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THE NATIONAL BANK OF AUGUSTA
L. C. HATNB, Prws't. F. O. ?ORD, Cashier.
ia pi tal, $250,000.
Undivided Profit? } ?110,000.
Facilities of ?ur magnificent New Vivnlt
Containing 410 Safety-Lock Boxes. Differ
ent Sizes are offered to our patrons and
Ute public at $3.00 to *:0.0O per annum.
EDGEFIELD, S. C.. WEDNESDAY, SEPTEMBER 17. 1902.
L. C. Ha jae,
Chas, C. Howard,
Captain James Richmond was ush
ered into the room in silence, and the
door closed after him. It was not the
first time by a good many that he had
crossed the threshold, but he had not
before had any dealing with the pres
ent home secretary.
"Captain Richmond?" the secretary
queried with a quick scrutiny of the
face of his visitor, who returned the
look as he inclined his heat?. "Sit
down, sir. I am pleased to meet you.
I understand that you were commis
ioncd by my predecessor to inquire
into the abuses in connection with the
control of Blackenham prison, and that
your inquiry was entirely successful.
I believe"-with a smile-"that you
were sentenced to four years, and
were liberated on a ticket-of-leave by
order of my predecessor, after eight
months' incarceration. Have you since
reported yourself to the police, as you
are bound to by the conditions of the
ticket to do?"
"No," Captain Richmond replied, "I
have not reported myself."
"Good," returned the secretary, "that
will facilitate matters. I wish you, if
you are at liberty, and not disinclined
to return to prison life, to enter Shash
nal prison, and see if you can get to the
root of the mystery there. If you care
to take up the matter, and are success
ful," you will not find this office un
grateful. When will you be rc?'iy for
"The day after tomorrow, if that will
"Very well. Be in Chandos street
oetween 3 and 4 o'clock on Wednesday
morning, with a chisel and a few other
handy burglar's tools in your pockets.
Sergeant Crame will be there to ar
rest you, as before. I will arrange
that you serve your sentence at Shash
"How shall I commuunicate with
"One of the visiting justices will
make a point of seeing you privately
whenever he visits Shashnal," the sec
retary replied. "You will say only as
little as necessary to the justice; what
ever you tell him I shall know the same
day, so that if you will be able to see
me with very little delay. Have I
made by wishes clear?"
"Perfectly so, sir."
"Is there anything I can do for you?"
"Nothing, unless you can expedite
my arrival at Shashnal. I am itching
to get there."
"You are interested, eh? Well. I
cannot do much to expedite your sen
tence, but what can be done judicious
ly shall, I promise you. Tho prelimi
naries must, of course, be extremely
annoying. I may add," the secretary
said, holding out his hap,p\ '?if vou car- I
gftjflo? ?J"?UI?U?1UUJ li
you may rely upon any influence I may
have in the matter of a queen's mes
sengership, for which I see your name
has been down some considerable
"I'll get to the root of the matter,"
Captain Richmond muttered, as he
walked toward the Strand, "if it has a
root'" * * .
"Thirty-nine! Do you call that the
way to roll your bcd?"
"What's the matter with it?"
"No back questions, please!" shouted
the warden, "or, as sure as your name's
'Arris I'll dock your grub! Roll that
bed, now, or- report! Next time,
He slammed the door to and went
down th? corridor.
Thirty-nine smiled blandly after him.
"When I get out of this and that
man is dismissed-and I'll take good
care he is-I'll waylay him and give
him one of the soundest hidings he ever
had. The question is, when shall I
get out of here? Five days of thc five
years f?one, and I don't see anything
queer. Still there's a decent balance
left f jr discoveries."
Th"! cell door swung open and an
othe" warden looked in.
"Thirty-nine, talking! Won't do, my
' Saying my prayers," replied Thirty
"Say 'em to yourself, my lad!
And the door slammed to again.
Early in the evening of the same day
the head warden looked into cell thirty
"All right?" he inquired genially, as
he locked Thirty-nine carefully over
"Yes, thank you," the convict re
sponded with some surprise
"Fell yourself as comfortable as at
Blackenham? 'Orrid 'ole, Blackenham!
Nearly as bad for the officers as the
prisoners. Was there four years my
Thirty-nine pricked up his ears
"My name's Williams," the warden
continued with increasing affability.
