Newspaper Page Text
EDGEFIELl), S. Gu WEDNESDAY, OCTOBER 6, 1897.
THOS. J. ADAMS, PROPRIETOR;
VOL. LXII. NO. 40
S MINING OUR
1 # BL?C?
I have just spent a few days at the
United States geological survey in
"Washington, writes Frank G. Carpen
ter, looking Up facts about coal min
ing; Tho geologists know more about
coal than any one else. They can tel?
you just how the -world looked when
coal -was made, and they describe how
there were ages of luxuriant growth
consisting ot pine trees, fir trees and
all kinds of mosses and plants, which,
dying down year after year, became a
great matted bed of vegetation. They
tell you how this bed was bottled up
by being covered up with rocks and
how it finally turned into coal. They
can tell you just how this happened
and how long it came ? to pass before
Noah was a baby or Cain killed little
Abel outside the Garden of Eden.
Men lived for thousands of years
upon the earth before they knew that
coal was good to burn. All the iron
made before the days of the middle
ages was with charcoal, and a fairy
tale is told in Belgium of how a poor
blacksmith discovered the first black
diamouls. He found that he could
not jet along, for it took so much time
to make his charcoal for his furnace.
Eo was just about to commit suicide
when a white-bearded old man ap
peared at his shop and told him to go
to the mountains near by and dig out
the black earth and burn it. He did
so, and was able to make a horseshoe
at one forging. This is the Belgian
story of the discovery of coal. The
first coal found in America was near
Ottawa, Illiiuic. It is mentioned by
Father Hennepin, a French explorer,
who visited there in ?G79. The first
mines worked were about Richmond,
Va. This coal was discovered by a
boy while out fishing:
He was hunting for crabs for bait in
a small creek, and thus stumbled noon
Che outcroppings of the James River I
coal bed. Our anthracite coal fields
have perhaps paid better than any
other coal fields of the world. They
were discovered by a hunter named
Nicho Allen, when George Washing
ton was President. Allen encamped
one night in the Schuylkill regions,
kindling his fire upon some black
stones. He awoke to find himself al
most roasted. Thestones were on fire,
and anthracite was burning for the
; first time. Shortly after this a com
pany was organized to sell anthracite
coal. It was taken around to the black
smiths, but they did not know how to
use it, and it was very unpopular.
Some of it was shipped to Philadelphia
by a Colonel. Shoemaker and sold
-'there.' It was ?ot at all satisfactory,
and a writ was gotten out from the
city authorities, denouncing the
colonel as a knave and scoundrel for
trying to imposed rocks upon them as
coal. Still Philadelphia has largely
been built up by anthracite coal, and
50,000,000 tons of this coal wero takeu
out of the Pennsylvania fields in 189G.
Since then some of these coal lands
have been sold as high as $1200 an
acre, and the Philadelphia and Bead
ing Company in 1871 paid $10,000,000
for 100,000 acres of coal land in this
region. As a sample of the aruouut of
business done in anthracite coal, the
Delaware and Hudson Cain : Compauy
paid $5,000,000 in one year for mining,
and their coal sales that year amounted
to more than ?10,000,000.
It is hard to estimate the enormous
amount 'f money the United States
makes out of its coal. We get more
thau three times as much out of our
coal mines as ont of our gold mines, 1
and the silver metal is not in it with <
the black diamonds. There is a little 1
region in eastern Pennsylvania, about 1
a hundred and twenty-five miles from I i
Philadelphia and not more than two : 1
hundred miles from New York, which 11
produces every year coal to a greater 1
value than all the gold mines of the c
Rockies, Canada and Alaska. It is t
our anthracite coal fields which turn i
out between 50,000,000 and 00,000,000 i
tons of anthracite every year. We t
have in addition to this a hundred and ?
thirty odd million tons of bituminous 1
coal annually. We have, ia short, the f
biggest and best coal measures on the t
globe. It is estimated that our coal i
east pf the Rocky Mountains covers <
192,000 square miles, and within the <
past few years coal has been found in i
many parts of the Far West. Colorado [ i
will eventually be a great manufactur- t
ing State on account of its coal. i
Utah has large coal fields, and so i
have the States of Montana, Washing- c
ton and Wyoming. We are now get
ting something like 20,000,000 tons of c
coal a year out of Indiana, Kentucky a
and Illinois, aud the great Appalach- 2
ism field produces more than four J
times this amount. There is more i
good burnable earth in the Appalach- t
IN AN ENGL!
ian Mountain, than anywhere else in I a
the world. The coal is easy to get at, fi
the veins are thick, and in some mines
they are almost on tho- top- -of -the c
ground. They aro better- than any c
other coal fields in this respect, with r
one single exception. Thislf s^rhe new tl
coal field of Alaska, which, one of tho 1<
geological survey men'.teils "ine, comes b
right out over the wafer, so that the e
coal can be dug dowjv.arid"almost fall s
into the ships below.. This A'.askau S
coal will probably be used to snpn'y b
the Pacific trade, and its impo. .^e T
will be appreciated when lt is reinein- f(
bered that the largest fleet that sails is
the Pacific i? the coal fleet. Most of p
the coal from that region comes from e:
Australia and Ja-mn. Much Australian w
coal is brought to San Francisco. Dur- ti
ing my travel? in Japan I visited one v
coal -mine which had fifty miles of tun- ci
nols under the sea, and J learned that [ tl
i DIAMONDS. 1
the Japanese were, making a great deal
of money out of their coal.
