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EDGEFIELD, S. C., WEDNESDAY, SEPTEMBER 25, 1901.
?TO Mil? lllllll MMLa
THE OLIMPIA MILL
? Largest Cotton Factor
More than a Million Dollars Invested
in a Great Enterprise-One
Plant Operating More than
100,000 Spindles - The
Unskilled and Un
HOST MODERS ADD UP-TO-DATE MW,
PLANT Di TBE COOMT.
JBvery Convenience and Comfort
Offered Mill Help-A Happy
~"?nd Contented Family.
The climax of cotton mill development
in this State for the century just closed
was reached in the Olympia Co:toa Mill. It
stands out conspicuously as the highest
type ot, mill construction In this country,
and ls pronounced by competent mill peo
ple to be the most complete, up-to-date and
promising cotton manufacturing plant in
the country, it reprer:?iis tb? type of
Wbaley mills, all of which are successful.
It Is without doubt the largest cot..',
mill under a single Toof In the entire South
ern States, and competent Judges announce
that lt Is the most complete mill plant in
this country, and no nation is ahead of
this country in the cotton mill business.
People hear end know that the Olympia
.Mill is the largest in the South, but they
may not know, nor do they think, of what
combinations go to make this magnificent
structure what it is.
Think of a single cotton mill consuming
15,000 bales of cotton.
It will employ, when all machinery is In
stalled and in operation, more than 1,200
AN AVENUE OP OP
jj hits the most modern and improved
machinery an<3? wlt? the new antt" up-to
date macWllnery? operatives can readily
earn morl* than tfley would In old plants
with antlfluated equipment.
It has t??best class and most up-to-date
homes for \s operatives.
It is on thV direct line of the Columbia
Electric Strekt Railway, and within a few
minutes* rld?j of the heart of the city.
It is near fnough to the city to give all
the advantag^and pleasures of the city
It will build a $20,000 school building for
the children of its operatives and support
the school of Its own accord and out of its
It offers the best school and church op
portunities to its help.
It is a mill operated, owned and man
aged by South Carolinians, who have the
same sentiments, purposes and feelings as
those who do the work.
It has lavished money in instating the
most thorough sanitary arrangeme.u in
the mill and its village.
It employs a mill physician, whose ?r.
vices are at thc cali of employees without
The wages are full and the piece work a
an other classes permit better inconvj
than usual, because of the Improved fad
sties and new machinery.
The pl?rrt ls operated throughout with
electricity. The expectation is to soon ofter
electric lights to all of the operatives for
The pictures Indicate the neat and at
tractive homes that are provided for -the
help. ' -
ABOUT THE MILL, BUILDING.
Something of the giant mill itself: The
mill building of the Olympia Mill is 553
feet 2 inches long ?.nd 151 feet 2 inches
wide, and contains four floors and a base
'. ment, each story being 18 feet high.
There are two towers about .24 hy 22 feet
and 139 feet 6 inches high, containing the
stairways and the tanks for the sprinkler
Adjoining the rear wall of the mill at the
middle ls a machine shop and in the fear
of this ls the engine and holler rooms. The
engine room being 120 hy 50 feet, and the
boiler house 140 by 40 feet in plan. In the
rear of the latter is the building for the
mechanical draft plant. The first floor of
the building is devoted to opening bales
and weaving; the second floor to weaving,
slashing, spooling and warping; the third
to carding, drawing and lapping, and the
J fourth floor to spinning. Communication
between the floors Is also afforded by two
Otis electric elevators driven hy alternat
' ihg-current motors.
The mill will operate 104,000 spindles and
the latest Draper looms have been put into
the mill. The total number of looms to be
operated will be 2,400 40-Inch looms.
The electric equipment at the mill com
poses everything that has been construct
ed by electrical or mill engineers. It Is by
odds the most thorough that has yet been
By using electricity the cost of'the mill
I buildings was reduced by 10 per. cent on
account of the absence of heavy transverse
walls through the mill, necessary for the
head shafts at the beltway, with the belt
and shafting system. Sixty-one per cent
of the shafting cost was saved by. the use
of electricty. Three-inch shafting ls the
largest in the building. Sixty-six per cent
of the cost of the belts and ropes was
saved with the electrical system. The sav
. ing due to these three items waa sufficient,
lt is said, to more than'pay for tho cost
of the electrical equipment of the mill.
