.C9S.W11 May. ... $4,239,300
February... 1.873,300 j Juno to dat-; 1,075,000
March. 736,530 I -
April.. .. 1,311,100! Total 910,964.150
Here is a magnificent total of nearly
$11,000,000 given away in a little
over five months, of which $1,575,000
has gone to colleges and universities,
$1,593,000 to hospitals, $789,000 to
churches and $208,000 to libroriee,
while tho remaining $3,76$, 400 baa
been distributed among museums, art
galleries and charities. It is a total
which has probably never been sur
passed, and which will make tho first
half of 1895 a red-letter period in
Strange Facts Abon: the Hands.
It is a strange fact that tho right
hand, which is more sensible to tho
touch than the left, is less sensible
than the latter to tho effect of heat or
cold. If you dip both hands simulta
neously into two bowls of water of
equal temperature, tho left will expe
rience the higher sensation of bout,
and this will happen even if thc ther
mometer shows that ths water in the
left bowl is in reality a true colder
than the water iu the right ono. The
reverse happens in tho ca^e of persous
who are left-ban le 1. -New York Dis
A Fal I li I ul I) ?g.
Rufus M. Merrill, a^o.l seventy
nine, a well-known ship builder,
while walking ou the Portland and
Rochester Road at Portland, Me., was
struck by an engine and received in
juries from the effect of which ho died
two hours later. His do/, his con
stant companion for many yeats, tried
to drag his master from the track, and
had both hindi:-;* cut off. Blr. Merrill
seemed more eohcprnel about his dog
than himself,-Trenton (N*. J.) Arreri?
A SHORT TRIP THROUGH A CI
A Bicj'olc lias Four Principal Parts
-IIo-w Weight ls Saved
Some of thc Machin
JUST where to stnrt in telling
how a wheel is made is a dif
ficult thing, Kirra the Chi
cago Times-Herald. In tho
making they (dart in a dozen
places cr moro nt once. In a
general way there aro four different
parts to a bicycle-tho wheels, thc
frame which acts as the connecting
support for nil, the ruuning gear omi
the steering npparntus. Currying the
analysis farther, the wheels nie made
up of spoke?, hubs, rims, tires, spoke
nipple?, ball valves, cups uud cones,
and tho washers that go with them.
The frame is composed of thc diamond
shape set of tubes that join the wheels
together, the hoad through which runs
tho steering tube, tho rear fork, the
seat post and the crank hanger. Thc
steering tube, the fork sides around
the front wheel, tho fork crown and
thc balls, cup and cones on which the
steering tubes turn. The running
gear takes in tho pedals and crank
which operate on the sprocket wheels,
the chain which connects them and
carries thc driving power and the ball
bearings on which theso things re
volve. Tho saddle is also a necessity
which properly belongs with the
These are tho minuto part6 of tho
wheel, and each separate piece, wheth
er big or little, requires separate
handling mauy timos over before it
finaiK enters into tho make-np of a
completo wheel. Each piece passes
through numerous bauds beforo it is
D110P PRESS AT WOBK CUT'
finished, each person who handles it
taking it a little nearer completion.
In makiug tho rims for wheels,, for
instance, the workman lintis his ma
terial in a sheet of steel four feet
broad, perhaps, and twenty feet long,
??c puts it into a cutter that rips it
into proper widths and then cuts it to
requisite lengths. From there each ;
piece is sent through a machine that i
bends it into circular form and on
through others that turu up tho edges
into concave shape to bold the rubber
tire. When that is done the two cuds i
aro brazed together, holes arc drilled ]
for thc spokes and tho rim is complete
except for the nickeling and polish
ing. Tho spoke, speke nipples*, hub
and washers are all handled separately.
With thc new method of making thc
MACHINE FOE TRUING UP HIMS.
frames comes the greatest reduction in
the weight of wheels. Instead of us
ing small bars of solid steel, as for
merly, light, hollow steel tubing is
employed. This lessens the weight
without sacrificing tho strength, for a
tube of steel is said to bo stronger
than a solid of tho same weight. In
making the joints, too, there is a great
saving of weight. Instead of the old
heavy castings and reinforcements,
the joints are now brazud, ono pieco
into the other, which add3 strength
and decreases tho weight. In placo of
the heavy castings used, for instance,
in the fork crown, a vital part of the
machine, drop forgings are now em
ployed to the increase of strength
and safety and the decrease also of
In making the running gear the
greatest care is exercised, both in
workmanship and the selection of ma
terial. Each pieco is handled a dozen
times, made with the utmost precision,
tested for every possible strain, and
not put into a wheel without every as
surance that it will bc able to perform
its function properly. Special ma
chinery is used for most of it, and tho
best of skilled workmen arc cmpJoyod.