They were shipping it to China, not
withstanding the fact that the geolo
gists say that China has some of the
largest coal fields of the world. Ii
doubt the extent of the Chinese fields.
The people are thrifty, and it is curi
ous that they do not tise the coal if
they have it. They aro among the
most economical of people, and in the
different Chinese cities coal is so valu
able that it is ground to dust and then
mixed with dirt, being sold in balls
about the size of a biscuit. It is in
teresting to know the coal fields of
the world, as estimated by the geolo
gists. Here they aro :
China, 200,000 square miles; United
States east of the Eockies, 192,000
square miles; Canada, G5,000 square
miles; India, 35,500 square miles;
New South Wales, 21,000 Square
miles; Russia, 20,000 square milos;
United Kingdom, 11,500 square miles;
Sp.n'u, 5500 square miles; Japan, 5000
square miles, France, 2080 square
inile3; Austria-Hungary, 1790 square
miles; Germany, 1770 square miles;
Belgium, 510 square miles.
From the above table it will be seen
that the English coal area is small.
Still England ha3 for years been the
centre of the coal production of the
world, and for years it mined more
than half the total amount used by the
world. The United States is now
probably ahead of it, and we are in
creasing our product every year. The
English coal veins are thin. The
miners have to lie on their sides to
iv?rk many of them. They have dug
jut the surface coal and they are now
irorking at great depths. One English
rein, fourteen and a half iuches wide,
s already down over twelve hundred
"cet. Such a vein would not be worked
o any great depth in America. The
S'ewcastle coal field, which is the rich
ist in England, has veins from three
o six feet thick, while the Wales coal
reins arc less than three feet iu thick
?ess. Some of our Pennsylvania an
hracite veins run from thirty feet to
sixty feet feet in thickness, while the
Pittsburg bituminous coal veins are
rom eight to sixteen feet thick. At
he present rate of mining it is esti
nated that all the English coal will be
?xhausted in 212 years if it is worked
lown to 4000 feet, and this will be 113
;eet deeper than any of the English
nines now worked. Notwithstanding
:he enormous amounts of coal which
ve have taken out of our anthracite
.egion it is e?timatedthat we could go
m at the present rate for GIG years.
As-England goes further down her
:oal mining will become more expen
iive, and her days as a manufacturing
Isation are, consenueutly, numbered.
Uready we surpass her a great deal in
namifacturing, and there is no doubt
hat we, with our vast supplies of coal
nd iron, are to be the chief manu
ncturing Nation of the future.
Our Appalachian coal fields alone
ould supply the world with fuel for
enturies. They are the largest and
ichest known, and ikey are so situated
hat tho coal can be shipped from them
jng distances by water. From Pitts
urg coal can be carried for eight
en thousand mile? on navigable
breams, and the g.-ate fires of the
ou th blaze with tae rays from the
la-k diamonds iron Pennsylvania,
'he Ohio River is the great coal chute
)r the Mississippi valley. The coal
! carried down it in great barges
ushed by little steamers, and so fast
ued together that a single steamer
iii push acres of coal. Loads of
venty thousand tons are taken. A
ast amount of coal is carried on the
unals and the great lakes form one of
ie chief highways of the coal traffic.
The amount of coal carried on the
railroads is ulmost beyond conception.
The Philadelphia and Reading has
more than fifty thousand coal cars,
which are dragged by nine hundred
coal locomotives. These cars are kept
busy in carrying anthracite coal. The
Pennsylvania Railroad employs more
than seventy thousand cars for. the
movement of its coal and coke trade,
and the Central Railroad of New Jer
sey carries about five million tons of
anthracite coal every year. More coal
is handled at New York than at any
other placo in the world except Lon
don, more than fifteen million tons be
ing used or transshipped at that point
Ono would think that there would
be a lot of morfey in coal for the miners.
There is not, and it is ? question
whether the present strike will materi
ally better matters. As far as strikes
have gone in tho past, they have been
against the working men. Some years
ago Carroll D. Wright, the United
States Commissioner of Labor, figured
up the profit and loss of ten years of
striking in all branches of labor. He
estimated that the employes during
this time lost fifty-niue million dol
lars, an average of forty dollar to each
striker involved, while tho employers
lost a little more than half the amount,
or thirty million dollar?.