Part of the electrical generating plant Is
s used'to light the town and also to run a
.s htreet railway. The maximum power re
L *Ured by the mill ia about 3,600-horse
The generating pl?nt consists of three
McIntosh & Seymour engines, each of a
normal rating of 1,600-horse power, capable
of developing a maximum of 2,000-horse
power, directly connected to alternating
The engines are of the vertical cross
compound condensing type, with cylinders
20 and 48 inches in diameter, and a stroke
of 42 inches. The cylinders are steam
Jacketed, and a reheating receiver is placed
PLENTY OF PURE "WATER. : I
The water supply 1 for the mill comes
from a spring-fed reservoir of some 800,000
gallons' capacity,? which riso supplier the
mill village with its drinking water.
The mill ls heated by two 14-foot electri
cally driven Sturtevant fans, blowing air
through horizontal ducts along the front
and rear walls of the mill, as shown In the
half plan and section of the mill build
The mill architecture Is Imposing and
the structure is beautiful. Considerable
money was expended in beautifying the
building and every possible convenience ls
provided in and around the mil. The
closets and wash rooms are finished in
marble and mosaics, and elevators are
at hand for the operatives. A J,000-pound
Schane bell ls In one of the towers and
with beautiful tone strikes the hours, and
in the second tower there is a standard
The officers of the mill company are:
President, W. B. Smith Whaley.
Vice president. W. A. Clark.
General manager, J. S. Moore.
Secretary and treasurer, W. H. Rose.
Superintendent, F. S. Barnes.
A SUBJECT OP PRIDE.
The mill was constructed on the plans
of W. B. Smith Whaley & Co, the most
successful mill engineers In the South.
This firm has left its deep imprint on thc
Industrial development of the South, and
especially in South Carolina. In'a recent
article it was stated that: "The record
of the firm is that of 539.C7C spindles, 14,660
looms and $8,500,000 capital in a working
period of seven years, unapproached by
any mill engineering firm in the South,
and should be a subject of pride to South
Carolina and to Columbia, as well as to
the members of the firm."
When we consider that In 1S80 the entire
State of South Carolina contained only
26 cotton mills, with 181,743 spindles, 13,418
looms and $4,084,000 capital, against this
aggregate for one young South Carolina
firm of 539,676 spindles, 14,560 looms and
: OLYMPIA' COTTON-MILL, COLUMBIA, S
$8,500,000 capital, vthei extent of Its con
structive achievem??ts'*' may be better
realized. ' -"
THE GENIUS-' OP W. B. SMITH
In.Columbia alone ?it has planted 197,000
spindles and 4,840 looms, or more than the
whole State had; twenty years ago, and
the capital employed In these mills-$3,100.
000-is : only less thah that required for
the smaller number of looms and spindles
in 1880, because of the greater economy
possible now in building the best mills.
I -It-ie proper-*s-?add- that Mr-Wba-toy-is
I the president of all but the smallest of
j these four Columbia mills which he has
I planned, and which, with 191,000 spindles,
j 4.G20-?OGiua and $3,000.000 capital, represents
i the largest cotton manufacturing invest
ment in the South and one of the largest
in the United States.
Ai? example of his far-sightedness and
quiok business perception may be noted
In c'onnectlon with the electrical installa
tion of the Olympia Mills. As soon as the
I electrical transmission of power had been
I definitely determined upon for that mill
and its location determined, he at once
purchased the existing electric crar lines
of the city, also the electrical lighting
? business, and will furnish the power and
; current from the Olympia; also provide
1 cicctricity for the other mills. The re
1 sultant economies will not only be factors
in the net earnings of tho railway and
lighting systems, but will also add an
appreciable net Income to credit of the
OLYMPIA'S GREATNESS ACKNOWL
Last April, when the great Olympia Mill
was started up, lt was examined by a
number of the leading cotton mill officers
In the country, men who lead in the cotton
industrial movement. One of these was
! Capt Manning, of the Amoskeag Company,
who said: "The Olympia was the finest
structure of the sort he had ever seen.
He was glad the Olympia was not a com
petitor of the Amoskeag Company."
Mr Richardson, of Massachusetts, said
that the Olympia Mill was, in his opinion,
the finest cotton mill In thc world-the
finest in architecture and equipment-and
he said thjs with a full realization of what
he was saying, as he was connected with
New England mills.