If there is but one part about a wheel
that requires particular treatment it
is the running gear, and it gets it.
A great deal of tho machinery used
is automatic, and can by operated by
boys and girls. The making of oil
caps, for instance, and the many nuts <
and rivets used in a wheel is done by i
machines that bite off pieces of steel, i
turn them about a few times on auto
matic ]athe.?, and thou tbrow them
GIItLS EMPLOYED AEOCT LIGITTEK TASKS.
out finished and complete. Sprocket
wheels ore mada in this way. First
they are cut iu circular form from a
plato of steel by a heavy drop ham
mer, then strung together in lots of a
dozen or more in a machino whoso
teeth eat out spaces in the rims and
make the notches, ono row at a timo,
on which tho propelling chain turns.
Saddles aro first cut ont of bit sides of
leather, soaked and put through a lot
of forms, till they are pressed into tho
proper shape. Most of the work is
dono by girls. Putting tho spokes in
hub and wheel is a puzzling job,
which has been well learned by a lot
TING COLD SHEET STEEL.
of boys, and they do it as well as men.
Putting tires in tho rims is simply a
trick, too, but they tell you at tho fac
tory they will give anyone a wheel
who can pull an iutlatod tiro away
from thc rim. The enameling, nick
eling and polishing of tho different
parts are done by the same processes
always used in finishing the same sort
of material in tho samo way.
The assembly-room is tho place
where all the parts como aud are put
together. Each part is there tested
ugain for every kind of strain it will
have to bear, lt isn't possible to see
the making of any particular wheel
in one day, and you cau't get "ono
while you wait," as you could i^et silk
haudkerhhiof? at tho World's Fair. It
is interesting to seo the process, how
ever, and ono who has tho opportuni
ty should embrace it.
Elcciricity as a JIaircu?tcrc
Two strikingproofsof the eagerness
of tho public to avail itself of any elec
trical improvement were recently af
forded. An electrical journal pub
lished an article ou a comb which
wheu passed through the hair would
cut it and singe it at tho eamo instant
by means of the contact of a platinum
wiro stretched across it, to which enr
rcut could bc admitted on pressure of
a button at the other end of tho comb.
As a direct result of this articlo tho
manufacturers of tho device received
372 letters aud eighty-four postals,
aud their gross sales in a little over i
month were nearly $1000. iQ regard
to a device for generating electricity
direct from coal, which was described
in another journal, the inventor had
800 letters.-New York Times.
One of tbe prime movers of the agi
in for tho separation of Norway fro
lovelist, Bjorn8tjerne Bjornson. With
incessantly to bring about the jadepom
A Famous OM Store.
Tho famous old "Bluo Store" in
Boxbary, Mass., will soon be torn
down. During Colonial times General
Warren, ii is said, occupied ono floor
of thc old building ns a dwelling.
When undergoing repairs a number of
yearn ago, one of tho salesmen, Martin
F. Curley, found among the rafters au
old military coat with gold buttons,
and one of the old residents claimed
then that it was General Warren's
coat.-Now York World.
A Japanese Methodist Church.
Tho first Japanese church in America
has been dedicated ia San Francisco.
Its outside is of birch, plaster and
wood-corviug. Its congregation con
sists of 300 Japanese Methodists, with
a few Japanese girls of various sizes in
chnrgo of Miss Hewitt as chaperon.
Inside there is a strip of Japanese
matting in the aisle and chairs take
tho place of regular seats. The pulpit
has a gay red carpet, and there is a
red curtaiu between tho choir and the
audience. There aro Japaneso vases
of dull blue pottery with a 6tork de
sign full of flowers. The audience
room is plastered in the natural color,
and the ceiling is finished with rafters
that show. Tho windows hove dia
monds panes and aro unstained, ex
cept one, which is a memorial to Dr.
Otis Gibson, tho first pastor of the
FIRST JAPANESE CHURCH ns AMERICA.
church. The organ is somotimos a
couple of notes ahead or behind, but
that makes no difference with tho fer
vor of the singing.