The coal miners live as poorly as
any other class of workmen in tho
country. For the most part they are
in dirty viliages, with narrow streets,
their houses blackened by coal smoke.
In mauy mining districts the houses
belong to tho company owning the
mines, and the miners pay rent for
them, bo that wh?n a strike occurs and
they are out of money they are given
orders to leave. Many of the houses
have nothing more than two rooms
and a kitchen, and in some places tho
only stores at which the miners can
trade are the company's stores. With
all this the American miners are far
better off than the miners of other
couutries. The coal miners of Jap.a?.
rebeive Only a few cen ta -a-day.- Both
women and men work in the mines,
[ind the foreign ships, which get coal
it Japan ave always loaded by women,
who pass the coal up the sitios of the
3hip in baskets.
Women are still used in the coal
mines of Belgium. They dress in
trousers, jr it like the men, and they
?lo much the same work. They help
oad the coal, and in some of the mines
;hey drag the cars from the tunnels to
;he bottom of the shaft. L. Simonin,
i Frenchman, from whose book on un
lerground life the illustrations of this
el ter ave taken, describes the horrors
)f their life in the mines. For a long
iuies women were used in this way
u England and Scotland, and it was
lot until twenty-five years ago that
parliament passed an act keeping them
Children are employed in tho Bel
lum mines to-day. The English and
scotch used them for years. They
vere taken into the mines at seven,
:ight and nine years of age, and were
:ept there until they grew up. The
English coal veins nre very thin and
he tunnels are not moro than a yard
tigh. These children were used as
.easts of burden. They were har
icssed to little carts filled with coal,
nd had to crawl along on all fours
rith belts about their waists and
hains between their legs dragging
he coal carts to the surface. Women
lecame deformed by this work. They
-.ere dressed in trousers and shirts
ike men. They learned to fight and
wear like the men and became bad
haracters. At the age of fifty they
,-ere usually worn out. In Scotland
oung women were employed to carry
ho coal on their backs out of the
lines. They dragged the coal to the
aot of the ladders and then loaded it
n their backs, holding it there by a
trap around the forehead while they
limbed up the ladders to get it to the
urface. They worked from twelve to
gurteen Lours a day, and would do
rork, it is.said, v-'iich the men would
ot do, tramping through tho water
.itli their loads of coal. According to
iw women canuot be employed in our
Boys, however, have been largely
sed. They drive the mules, and in
lie anthracite regions they pick over
lie coal, taking the slate and refuse
ut of it. They get from fifty to sixty
en ts a day for bending over the dus ly
oal, roasting in the summer and al
?ost freezing in the winter. They
re frequently hurt, though it is by no
leans as bad with our children as
ith those of Euroj?e a few years ago,
'hen in one investigation it was
tated: "That they seldom slept with
whole skin, and that their backa
ere cut with knocking against the
3of and sides of the tunnels, and that
ie walking in the water covered their
jet with festering sores."
Have you ever been down in a coal
tine? If so, you can appreciate some
E the dangers of mining. A coal mino
i like a great catacomb. It is a city
nderground, the walls of which in
lany cases are upheld by timbers,
ow and then you come to rooms out
E which the coal has been cut. Tho
ml is taken down with blasting pow
er, and there is danger of the wall
.liing and of the miners being
There is also danger from fire damp,
? the union of the gases of the mine
rought together by the light from
lamp or candle. This causes a great
cplosion. It comes like a stroke of
ghtning, and with a clap of thunder,
s the explosion occurs a roaring
hirlwind of Hame goes through tho
tnnels, pulling down the timbers and
iving in the walls. It burns every- ? pi
thing within reach. Minera . af?
blinded, scorched and sometimes
burned to cinders. Hundreds- have
often been killed at a time by such
explosions, and by the flood of cui?
bonic acid gas which follows them.'
Tho statistics show that even in the
United States one miner is killed for
every hundred thousand tons of coal
mined, and those who are injured
number many times this proportion:.
BICYCLE LINE TO THE KLONDIKE
A Freaky Undertaking by a Syndlcato pt
Wealthy Is'ew Yorkers.
One of the most novel of the many
schemes to obtain a share of the wealth
of the Klondike region has been de
veloped by a syndicate of four wealthy
New York business men, who are plan* ,
ning to establish trading posts' and"
stores in the mining camps and also to^
purchase all promising claims on tho
market. They will transport their
men and supplies to the gold fields on
a bicycle specially designedfor tho pur-,
pose. The enterprise will be .under
taken on an extensive scale, and ah ex
pert will be sent at once to the
gold fields, well supplied with money j
to secure desirable claims. Large |
stores of everything a miner needs will i
be transported by boat to Juneau. |
Then the Klondike bicycle comes interj
play. It will bo used to transport the^
supplies over the 700 miles between ;
Juneau and the gold fields by the ;
Chilkoot Pass trail. The bicycle is j
specially designed to carry freight^
and is in reality a four-wheeled vehicle^,
and a bicycle combined. It is builtg
very strongly and weighs about fifty-?
pounds. The tires are of solid rubber '
one and a half inches in diameter.