Not long ago Mr H. E.. C. Bryant
made a trip through the mill territory
and made disinterested and impartial in
quiries and wrote a series of articles on
the result of his Inquiries in the various
mills in this State and North Carolina,
? ONE OF! THE OLYMPIA HOMES*
and here ls an Interesting summary
one of his letters:
"In passing through a mill settlemi
some weeks ago I stopped at the home
a middle-aged man who had five childi
working in the mill. He lives In a s
room, two-story house. I met him so
distance from lils house; I said: "I wt
to see how you people live. I would ll
to go in some home where several childi
live.' He started in a jiffy and said
ho walked: 'Come and go In my hou
I have five children, but they are in I
mill.' Entering the house from the jj
wc went through the dining room into
bed room, and then into the parlor. T
old gentleman was proud of the pari
He threw back the window curtains a
pointed to the large pictures on the wa
They were paintings from photographs
his children. The floor of the room w
carpeted and in one corner was an orga
Prom kitchen to garret the house w
clean. When mine host had seen me
the door he said: 'I farmed on rented la;
before I came here, but I could not fe
my family there now. I like the ll
here. I like my employers. They tre
us well If we behave in like manner t
ward them. If we misbehave they tu
us out and get others in our stead. Wh<
I moved here the superintendent warn
me against drinking. He said that 1
would have Hone but sober help. I
meant what he said, for I have not se<
a dri'rken man on the hill since I can
here two years ago. My children are
good health and seem satisfied. We a
all contented. All of us belong to tl
Church and attend regularly.'
"I went from house to house and heai
the same story. Indeed, there Is no prol
lem at the best mills between capital ar
labor, for the mill owners and operatlvi
dwell in harmony.
The various religious denominations 1
thc mill sections aro doing a great deal ft
the factory element intheSouth. Preac^ei
call on the operatives and their fnmlll<
at their homes. Churches are built an
preaching and Sunday-school conducted i
nearly every mill. Within the last fh
years in the South much has been dor
for the betterment of the condition of tl
cotton mill help. The work is till golr
"No one who knows the facts, as an
one can learn by going to the mills, ca
doubt that the people who work In th
coton mills of the South are far better o
in every way than ever before.
"Such are the conditions in all the Care
Mr E. G. Dunncll, an experienced news
k V/ ?'.'.' : riv' : ' '?''?.
paper man on the editorial staff of the
New York Times, visited the South and
made a careful study of the mill situation,
and in one of his letters recently to his
paper this New York writer had this to
say, among other things:
"While the owners and stockholders are
making money they are conferring per
manent blessings upon the people. As in
other towns where new mills have de
manded increasing numbers of operatives
shops have started to- supply the needs of
operatives or those who were employed in
new,industries called forth because of the
coming: of a laboring population. Stores
have been obliged to carry large and more
varied stocks. There is more travelling
by rail. It is a matter af. dally occurrence
that among the passengers who overcrowd
the trains of the Southern Railway there
are inquirers arriving at various points
to look over the land with the view of set
tling, either as persons already concerned
in cotton manufacturing or hoping to be,
or tradesmen seeking a new market.
"The country is beautiful. It is charm
ing to the eye; it ls naturally healthful,
and in the towns will be more healthful
with a little criticism and sanitation. The
summers are long and the winters brief
and unusually mild.
"But it is not alone In the coming of the
trolley, the expansion of the shops, the
paving of streets In towns, the sanitation
or all places of la: ge population, the sen
sation of earning money with a regularity
and c?rtalnty never before enjoyed in the
section, that occasion for rejoicing is
found In South Carolina. Attention was
directed by a thoughtful and observant
citizen to a sociological phase of the in
dustrial development that is most satis
factory, and that it seems a pity could not
be extended in some way to the State of
"When Columbia began to build mills,
and the operation of the mills had made a
perceptible drain upon the most conven
ient and willing class of the population
that was fitted to work in the mills, that
drain was felt a little at points more or
less remote from Columbia. Men and wo
men who had yearned to.' opportunity to
get money without digging or hoeing for
it. moved from the foothill.?- into town,
first into places vacated by the people who
moved earliest, and afterward, as tho
mills began to rise nearer to the hills, into
the manufactories elsewhere.
EFFECT OF PROSPERITY.
"Most of these people were of the real
hardy mountaineer sort, with the same
soft, deliberate courteous address that ls
characteristic of all the mountaineers in
the Virginias, the Carolinas. Tennessee or
Kentucky They brought with them stal
wart frames, .?Imple appetites and Igno
rance of letters. But they were not al
together at fault for that. They had not
been treated as wards of the State. There
was a moving down from the" mountain
districts into a region where there were
schools and stores and churches of a
proud but earnest and ambitious multi
[ tude that had gotten along without these
things simply because all their neighbors
had done likewise for years. But tho
pride that had been satisfied In the moun
tains and back country made them ambi
tious to keep up with the order of things
in the region to which they had migrated.