Tho church its is in tho upper story.
Below are tho chapel, school-room and
offices, with the dormitories of the
mission in tho rear. The mission boys
have intelligent, woll-bred faces.
A Dog With a Wooden Leg.
lt is a wonderful dog, or, rather,
she has a wonderful log, which at
tracted much attention whou silo was
SHE nAS A BROOMSTICK LEO.
on view at the aquarium dog show in
It was made for her by her owner,
Edward Mosely, of Regent street,
rather more than a year ago, and is
probably, says tho London Sketch,
the first instance of anything beyond
a broomstick or pin log, so to speak,
being made for one of tho lower ani
Farmer Jones-"What hov yoi
lamed at collego, son?"
Son-"Why, dad ! I can throw tho
hammer further than any one there."
Farmer Jones-"Thet's good. I
guess yer'U hov no trouble in gittin'
er job in er blacksmith's shop then."
tatiou now being so fiercely carried
rn Sweden is the great Scandinavian
his pen and his voice ho js laboring
dence ol (ho Norwegians. ^
A SUMMER BRIDE.
DAINTY DRESSES MADE FOR
A FASHIONABLE^ WEDDING.
Tho Bridesmaids1 Toilets, 3Iorninif
Dresses, Afternoon Frocks nnd
Dainty Notions In Lawns
Hats and Parasols Match.
IT FASHION writer has had
/ \ a view of the trousseau of a
; wealthy New York bride in
<?~ the rooms of a metropolitan
modiste. She says :
First wo saw tho bridesmaids'
toilets, and they were dainty and
simple to n degree, which made
them moro artistic than modish
-there is a groat diSerencc, you
J FOIt UOBNBra WEAH.
know.' It is to be a whito and
yellow wedding, with yellow roses a3
Thej frocks were of white mousselino
de sofie, over wfiito satin, and the
skirts^ were absolutely uutrimmed.
Around thc bottom was a deep hem
reaching half-way to the knees. The
soft, full waist had immense bouffant
sleeves .to thc olbow and was drawn
down over the whito satiu lining with
a slight fullness in the front ; while
tho collar was a frillod band of tho
mousseline with rosettes at either s ido.
Around the waist was drawn a broad
yellow satin sash-a regular old
fashioned broad sadi-and it tied in a
full bow at the back. This touch was
so charming and original, as tho sash
for many a day has not been in vogue.
1 liked it, but madame said:
"Wait until you sec ail tho other
The slippers and gloves were in ono
box with the hosiery. Tbo slippers
were of yellow satin, with tiny rhine
stone buckles, and the yellow-silk
stockings were embroidered in yellow
roses, while thc glove-j were of white
glace kid-tho newest fashion, but I
do not think it will bo a success.
The hats wero large Leghorns,
picturesquely trimmed with white
plumes and loug, narrow buckles at
tho side. These six frocks wero made
exaotly alike, and this shows artistic
sense, for to have two bridesmaids in
one color and two moro in another,
and so on, is a horror too often per
petrated. Tho great trailing train
was swept across tho cloth, and wo
Baw tho bridal robe-a perfectly plain
whito dress of the heavy bride-satin,
as it is called. It was fastened in the
bask, and a bertha of rare old lace wan
drawn across the shoulders and tied in
a knot; ftt the bust with short ends
reaching the waist. It was most
quaint, and I asked madame if it was
not an unusual wedding gown. Her
reply was :
"Yes, but we thought it would bo a
little bit original to have Miss -
gowned in thin artistic way on tho
day of tho wedding. Sbe is au ex
quisitely beautiful girl of the English
type aud her wedding will take place
at her mother's country place up the
Hudson." Tho frock waa absolutely
antrim mod, but ono did not wish it
otherwise. The \ ci\ was to bo of the
name laco as tho bertha, both being
heirlooms, and a diamond sunburst
wuB to fasten it directly iu front, but
no other jewels were to be worn.