"Remember me? No? Well, p'r'aps
not. Can't say i remember you. But
we see so many new faces while you
don't, so I thought you might remem
ber me. Stop, though. Weren't you
in for coining at Blackenham? 'Ouse
breakin, eh? Well, well, every man
to 'is trade. But I seemed to connect
your face with a prisoner we 'ad for
coinin' on a large scale-quite a small
mint 'e'd been. Sure you never tried
your 'and at coinin'? No? Well, well,
it must 'ave been my fancy, then.
Somebody something like you, I sup
"What did he come for?" Thirty
nine asked himself. "Clearly he had
some definite object. I must cultivate
my friend Williams.
But Williams did not show himself
again for some days, and then adopted
an entirely different manner.
Thirty-nine had been in Shasnal pris
on about three weeks, when the jus
tices paid their usual visit. He had
not long to wait for his own call.
A tall, thin, lawyer-like man entered
the cell, dismissed Williams with a
gesture, and turned to the convict. He
dr*w Thirty-nine to the further end
of gie cell.
"I am directed by the home office to
carry any communications you have
to make," he said, in a whisper. "I
have pen and paper, if you want to
write. But be prompt."
%%%%%%%%%% %%%%%% vj
Thirty-nine took the sheet of note
paper and the fountain pen, and
wrote a few hurried lines:
"I want a complete list cf convic
tions against prisoners 78 and 24, now
here; also any other facts bearing upon^
the nature of their crimes. Sooner,
the better. Convey through chaplain,
who is honest."
He dried the note on the slip of
blotting paper between thc leaves and
handed it to the justice.
A moment later he was alone in his
"It sounds a wild notion, I must ad
mit," he thought, "a very wild notion.
Perhaps I am wrong. But it is queer
that 24 and 7S are never at labor, and
that they alone are never taken near
the governor's house. There may be
a dozen reasons for it, and it may have
no possible connection with Williams'
first visit to me, but there is something
radically wrong and 1 sec no other
peg on which to hang my suspicion
than the privileges of these two men
and what Williams said to me. He has
never given me or anyone in my hear
ing a civil word or look since."
Thirty-nine had to wait until the
next visit from the justices for his an
swer from the home office, and in the
meantime he had discovered little that
supported his suspicions. But the let
ter the justice brought him gave him
the utmost satisfaction.
It gave a list of convictions against
the two prisoners whom Thirty-nine
had inquired about. Starting as a boy,
with petty larceny, Seventy-eight had
turned to burglary, purse snatching,
long-firm frauds and coining.
Twenty-four, a younger man.was the
son of the notorious "Jim Crow." His
first conviction was for stealing lead
piping from an empty house. He was
known to have assisted his father in
and, upon the death of "Jim Crow" in
herited ?2000 or ?3000, with which
he started himself as a bookmaker.
He lost his money, and was mobbed for
"welshing" at the Liverpol meeting in
18-. Next he w?s arrested for at
tempting to pass bad money in Not
tingham, where a large quantity of
base coin had been circulating for a
period which corresponded with the
length of time he had been in the town.
Later he was sentenced to four years
for passing base coins.
"Any message to take back? You
had better not keep this paper," said
"No. Will you return it to the of
fice? I will write a message hack."
He took a pencil from his visitor, and
"Endeavor to trace movements of
every coiner who .has passed through
here-movements since they left. Want
the cell of Thirty-nine and threw
down upon the pallet a bundle of
clothes. They were Chose in which
Thirty-nine had entered the prison.
"You've got to change an' come to
the governor's," he said.
Thirty-nine changed and followed
the warden down the corridor, across
the central hall, into the governor's
The governor sat at his table, and
two men in ordinary clothes stood by.
"You're transferred to Portland,
Thirty-nine, under an order from the
home office," said the governor. "These
officers are here to fetch you. If you
give me your word not to molest them
or attempt to escape you shall not be
"I won't get up to no game, sir, and
thank you," Thirty nine replied.
He was struck by the fact that his
escort were in plain clothes. But it
occurred to him that prisoners were not
then conveyed from prison to prison
in their convict dress, as had been the
rule, and it was therefore only consist
ent that wardens should not be in their
uniform, or the spirit of the reform
would be lost.