The frame is the ordinary diamond, of<
steel tubing, built, however, more for?
strength thau appearance, and wound?
with rawhide, shrunk on, to enable the?
miners to handle it with comfort in^
low temperatures. From each side ???
the top bar two arms of steel project, J
each arm carrying a smaller wheel,-w
about fourteen inches in diameter
which, when not in use, can be folded*,1
up inside the diamond frame. Devices^
for packing large'quantities of material j
are attached to the handle bars and"
rear forks, and tho machine, it is esti
:r;ntcd, will .. -v :.' ? - . ..?. i.;. ?
iii an is to lo.
mik-? vi 60. . rii ?"
ip Uto side i . ..
bicycle and I
oad. A sam .?. ?.. . .
jeen made a*? I
ilied for.-New York Herald.
TWO FOWLS WITH SEVEN LECS.
V Kew Yorker lins n Three-Lecccd BOOB
ter and n Quadruped Hen.
Two freak fowls are owned by 0
Stern, of the Third Street Market
East River, New York City, which
ire believed to be unique in their
They were bought by their owner in
?Vashington Market. Tho rooster,
vhich is a year old, has three legs
lie extra "scratcher" (which, by the
'ay, is useless for that purpose or any
ther) sticking out behind, between
ie other two.
Tho hen, which is about a year and
half old, can boast of four legs, two
Inch she walks on, being in their
atural places, the extra two growing
ut of her left side.
The strange feathered creatures
ave been seen by hundreds of
Rabbit Adopt- Chickens.
S. H. Wood, of Westchester, has a
ibbit that is bringing up a brood of
ine chickens. The rabbit takes a
.eat interest in the welfare of its
range pots, and they nestle about
teir furry friend and seem perfectly
home.-New York Journal.
Tho largest mass of pure rock salt in
e world lies under the province of
alicia, Hungary. It ?3 known to be
?0 miles long, twenty broad and 250
et in thickness.
There are about 25,000,000 acres o1
lbliclaud in Ohio.
' 'V ' HOUSEHOLD AFFAIRS,
: >j&&8r"ra? Borer's Toiriatd Ketchup.
S. T. Borer,- the famous cook
ing expert, gives this, her favoritej re
ceipt'for making tomato ketchup in the
Ladies' Home Journal: "Use half a
bushel of sound tomatoes. Wash and
cut them into pieoes. Cook gently for
half an hour, then press through a
sieve. Cook again for one hour; then
"add one ounce of ground ginger, one
ounce of mustard, one gill of ealt, half
a pound of sugar, and one quart of
?vinegar. Cook to the proper consis
tency; add five drops of oil of nutmeg,
and the same of celery, or a table
spoonful of celery seed. Bottle, cork
Cunning Blackberries and Raspberries.
Select firm raspberries, - and put
them into a colander, which sink gradu
^"y into a pan of cold water. Left and
am. Arrange neatly in the cold jars,
. eft fill with cold water, adjust the
rubbers and place the lids carelessly
^IpP' Uo not fasteu them. Place a
little hay, straw or excelsior in the
bottom of an ordinary wash-boiler, on
which stand the jars. Pour into the
,boiIe't sufficient cold water to come
nearly to the neck of the jars, cover
the boiler and bring slowly to boiling
point; As soon as the water reaches
boiling point lift each jar carefully and
s?rehv on the top. Stand out of the
draught to slowly cool. Strawberries
and blackberries may bo canned after
thia rule.-Mrs. S. T. Borer, in Ladies'
?j Excellent Cucumber Tickle.
vMake a ten-gallon keg of strong
brino on which an egg will float. Put
tho" ^cucumbers in a bag made of a
yard of sleezy white cotton, tic up its
mouth with a string and place a clean
?vono on it to keep it in place under
the.brine, and every cucumber is safe
arid" sound until you wish to pickle
them. When that time comes, which
should not be for six weeks, soak
them in fresh water for twenty-four
hours. Then put them in a preserv
ing kettle with enough vinegar to
coyer them. Set them on the stove
and boil gently until a straw can easily
pierce them. Have ready a jar that
sill, hold them. Eemove from the
kettle and throw tho vinegar away.