Tho traveling gown and several of
tho prettiest of those just completed
were "exhibited next. The goiug-oway
dress was a pretty brown crepon,
made with just a touch of white, and
aB thc journey was only to be from ono
country placo to another it was not
necessary for the nena! scvore cloth
dress to be worn. This brown crepon
was very dainty and the arrangement
of tho bodice especially pleasing. Thc
rutiles of crepon on tho sleeves were
an innovation, and were piped with ?
whito satin falliug from elbow to
wrist. The full Piquiu blouse had a
narrow piping of the white on either
side of the front box plait, while the
collar hod a bang of the while placed
directly iu the middle aud was covered
with a brown net. The hat tn rom
pleto the costume was ? brown rough j
straw of the .'-nilor shape, and III? i
white satin rosettes aud brown trim- ;
ming of quills, with narrow roll of vel- i
vet, was very pretty, Pale tan suede j
gloYptf pud a parasol of brown, with a j
white handle, were tho finishing
In tho way of morning gowns, three
were absolutely the prettiest nnd most
summery toilets I have yet seen. One
was a very sheer pink and white striped
lawn, niodo with a trimming of narrow
yellow lace, used both as an edging
and iusertioa. The skirt had seven
banks of insertion placed on the deep
Spanish ruflie, reaching to the knee,
and the bodice had a full blouse front,
strapped with lace, while tho sleeves
were the leg-o'-mutton shape, with no
adornment. Tho belt fastenod to tho
skirt, which was worn over the bodice,
was of a pink and white ribbon, and
tho collar was also fashioned of this,
fastening at thc back with a small
A red and white giugharawith white
accessories was remarkably chic, and
the red was a pure cerise.
Of the three my favorite was a green
and white-a palo apple-green, with
heavy whito flowers scattered all over
the green ground. Over a silk lining
of thc same shade of green the effect
was charming, and yet it was a dress
not to be easily described. It seemed
a mass of soft folds and stiff bows,
witli a tench of coquetry looking out
through tho knots ot ribbon placed
around tho collar in a perfect frill.
One of the prettiest afternoon toil
ets was a gray crepon, with accessories
of white. Yes, a;?in whito, and it is
not an exaggeration to say that out of
ten frocks eight havo white as a trim
ming. lt is so very popular that, al
though it is so easily Hoiled, dress
maker and dress wearer are in favor
of it, changing tho ribbon often threo
times during the seasou. It is uover
used lavishly, so that collar, belt and
cuffs CHU bo renovated without much
expense or effort. A driving capo of
gray satin completed this afternoon
costume, and tho daintiest of toques,
just touched with a spruy of green
foliage, was tho head ornament. Sev
eral beautiful parasols there were also
to match, and a pretty neck pieco of
roses was particularly fetching with ti
stiff black and rose silk gown.
TRIMMINGS FOI? n.VTS AXD n0X>*ETS.
Redundancy of trimming seems tc
remain the rule with hats and bonnets
aud is often to bo regretted, as the
combination which the average mil
liner affects is anything but pretty or
becoming. One would expect that
children's hats would be made nn ex
ceptiou to this rule, but even the little
ones are loaded down with masses of
flowers, feathers and ribbons until
they actually look like caricatures.
For tho little children hugo poke
hairnets are thc latest styles sho^n.
Hoses arc the Howers chieliy in re
quest for tho trimming of bonnets
and huts, with gorlands and bunches
Cine SAMOU HAT.
of green leaves. Upright decorations
tire very much in vogue, and hats ore
st ill used with tho Alsatian bow or with
clusters of flowers at the side, but
something in tho shape of an aigrette
is generally added and this chaugos
their effect very much.
Many milliuers uso tho green aig
rette, which they insert in a mass of
green leaves and make very effective.
Others uso foliage surmounted by a
few half-open buds, and I have seen
such Howers as double stocks and
hyacinth?, which by nature are very
erect, used as tho upright trimming,
while tho brim of the hat was loaded
with ivy aud periwinkle leaves.
TJUUMrcra rou SKI HTS.
Skirts aro showing more trimming
with every new importation. One
skirt hus l wo Huted rutilus arrauged in
deep scallops, the points of tho scal
lops finished with rosette bows. An
other skirt, has a ten-inch, Hut, side
plaited riifH'j. Another a four-inch
band of Greoiau embroidery at tho
hem. Another has wide bauds of gal
loon just nbovo the hem. And yet an
other o four-inch ll nish of embroidery
just above the braid.
In Bru/.il there are said to be 300
languages mid dialects spoken by the
Another victim from tight lacing is
reported from Liverpool.
The Queen of the Belgians keeps a
stud of 150 thoroughbred horses.