The children must b? clothed like other
children; the wife must not be compelled
to live in a sun bonnet.
SCHOOLS FOR ALL.
"The public schools were at once patron
ized by children who might have devel
oped like their parents if it had not beer?
for the building of new cotton mills. New
needs demanded money to gratify them.
The sun of civilization was rising.
"In many respects this is the very best
result of the industrial awakening in
South Carolina. The mill towns are bound
to become centres of intelligence, taste, de
veloping appetite for necessary and luxu
rious surroundings, and. with the passing
of years 'and the accumulation of means,
groups of the owned homes of thousands
who came to the towns penniless and igno
rant, and have been by industry and thrift
converted into law-abiding, temperate, in
dependent and self-respecting Americans."
All that Mr Dunnell has to say is correct,
but more so here, as the mill owners real
ize that the best help Is that which Is best
paid and given the greatest of home com
forts, and that ls the purpose of the Olym
"WORK ALL THE TEAR ROUND.
Operatives in the South can and do work
all the year round if they wish to and lt
is not here as it is up in the New England
States, that the cold weather interfere*
with work for several months in each year.
THE BEST OF OFFICERS. '
The Olympia Cotton Mill has collected
all the best things that are to be had. It
has the finest mill building, the finest ma
chinery, the latest looms, spindles cud
other machinery, but the policy of the mid
has been and is to put the most expe
rienced men at the head of the various de
partments. President W. B. Smith Whaley
knows the mill business from the ground
floor up. He worked his way from the bot
tom to the topmost rung of the ladder,
and so General Manager J. S. Moore has
been brought up in the mill business, and
knows Its every detail, and so on down the
line, and j that is why its management is
anxious tb secure unskilled help and train
the workers with the skilled and compe
tent help now used. It is a matter of but
a'short time-a very short time-before the
new help can and does earn as much aa
any in the miris. At Olympia there will be
room for all.
THE BEST PEOPLE AT WORK.
There are to-day thousands of the best
people In South Carolina who are working
in the mills, and who are delighted that
they change. Families who had been
mere toilers and eked out an existence are
to-day living- comfortably in mill communi
ties; their children have the best of school
facilities; they^have the best of church op
portunities, and when pay-day comes
around they and their working* family re
ceive the'r pay and can and do put aside
money. Families who. worked under the
Hen system and were constantly in debt,
and that debt growing month by month
and year by year, finally abandoned farm
ing and the debt basis, and went into tho
mills with their grown children and soon
enjoyed comfortable and regular incomes.
It is the constant aim of such corpora
tions as the Olympia to have competent
and happy help, and to have a healthy and
satisfied community, and to that end ev
erything possible has been, and is being,
done for the health and pleasure of the
There ls no healthier community than
that at the Olympia Mill. The company
has an exceptional sewerage and drainage
system; all garbage is carted away by the
garbage carts owned by the mill. The
company has employed a competent, well
known physician, whose business and
pleasure it is to attend to every medical
want of the operatives at the expense of
thc mill company.
The management is desirious of having
tho very best class of operative^ to live in
their village and to work in the mill. As
the mill is just starting up this enormous
plant, the company will require several
hundred families to give it the full num
ber of operatives. The mill, therefore, is
offering to receive "green" help and to
teach them io work in the factors.
Anyone desiring to investigate with a
view of accepting this offer, can. get all the
information, such as regards to wages of
the different kinds of work, etc, by writ
ing to the superintendent of the Olympia
Mills, or any of the mill officials, at Colum
bia, S. C.
Columbia offers a great many advantages
to people moving into the city. Its fine
I churches and fine schools give to those
[ persons living in Columbia advantages not
possessed by a good many other localities.
The mills are all locaud on the street
car line, making them very accessible to
any part of the city.
A good many families in the past have
moved in from their farms to work in the
factories here. They seem to be perfectly
satisfied and In many Instances have bet
tered their condition considerably.
The mill officials will be glad to commu
nicate with any parties desiring to come to
the mills for the purpose of working in
thom, and are satisfied that the opportuni
ties are such as to satisfy them.
The story of the Olympia Cotton Mill ls
one of intense interest to every Carolinian,
and when one thinks it will bo realized
how very intimately the cotton mills of
the State are as%iclated with the industrial
development of the State,