Put into the kettle nearly twice as
ranch vinegar as they were boiled in
nnd set on the stove to boil. Now
weigh the cucumbers, aud allow a
ih?rt?'. of a pound of sugar to every
.Vonnd of cucumbers. In every ten
pounds' of pickle allow three onions
ind half an ounce of mace, cloves,
ilspice, ginger -and two three-iuch' |
'?:&.rr .. -il T-dQ'.'?Iiv ?-I:;-;>%J?J?T
\>:/\-_. i'i:" ?'.. r i^.-.rd. oise oiLiio? .:
\-.-?.%,..*':..;?.:v?t s??'.! :M??1 c;tf; ourttfi . ;
. : .:" .'k ...=3* -rh
? ;-\ tnuriRxio v?geih?? ..
AU &.> 832.*..
r: >? .-vi-1-- .." .= UK -r
:" ? ?:' _r:-;; psi sbe::i i" rb.8
f?h'QTt tv?jW i '.^'.VAt' . 'veil boiling
'...1 tai* ?^*M?**??W u i ii 'IUIO xv ?iC mi veil
nustard and tumeric and remove it
nstantly from the fire and pour over
he pickles. Cover it up closely and
let it away. In a few days it will be
eady for use. The traveler was not
ar wrong when he pronouueed it
'glorious pickle."-Chicago Becord.
Vegetables growing above the
[round should be cooked in salted
rater, those below, in fresh water.
Colors which have been changed by
he application of acids may bo re
tored by the application of chloro
When cooking onions, set a tin cup
f vinegar on the stove and let boil,
nd no disagreeable odor will be in the
Fruit stains, when fresh, may be
emoved by pouring water through
be stained portion until the spot dis
Ink that is freely spilt upon a carpet
hould be covered with common or
oarse salt or Indian meal. If all the
tain is not absorbed rub with lemon .
Grass stains should be rubbed with
lolasses thoroughly and then washed
ut as usual. Another treatment is
3 rub with alcohol and then wash
"Our fruit stains may be removed
ita oxalic acid; wash the stained por
on in the acid till clear; rinse at
nee in rain water" as the acid will at
ick the fabric if left upon it. Now
et the spot in ammonia and give a
When potatoes are thoroughly baked,
urst tho skin, and you will have de
cious, mealy potatoes that will be
stable for an hour or more if kept in
warm place. If you are not in the
abit of doing this, you do not know
hat an excellent thing a baked pota
> really is.
Bust and ink stains should be
lbbed with juice of lemon and the
pot. thou covered with salt and the
loth pl iced in the sun. If this treat
tent does not servo to remove the
;ain, or if the fabric is colored and
). cannot be treated with lemon
lice, oxalic acid may b9 used as for *
ld fruit stains. ?
Tea, coffee and undoubtedly cocoa
;ains, even those which had beenpre
iously washed, may be rubbed in
.velle water, if the fabric stained be
hite, otherwise the color will be
leached. Take a half-pint of the ja
?lle water to a quart of clear water
id let the stained portion of the cloth
>ak in it for several hours, then rinse
loroughly in three waters.
Incurable In Five Years.
The morphine habit becomes prac
cally inourable in five years. The
ser of alcoholic spirits may continue
ght or ten years before he reaches
ie incurable stage. This will depend
i the free intervals between the time
' using spirits. When he becomes
curable he may abstain, but the in
red brain and nervous system never
?cover.-Quarterly Journal of Ine
5g8 In Mexico Arc Tied In Churches. ^
There is a miserable dog tied up in the j ft
piscopai Church now under erection ! n
i Bncareli avenue that keeps up a j n
sinai howling from sunset to sun- j ?\
se, greatly to the annoyance of tho r
any families residingin that vicinity. J \??
?Mexican Herald, I t;
_ - Protecting Cows From Files.
A very weak dilation of carbolic acid
trill keep flies off from cows in hot
weather. The carbolic acid may be
made stronger and mixed with some
grease to put around the cows' horns,
is the horn fly is more persistent in
Its attacks at thia point, and there is
ao danger of the acid here where the
3ow cannot get at it to lick it. No cow
"ikes the odor of carbolic acid.
Curo For Hog Choler?,
Dr. Salmon, of tho Government Bu
reau of Animal Industry, is credited
with recommending the following as a
cure for hog cholera: Wood charcoal,
one part; sulphur one part; salt, two
parts; bicarbonate of sodium, two parts;
sodium hyposulphite, two parts;
sodium sulphate, one part; antimony
sulphide, one part-ten parts ia all.
Pulverize and mix thoroughly. Dose,
one tablespoonful for each 200 pounds
?>f hogs once a day.
Oxen or Horses. '
I hope to live to see the day when
tho big oxen of olden times will again
adorn the farms of Kennebec. On
almost every farm now'you may find a
pair of big Western or Canadian horses,
and in a few years they will wear out
and the money for another pair must
come from somewhere beside their
earnings. "When you sell a pair of
oxen for which Kennebec was once
noted you get money enough to buy
another pair and have some left to pay
your taxes with. Then again you
yoke up your oxen and put them
astride a cart-tongue or sled handle
and go "to work;, while with horses you
must have a full accompaniment of
rigging to go with them and then you
need a harness maker aud blacksmith
to follow up.-D. H. Thing, in New
Operate Smaller Farms.