There aro 8,5SG,000 grown women
in France, while Austria has 9,G30,
A lady athlete is preparing to make
an attempt to swim across the English
Queen Victoria's continental trip
last spring only cost$52,OOO, as against
?70,000 last year.
Bine serge snits are m ade with box
plaited bodices, the plaits edged with
detachable needlework frills.
Lady Wilde is said to be dying of a
broken heart, and her friends say that
she see will never see her son again.
Senator Brice's daughters are plan
ning a tour through Franco mounted
on bicycles and provided with kodaks.
The best bicycle sino for women is
a broad-soled, low-heelod affair having
a seam along tho middle of tho front.
A woman's colnmn writer advises
the girls to pick out a husband by the
condition of his linen and his finger
Rev. Anna Shaw, of Boston, is out
with a declaration in favor of the ap
pointment of women as Polica Com
The Woman's Club as an organ of
womanhood, nonpartisan, nonpoli
tical, nonproscriptive in civil affairs,
is a Chicago idea.
W. C. Stivers, of Lancaster, Ky., is
suing Miss Catherine West, a hand
some school teacher, for $500 for
breach of promise.
Lady Mary Wortly Montague was
large and masculine, both in appear
ance and demeanor. She could not
be termed a beauty.
Mrs. Nancy Rider, of Albion, Me.,
recently celebrated ner ninety-fifth
birthday by spining two knots of
yarn and piecing some patchwork.
It is estimated that of the total sum
raised for the support of the Protest
ant churches of this country over one
third is now procured by the efforts
or labors of women.
Miss Myra Reynolds and Miss W. C.
France received the degree of Ph. D.
at the commencement of Chicago Uni
versity. They are th<? first ladies to
take the degreee there.
Miss Mary Cary Thomas was nomi
nated for one of the alumnae trus
tees of Cornell University. She is the
first woman to be eo honored in any
of the great universities.
Dr. Mary Harris Thompson, who
died suddenly in Chicago a few days
since, was a surgeon of remarkable
ability, and was the founder of the
<BM-ga Wp?*ni fr?r wpjnen aud chil
A Brcoklyn . woman fell out of a
fonrth-story window the other day.
She was not much hurt, and her first
question when she recovered her
breath was whother her bonnet was
Mrs. Harlan is said to be almost as
large physically as her husband, the
Supreme Court Justice, who is six
feet two inches tall, and when together
in public they naturally attract a
great deal of attention.
Miss Nellie Temple, who graduated
at Vassar in 1892, has been engaged
by the University of Leipsig to assisi
Dr. Rakel, its American professor of
history, in the preparation of a his
tory of tho United States.
A memorial to the late Christina
Rossett is to bo sot up in Christ
Church, Woburn Square, London,
which she attended for nearly twenty
years. The form of thc memorial has
not been determined on.
Mrs. Sarah Stephan, an aged widow,
of Kingston, N. Y., has fallen heir to
$28,000,000 by the death of her brother
Michael Haven, in England. He ran
away from home at the age of sixteen,
went to Australia and amassed this im
Girls employed in the crepe manu
facture are under a curious contract
not to engage in any housework after
their hours of labor. The reason is
least their hands become coarse and
unfitted for the delicate nature of
Julia Ward Howe thinks the woman's
club is the distinctive feature of con
temporary intellectual development.
She says : "Once it was the eccentric
woman who belonged to a club, now
it ia the eccentric woman who does
not belong to a club."
Frau Mario Harder, a Danish lady,
has published a volume called "Yule
Star." In this there is nothing won
derful, but tho publication becomes
somewhat interesting when one hears
tbat it is her debut, and that Fru
Harder is seventy years old.
Mme. Rowstowska, of Lille, France,
is 112 yeurs old. She served as the
cantiniero of a Polish regiment dur
ing the Russian campaign, was twelve
times under firo, received three
wounds and was decorated with the
si Iver 2IOBS. She has survived her fif
General Spinner, when Treasurer of
tho United States, was the first to
nominate woraon to positions in a
Government Department. Ho ap
pointed seven women to clerkships in
1862. It is proposed to erect a monu
ment to him with tho contributions of
the women olerks in tho departments
On her way back from Capo Martin
to Farnborough the ex-Empress
Eugene, of France, stayed for a time
in Paris and drovo through the Tui
leries Gardens. No ono recognized
the pale-faced lady dressing in mourn
ing as she drove by the site of what
was once tho royal abodo where ah3
entertained nearly every sovoroign in
Miss Francis Willard's example in
learning to ride tho bicycle bids fair
to be imitated by many other women
of mature years. The Kev. Phoebe A.
llanaford, of New York, who has left
her first youth some distance behind
her, is practicing with tho wheel, and
Mme. Hanna Kor.my, of Syria, has
become so far infected with Occiden
tal ideas that she, too, is taking bl?