His custodian ushered him into a fly
that was waiting in the prison yatjd,
and. as they took their seats facing
him, the elder man smiled, and said
"I expect you can see through
"I think so," Thirty-nine replied.
"We shall take you to the station, if
you've no objection, or the the driver
may smell a rat. There is a first-class
to London, and two sovereigns I was
instructed to hand you for your re
They alighted at the station and
passed through the booking lobby.
"That is your train waiting, sir,"
said the second officer, "so we'll wish
you a respectful good morning. We're
not returning till a later train."
"Good morning," replied Captain
Richmond, as the train moved out of
Arrived at the metropolitan termi
nus, ex-Thirty-nine got into a hansom
and drove away to his chambers. An
hour later, attired in a smart morning
suit, he was shaking hands with the
"You were fn y to get out," the
secretary said, with a deprecating
smile. "I'm afraid you cannot have
discovered much in the time."
"I don't think I could have learnt
mor? had I remained," Richmond re
sponded. "I have drawn some surpris
ing conclusions, and thc test must be
put from outside. I have only to wait
now for thc reports concerning the
movements of coiners who have passed
"Here are thc- records of three cases.
I can get others for you, if neccsasry.
Why you pick upon coiners I don't
"On the other hand, these records,"
Richmond returned, a slight color
mounting to his face, "appear to con
firm my suspicions. Does it not strike
you as being strange, sir, that each of
these men left tho country almost im
mediately upon being released from
Shasnal? I note one went to Australia,
where he bought a small farm, which
he has since successfully cultivated?;
another went to America, where he
quickly ran through a sum of money
which was considerable for a man of
his position, and then turned his atten
tion to forgery; the last went out to
Durban, bought the good will of a
small public house, and drank hlmseTt
to death. In this taste for emigratio?,
which seems to have been inculcated a*.
Shasnal to one convicted for coining,
I seem to see a groat deal to suppor ',
"Which are?" interorgated the sec
"That there is a secret mint a<
"Preposterous!" the minister ejacu
lated. "A mint in one of her
esty's prisons? Dear, dear! You must
think of something more likely-moro
"Pardon me; but I cannot think of
anything more possible to a man io
the governor's position, who had the
instincts of an enterprising criminal.
He has every facility-immunity from I
raids, unlimited strong cells, which j
could readily be turned into work
shops, a pretty regular succession of
skilled coiners, whose assistance could j
be bought for leniency and a little
money to start them on their release
from prison, and whose secrecy could
be absolutely relied upon."
"Looked at like that, it appea.-s pos
sible; but it is rather risky to base
conclusions upon mere possibilities,"
the secretary replied, with quiet cyni
"I don't-at least, not entirely. War
der Williams attempted to discover
whether I had done any coining. He
vas remarkably genial until he learned
that I had not, when he beenme surly
almost to brutality. He was remark
ably genial to Seventy-eight and Twen
ty-four, who were the only men in
Shashnal who had any coining. These
two men were ne,cr in the labor yard.
Why? They always looked pictures of
health. Time after time I saw them
enter or leave the entrance of the base
ment cells, at the side of the governor's
house, which were condemned three
years ago as unhealthy."
"Ah! we have something tangible
in the use of the condemned basement
cells," the secretary said thoughtfully.
"That matter shall be inquired into at
once. The best thing you can do is
to send in your report, Captain Rich
mond, and then we can duly consider
He rose, blandily, and held out his
Next day Captain Richmond received
a check for his services. He tore it up
in disgust, and then wished he had not.
He was still debating in his mind
whether he could ask for another check
when he received an official document
appointing him a queen's messenger.
For a time he was puzzled to know
why he had been appointed. But he
was not kept long in the dark, for he
was called to the home office, where
the secretary graciously apologized for
having scouted the coining theory.
Two prison commissioners had visited
Shashnal to inquire why the basement
cells were being used. It was denied
that such was the case. The commis
sioners demanded to look over the
basement. No one.,knew where" the
tiling was overruled and the basement
opened by force.