E. McGuire, of New York, writes:
There is much complaint among farm
ers, especially in the Eastern States,
about poorly paying crops, and part of
this complaint is justified, but after
an extended experience in farming, I
have come to the conclusion that it
pays better to have a small farm free
from debt, to which has been applied
large amounts of fertilizing materials,
than a large one with a mortgage and
with a depleted soil. Many a man
who has owned a large farm died poor
where he might have lived and farmed
profitably a smaller one. It is true
that times have been hard and taxes
heavy, but it is also true that maDy
who complain, have only themselves
$6VMSIC Th?y hr- "
??..re?. Tgiii 7.V.0 V?.'T
!"tvs; a ?-.HK j a\f?.:... to .. .irti... a-j
;j L? -.tr..".-; r?t?S??biy [
...-..'lift,'?? % >:' s >n:'.vi.*?;-. ? I--!
ii ??-- f?iti. t->. ; -iv- ;?': &e !
??SH^AgCr.feftgia f=;:.?t? 5jp :i -.x'-'C l
irotjwell culiiviiteM.iHrw' T' .
?mid ? xtravrtgan: living .vtal-sfr.-i? i
Hot Weather Cheese Jinking.
Professor J. W. Robertson, of the
Ontario Agricultural College says: A
cheese factory's reputation is largely
determined by the quality of its
August, September and October out
put. Inefficient drainage facilities
will show their worst effects during
warm 'weather. Clean the whey tank
at least once.
Flies must be kept out of the mak
ing room. Some afternoon when the
cheese are in the hoops burn a small
quantity of sulphur in the room after
closing up tho doors aud windows. If
i tablespoonful of alcohol be mixed
with the sulphur it will burn moro'
readily. Care must bo taken to pre
sent the fumes getting into the curing
.oom. The tins of the milk vats and
;he inside of the sinks should be washed
titer this fumigating process before
:hey. are used. ?
In the curing room, ventilate dur
ng early morning aud at night to
teep the temperature as low as possi
)le. Sprinkle the floors with cold
vater morning, noon .?and evening.
kVhile the cheese are being turned on
he shelves there should be an abun
lant admission of light. When flies,
ire apt to be abundant, a plentiful
ihaking of fly powder in the room bo
oro shutting up for the day will de
itroy them. When the eveniugs ave
IOOI and the milk needs ripening, do
lot fail to leave it in the vat until it
eaches the proper stage of maturity j j
>efore the rennet is added. Use ( \
.nough rennet to coagulate the milk
n forty minutes when it is set ai
lighty-eight degrees. Dilute the ex
ract to the extent of one pailful of
rater for every vatf ul of milk aud then
nix it thoroughly by rapid, vigorous
When troubled with gassy curds,
illow a development of acid such as
viii be indicated by threads by the hot
ron test a quarter of an inch long.
Before removing the curd, it is a good
>lan to run most of the whey off ?t %n
?arly stage and to leave only enough
o permit a free stirring of the curd.
ii ter the curd cutter has been used,
tir for twenty minutes before apply
ng the salt. Then curd should be
?ut into the hoops within twenty min
ites after the salt has been mixed in.
Lpply pressure very gradually.
?he cl . J should be bandaged, very
teatly ien they are turned in' the
toop? hin two hours^ after they.are
iut in press. When practicable,
heesc- touid be pressed for at least
wentj ar hours. -
lallroa i fakes Vp Its Tracks and Gives
the Ties to Farmers.
The Sauta Fe is taking up the tracks
if its branch lino through Wichita
bounty. Wheu the work was begun
tepresentative Frank Grimes of that
ounty came to the general offices of
he company at Topeka and secured a
oncession through which the farmers
,-ere to receive all of the ties, the rail
oad simply stipulating that the fa r
aera be on hand with their wagons to
iaul tho ties away as fast as they were
aken up. -Kansas City Journal.
John B. Crimmius, of Charlotte, N.
has a combination of a dog, a cat
nd a rat which dwell together in har
iony, to the amazement of all his
eighbors. They may be- seen any
ay asleep in his window, the cat's head
epo.^ingon thc dog's back and the rat
xking. a sun bath nestled in the fur *f
ho traditional cnemv.
LOVE AND JOY.
I' fling of lovo that sorrow ne'er ha?
Love that has dwelt with gladness from
Love that has made more bright the gra
And given every song a tender tone.
"With my heart nave I upreared a throno
And set this love thereon with buoyant
. And much that seemed before of little
Soft-sunned by it to beauty strango has
That which was I erewhlle ls I no moro;
The alchemist Lovo a wondrous chang*
And in my soul now lurks no base alloy.