Are you taking SIMMONS LIVER REG
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MONEY IN ORGAN GRINDING.
Skillful Organ Grinders Make from
$5 to $10 a Day.
Reliable statistics show that more
money is paid to the organ grinders
who furnish street music to New s
Yorkers than is paid for the grand
opera season at the Metropolitan
Opera House. In lino weather a
singlo organ grinder frequently
makes as high a $10 a day, and some
times the amount ho receives exceeds
Two hundred and fifty licenses
have be?n issued in New York this
year to organ grinders. The license
is $1 a year, and an ordinance passed
two years ago limits the number of .
our street musicians to 300. But the
law is not very rigidly enforced, and
the octual number of organs about
town at present far exceeds this
Like all other professions, that of
the organ grinder at "times suffers
from depression, but on the wholo it
is surprisingly profitable. The most
profitable audiences are usuallly
Wand in saloons, and next to these
the organ grinder prefers the fashion
Tho most enthusiastic audiences
are to bo found, however, in the
crowded streets on the East side.
An enterprising Italian can usually
manage to pi ay before as many as
aOO audiences in a single day, and
sometimes he plays much oftener.
.-TJia_jaMnIac^n^._of hand organs
has also grown into a voryi/npurtuiht*^'
industry. A single piano organ
mounted on wheels is sold from #150
to $250. The organ builder usually
rents organs out by tho day. It
seldom happens that the ambitious
musician is at first able to buy an
organ for himself. The largo organs
are rented out for $1 and tho smaller
ones for 50 cents a day.
A now cylinder of tunes for an
organ costs about $10. The grinder,
however, seldom feels called upon to
change his repertory.
The cheapest organs-those which
play one or two tunes, such as
'.Home, Sweet Home " and "Yankee
Doodle"-are usually sold to blind
members of the profession, or to tho
very poor-looking old women who sit
ali day long in some sheltered door
Tho next step in the procession is
to own ono of tho box-liko organs
which tho organ grinder carries about
with him. Those aro usually sup
plied with a stout stick, which is
used as a supporting leg, while the
Italian's two legs complete the
These organs make a very heavy
load to carry about all day, and a
moro popular form is tho organ
mounted on a small wagon. Those
aro ofton made up by using a child's
express or toy wagon. The most
improved form in hand organ con
struction is the regular piano organ
mounted on a specially prepared
At present the street music of New
York is supplied- entirely by these
noisy instruments. About two years
ago a law was passed doing away with
all street music. The street band
disappeared at this time, and so did
the familiar organ grinder's monkey,
but public opinion restored the street
The Italians are a very frugal peo
ple, and in time the organ grinder
usually accumulates enough money
in a short time to buy an organ for
himself. After this point is reached
tho Italian's fortune is practically
As in every other business there
are some unsuccessful organ grinders,
but tho percentage of such is said to
bo very small.
In many cases, howe ver, tho organ
is used simply as an ex cuso for beg
ging. The organs used for this pur- *
pose usually play only v cry dismal
tunes which, it is supposed, will put
the passerby in a proper spirit for
In more than one instance it has
been found that a forlorn looking
child lias been b orrowed to sit besido
the organ to ox cite sympathy. Some
of tho most profitable organs are
those which aro decorated with a tin
cup at th-i well known "I am blind"
sign In some cases a stock of shoe
strings or of lead pencils is added to
the outfit. . .
r*ARXS nas tno greatest numner or
tailors, paperhangers, dressmakers,
wigmakers, lawyers and authors;
London has more hackdrivers, engi
neers, printers, booksellers and cooks
than any other city; Amsterdam has
most "cranks collecting anything"
and u sere rs of any city; Brussels is
the town of rogues and smoking chil-*
dren; Naples thc town of "Lazza
ronis:" Berlin of soldiers and beer
drinkers; Vienna of musicians; Flor
ence of flower g-rls' Lisbon of por
ters; St. Petersburg of adventurers;
Constantinople of idle officials.