"Discoveiies were made which left
ro doubt that your conclusion was only
too accurately drawn," sai l Hie secre
tary, hovering between confidence and
reticence. "Thc governor resigned bc
lore the commissioners Jc-itj and the
deputy governor was appointed as a
stop-gap. The same evening a raid
v,as made upon a pawnbroker's shop
in Mile End, kcal ny Warder Williams'
bi other, and between ?400 and ?500
of base coin was found there. Strange
to say, the police have been interested
in that shop for some time, owing to
the frequent complaints of sailors, who
largely frequent it, that bad money
had there been foisted upon them. The
business was an excellent medium for
passing the . coins. We are inquiring
what other methods were also adopted.
Considerable changes will be made at
Shashnal, but it is undesirable that
the matter should become public
knowledge," the secretary concluded.
"The profits appear to have been very
considerable, and the coins are really
masterpieces of their kind."
TOO MUCH FOR HIS PHILOSOPHY.
A ramble for Those Who Approach Ques
tions from the Vf rone .Sid?.
A Virginian member of congress
used many years ago to tell a story
which may have been intended as a
parable fer politicians who approach
questions from the wrong side. It is
? till capable of performing that office,
not only for politicians, but for oth
The proprietor of a tanyard built
a stand on one of the main streets of
'a Virginia town for the purpose of
selling leather and buying raw hides.
When he had completed the build
ing, he considered for a long time
what sort of a sign to put up to at
tract attention to the new establish
ment. Finally a happy thought
struck him. He bored an augur hole
through the door post and stuck a
calf's tail into it with the tufted end
After a while he saw a solemn-faced
nan standing near the door looking
at the sign, his eyes in a round, medi
tative staro behind his spectacles. Thc
tanner watched him a minute, then
stepped out and addressed him.
"Good morning, sir!" he said.
"Morning!" said the other, without
taking his eyes off the sign.
"Want to buy leather?" asked tho
"Gol any hides to sell?"
"Are you a farmer?"
"What are you then?"
"I'm a philosopher. I've been stand
ing here for an hour trying to figure
out how that calf got through that
augur hoi?."-Youth's Companion.
,Jnv .nil? Kcoimmy.
Mama-Ethel, hov/ often have I told
you about leaving your crusts? There
may come a day when you'll be glad
to ger. them.
Ethel (demurely)-Yes, mamma;
that's what I'm saving them for.-New
By Day Alli
THE industry of killing and
packing beef, pork and mut
ton bas reached such; piopor
tions in Chicngo-^the giftest
centre o;' this industry in the -^rid
that the most modern processes have
been introduced for thc purpose of
economizing both time and labor,! as
well as utilizing all of the products of
the carcass. The Union Stock Yards,
where are located some of the4??jrest
packing plants, are the most extO-Jsive
in the world, having accommodations
for nearly 125,000 hops, 20,000' cattle
and 15,(00 sheep. Yearly . 3.000:000
cattle and 5,000,000 hogs are slaugh
tered ano converted into packinghouse
products in what is known ns jack
ing Town," which really forn?HB?fec
tion of the yards. A further .fi^R'te
of the e-ttent of the industry caa be
gained when it ls stated that the ?pace
devoted lo pons alone comprise?:; ?00
acres, while the yards are tr.vv^rsecl
by 150 nidos of railroad trae^nnd
twenty miles of streets, and the trvnghs
from which the liv? stock are fed and
watered aggregate seventy-five Jad?es
in length. v '^?ff
As far ns possible, machiner:?--has
been employed, with the resul^'cthnt
one of the large companies treats'7000
hogs In a day, where by hand lesfcthnn
ten per cent, ot this number caa be
disposed of. While the killing it^df is
still done by manual labor, the bulcher
has every appliance to furtiajrv his
work. Tlie drove of hogs, for Sam
ple, is passed from the yards. into
specially-shaped pens, thence f/&ced,
CUTTING TJP nOGS.
single file, into a compartment where
a large metal wheel revolves slowly
but continuously. An attendant seir;es
each of thc animals by one of the:hind
feet and fastens it to the wheel fby a
short chain. As it is lifted into the
air, the butcher with a thrust o? the
knife opens the throat; the work occu
pies but a second. The blood from
the carcass flows into a trough, which
passes on to vats, where it is kept until
utilized in the manufacture ot^fjvtll
izer. The carcass revolves,
into-the scraping-room, liere it passes
through D machine, provioed with re
volving blades, which removes most of
the bristles, preserving them so that
they can be later made into brushes.