I have cast off the bonds that thralled be
The gold of love hath purified my
And Joy my sovereign is, for Love Is Joy.
HUMOR OF THE DAY.
"She used to be so delicate b:foro
she took to the wheel." "Well, she's
indelicate enough now."-Detroit
First Tot-"My mamma says, 'Ii
tho shoe fits, put it on.'" Second
Tot-"My mamma says 'If the shoe
fits, take it off-it's too big.' "-Puck.
The Captain (boisterously)-"Come,
oldman, brace up! What's got into
you?" Passenger-"If you don't put
me ashore you'll very soon sec."-Xiife.
Minnie-"In my opinion one wheel
is as good as- another." Mamie-"I
suppose there is not'much difference
in .?nted wheels."-Indianapolis Jour
"You must get rid of the Oirish ac
cent, Mike, if you want to git on. Yet,
shuro, I was tin years in London be
fore I could git over it mesehV'-New
Style in the Far West: "The Smiths
put on lots of style, don't they?"
"Well, I should say! They have in
dividual cyclono cellars up at the
Scientific Methods: Birch-"Riches
have wings!" Pine-"Possibly; but
most millionaires seem to have suc
ceeded in clipping them pretty suc
"Speaking of runs," observed Me
thuselah, ."I've just scored my ninth
century," and he cut another notch in
bis stick and continued to roll down
Ihe ages.-Chicago Tribune.
"Horseless carriages are getting to
bo quite common in tho East now."
"Yes; but they are 'not as numerous
.is the voiceless opera singers."-Cin
cinnati Commercial Tribune.
' * . VB T
?tub friiai. :i i-::!;/' M.. .
C'?.-'s hssr'd y.-.-*."-, -.rt.ixbur. i"~*>:en?i. <
?Veii t-no. SHde; He :?t ?ie bail j
Will Two Minutes Be Rcachetl?
This is the year that, as tm?men
ave said, will see the record of har
ess horses reduced to two minutes
jr a mile. The pacing record came
rithin a fraction of thc mark a year
go, aa I it is understood that the
rainers of a number of noted horses
re determined that the coveted mark
hall be reached before the sermon
nds.-San Francisco Chronicle.
Human Perspiration Poisonous.
Human perspiration, if injected into
ogs or rabbits, acts like a deadly
oison, according to M. Arloing's ex
eriments. Perspiration secreted dur
lg hard muscular work has more
jxic power than the ordinary kind,
hile that obtained from subjects who
?cretion has been, checked by cold is
A note of tho Bank of England,
visted into a kind of rope, eau sus
end as much as 329 pounds upon one
ad and not be injured.
he prea??vt day it oouid b.s adequacy ;
Prosed -J til '.'My -Detroit i
i o ur nui.
'Any-"What kind of people dp
jon have down here in the season?
Did Salt-"Well, sir, all kinds; some
veray common, some real gents and
adies, an' some like yerself, sir, 'alf
The Correct Idea: Weary Willie
'Ef you hed a million dollars, Fields,
vot would you do wit' it?" Flowery
fields-"Wy, I wouldn't do nutt'n'
vit' it-I'd jest rest easy and let it do
The Professor's Soliloquy: "Yes,
ny memory is certainly getting better,
'sow T remember distinctly enough
hat my wife tord me to tie a string
.bout this finger. Ii I only could
hink what for!"-Judge.
A political speaker accused a rival
if "unfathomable meanness," and
hen, risiug to the occasion,' said, "I
rarn^iim not to persist in his disgrace
ul course, or he'll find that two of us
:au play at that game!"-Tit-Bits.
Ruth-"I understand Percy High
ife has stopped trying to trace back
lis family tree. I suppose the further
>aok he went the harder it pot?"
.?"reddy-"Yes-and the further back
ie went the harder his ancestors got,
"Papa," said Billy, tearfully, after
i playful romp with the good-natured
mt rather rough St. Bernard puppy,
'I don't believe Biugo knows what
dud of a dog he is. He plays as if
ie thought he was a little pug."
larper's Bazar. '
"I hear you are about to build a
ine residence," said Mr. Teuspot to
dr. Crewe Doyle. ''Yes, sirce," re
died tho man of newly-found wealth.
'It is going to have a piazzaro in the
ront and a Porto Rico in the rear."
Philanthropist-"I am surprised
hat a lady of your refinement and
[ood impulses should wear a dead
)ird upon herhat." Tho Offending
)ne-"But then, you see, a live bird
could fly away unless it were tied on,
mi I that would be cruel, you know."
Thc Comfod Philosopher: "There
s no doubt," said the oracular and
lumptious neophyte, "that the way to
, man's affections is through his stom
,ch." ' "And yet," said the Cornfed
'hilosopher, "it is not man who ex
lects ico cream and.such to be bought
or him."-Indianapolis Journal.
Quinine and other fe
ver medicines take from S
to IO days to cure fever.
Johnson's Chill and Fever
Tonic cures in ONE DAV.
Toads Waylay Boes.
"I found out something last night
that makes me feel silly, and I've
learned a little lesson in natural his
tory that I shall not soon forget," said*
S. V. Hall. "Every night," explain
ed Mr. Hall, "when I have gone out
about sundown to shut the hen house,
I have noticed a large toad sitting in
front of one of my hives of bees, the
one nearest the walk, andlwas careful
not to molest him because I have al
ways protected toads on my place on
account of their usefulness in destroy
ing troublesome insects. I stopped
to watch and I soon learned all about
it. The hive, under which they bur
rowed in cool retirement in the day
time and in front of which they took
tip sentinel positions in the early even
ing, stood on the ground with only a
board between it and the sod. The
board projected in front of the hive
about three inches, so as to afford the
bees a convenient place for alighting.
While I watched the bees arriving
home Issi night, heavily laden with
honey, I saw those two toads shoot
out their long, slim, slimy tongues and
capture every bee. I did not wait to
see them eat many before I killed
them both. I dissected one and found
his stomach full of bees whole and
others in various stages of digestion.
I estimated that those winking, blinl^
ing toads have been devouring fifty 01
sixty a day. I had supposed the bees*
stings would protect them from sucha
Johnson's Chill and Fe
ver Tonic is a ONE-DAY
Cure. It cures the most
stubborn case of Fever in
The Boston Transcript is responsi
ble for a new view of ihe mosquito,
and while we slap and rub this sum
mer we may keep in muid these four
truths which it is declared science has
First. A mosquito oannot live in air
from malarial poison. Untainted
s* "S ?-. or' U.r., i- ;?
./ pave?te v.-; he
0 K; .*ci 1 ?i i : u . w?2>ntct?fc???
;*?v... .r.'? lymph* wliie!. .
Lhrt'righ EU ant-M?c**-: -V-'---- >:>>.:;.. j.."
. .'.< ?.?'; ?t?*wb?9C?Sj ?ti?iaxhS ?'. * ?
1 . * .' . i-' v -' ^"^.r'jv.'-.iu??.
v . . . . .. ...:^v? :. > ??
lows bun.a.; biv?d; . : .. ..
Lift f*;?it body becomes di ..
tmu. o>.t.-, V. 'ti'. ?Xi ? '
by the discoloration of the lymph in
contact with the blood and the muscu
lar efforts of inserting the probe..
Fourth. A mosquito will never in
sert its lancet in a person not suscepti
ble to malaria. In this respect its
sense is more accurate than the most
skilled and experienced pathologist.
This also proves, not only its unerring
instinct, but that it never wounds un
necessarily. Its thrusts are those of
? skilled and humane surgeon, and
sven more unselfish, for hope of a
fee never quickens him, nor does the
.malediction of his patient deter him in
'alfilment of his duty.
Johnson's Chill and Fe
ver Tonic is a ONE-DAY
Cure. It cures the most
stubborn case of Fever ia
"High Water Bill" Moorhead.
William H. Moorhead, better known
luring later years as "High Water
Sill," has just died at his home in
Pembina, North Dakota, after an ill
less of six months. This sobriquet
ie gained by his numerous prophecies
LS to just how high the water in the
3ed River would rise each year, and, .*
>e it said, his predictions were usually
lot far astray. As an incident in this
ine it is said that this spring, before
he snow melted, as he was lying in
lis bed on the lower floor of his
louse, talking "high water" to a vis
tor, he reached down about half way
n one of his bed posts and said:
'You'll see the water up to this spot
rhen the snow melts,"and his predic
iou was verified. He refused to be
arried up stairs until the water came
u on the floor.
Mr. Moorhead was a typical fron
iersmau and a general favori.j. The
listory of the Red River valley wonld
ie far from complete without an inter
sting reference to a man who was
mown far and wide for his genial
ood nature and interesting stories of
he pioneer life in the northwest.
?t. Paul Pioneer Press.
Why take Johnson's
Chill & Fever Tonic?
Because it cures the
most stubborn case
vf Fever in ONE DAY.
"Every man needs a wife to brighten
ip the place."
"Yes; but suppose he hasn't any
NOT QUALIFIED TO SAY.
Wilton-Do you agree with David,
hat all men are liars ?
Wilby-How can I tell ? Just think
?f the number of awn that I never
law ! ,
A NATURAL MISTAKE.
The seashore boarder was accosted
n the dark lane leading to the hotel
>y a man with a gleaming revolver.
"Hands up !" shouted the thug.
"Oh, I say, landlord," replied the
warder, "you're not going to collect
ill my week's up. are you ?"