The carcass is then passed into-a vat
or tank of boiling water, which softens
the balance of tho bristles so that they
can be easily removed by hand. From
this apartment it is conveyed by ma
chinery into thc chill-room, where it
remains for twenty-four hours before
being cut into sections.
The carcass, freed from blood and
bristles, is now ready for the cleaver,
who separates lt into the hams and
sides for bacon, and removes the fat,
which is to be converted into lard
and other products. The cutting is
done so dexterously that a few min
utes suffice for one man to separate
the hog into several portions. Then
the hams and bacon are placed in reser
voirs filled with a pickling composition,
of which each company has its own
formula. The other portions for pro
visions are placed in the salt-room,
where they remain from forty to sixty
days. The same length of time is re
quired also for the hams and bacon.
Following tlie pickling and salting
processes comes the smoking, which
is done in compartments where thou
sands of pieces can be cured at the
The lard is extracted, or tried, in
immense kettles heated by steam, and
while in the liquid state it is forced
through pipes into the packing-room,
the pails and other receptacles being
filled by merely opening valves con
nected with tho pipes. It is then al
lowed to cool and is ready for ship
ment. The pork sausage is also largely
a machine product, the meat being
chopped into fine particles by rapidly
revolving blades, and then forced into
skins made of tho intestines of the
hog. these intestinal skins being, of
course, first thoroughly cleaned by
machinery. A part of this machinery,
which is operated by compressed air,
will fill several feet of sausage-skin
in a few seconds. The links are made
by merely tying the skin with strings
in sections a few inches in length.
Before it is sent to market, sausage is
usually hung in the storehouse for a
few days to "season."
Except for fastening the hog to tho
wheel, the killing process, the cutting
into pieces, and fastening the pack
ages, tbc .animal passes through the
packing-house willi scarcely a touch of
thc hand. Sbeep are treated iu a some
what simiiar manuel, except that the
vareasses arc nut made into so many
products. When slaughtered they are
swung from the floor by chains fast
ened to the hind feet. The throat is
opened by the single thrust of the
knife, and the body is conveyed me
chanically into thc chill-room. It is
usually kept in this department forty
eight hours, when the hide is removed,
and It is cut into halves or quarters
as desired. Formerly the skins were
sold with the wool on, but thc puckers
DRESSED MEAT HUNG
have invented a process by which thc
wool "cnn be easily stripped from the
bide The wool is then cleaned thor
oughly in hot water, dried and packed
In bales to be shipped direct to the
cloth manufacturer, thc hide being
sold to the tanner. Thc mutton Intend
ed for shipment is usually phi ced in the
refrigero ting department, which may
contain 10,000 pieces at ono tune. Here
it can bc kept for an indefinite period,
os the air is maintained at an even
temperature by a refrigeration system
which extends to all portions of thc
department. When the time arrives
for shipment, the refrigerator cars can
be run Into the refrigerator compart
ments, and thc meat transferred with
out exposing it to the wann air. In
the modern method of killing cattle
the stunning process is still retained.
As the beeves are driven Into the
gangways in single file, men upon
elevated platforms knock them sense
less by a blow between the horns with
a heavy hammer quite similar in shape
to the implement used in spiking rail
road ties. As the animal falls a door
in the side of the gangway is opened,
allowing the carcass to slide to the
floor below, where it Is slaughtered.
Here the' transferring machine is at
?"TrrW^rr-naTcilled ItHtTlrts Oil its jbllHiey
through the several departments. First
comes the chill-room, then the com
partment where it is skinned. While
one man to'removing the bide, another
cuts off the bend .?md removes the
tongue, and another the feet. Next
it is halved or quartered in the cleav
ing-room, and cleaved ready for ship
ment to the centres ot' consumption,
either In this country or abroad. The
carcasses are usually left in halves,
being transferred to the cold storage
department, where, like the sheep, they
may be kept an indefinite period.
The beef alfords a much greater
variety of products than either tho
sheep or th? hog, although, as already
staled, every portion of the animals
is put to some use in the modern
process. The fat, boiled in large ket
tles, is resolved into oleo and st?arine,
oleo, or oil of the beef, forming the
basis of bntterinc and oleomargarine.
This and st?arine are utilized in some
of the soaps which are now manufac
tured. The blood is converted into
fertilizer, and also into buttons of a
cheap grade, which are now manufac
tured in Packing Town, within a
short distance of the slaughter-houses.
The hoofs, of course, are converted
into glue. In the fertilizer compound,
practically all of the offal of the beef
can now be utilized.
Within three or four years thc manu
facture of soaps and liquid fonds has
been undertaken on a very large scale
in connection with the Chicago pack
ing industry. Scores of products which
have* beef for tho basis are distilled,
refined and placed in bottles and jars
lu plants adjacent lo thc packing
houses. The principal concerns o?
Chicago manufacture Iheii own cans
Cor liquid and solid products, and owu
the factories for making boxes and
barrels, while one company operate*
n mill for makins bagging for hame.
As 100,000 packages may be filled ta n
week with liquid and solid food, tho
economy of this plan is apparent. Evefl
in the preparing of what is known aa
canned corned beef the tins are tilled
.u th the cooked meat by machinery,
the contents of each package being
molded so that they fit to a nicety.
After filling and soldering, the pack
age is placed in boiling water, then a
hole Is made in the top to allow the
gas to escape, and it is resoldered,
keeping the contents in good condition
for a period of years in any climate.
Tho trolley, system ls being used not
only in the abattoirs for transferring
IN A STORAGE ROOM.
the carcasses, but for the general trans
fer of packages and cars from one
point to another. Tho electric motor
hauls everything, from a truck to a
railroad car. The method used for
transferring the carcasses usually con
sists of an overhead bar or rail, along
which the trolley is moved, taking its
current from the wiring or a feeder.
To the trolley are attached short chains
ending in hooks, so that the animais
can be easily fastened to it. The "hog
kllling wheel." as it is termed, also
revolves by electric power.-Scientific
A Question of True Sport.
How shockingly brutal pigeon-shoot
ing would be if pigeons were about thia
XV htm tho Encl ls Near.
The following powerful description
of a drowning man's sensations is
quoted from Francis Howard Will
innis's story in the Lippincott, called
"Salt, water is running out of his nos
trils and his eyes are void of. all save
blackness and throbbing yellow spots
not all yellow-white and yellow; dais
ies, daisies! A field full of them. How
familiar is that old upland rounding
against tlie blue! He plucks a flower
for his hat hand and lifts his bare feet
high lest the sharp grass cut his toes,
boys in the country learn to be so
shrewd in these matters. Ah. a mead
ow-lark! It's a third of a century since
Dalrymple killed it with a stone, and
he wishes now that he hadn't. What a
pity. too. that ho didn't do the squ.'ie
thing in his settlement with G. Q. Jar
vis &. Co. last winter. He got them on
the hip iu the stock panic and broke
them np. Mrs. Jarvis was giving piano
lessons to keep the family afloat at last
accounts. Mr. Dalrymple thought how
he should like to send her a snug check
-if be could only get to his desk-his
desk with its neat inkstand and clean
blotting pad, which seemed so far off
" 'Tick, tick.' No. not that! The roll
of the organ, out from the chancel and
far down the nave-the long, with
drawing roar of the ebb.
"He was pushing hard against wat
fry masses, but his muscles quivered
and refused io act. What is this
strange impotence? The rushing in his
ears is as a sigh of God."
Tried Tlunn on tho Indians.
"When I was out in Oregon fifty
three years ago, said a pieasant-look
ing farmer, who has been in the red
raspberry business for twenty-five
years, "I first saw red raspberries
growing wild in the thickets and along
the edges of the wild Oregon roads.
They were saucer-shaped and not as
deep as thc modern berry-just like
those which still grow wild in Mich
igan. As the Oregon berries looked
tempting, I picked a lot in my hat, but
did not dare to eat them, as I did
not know whether they were poisonous
"On my way back to camp I met a
number of Indians whom I had seen
before, nud kucw to bc my friends; in
fact, they had taken such a fancy to
me that they ouee offered to adopt me
into the tribe. To these genial Indians
I presented my hatful of fresh red
raspberries, anti my joy was great
when they aro them all with relish.
After I hat. I aie ail 1 wanted.
'.In old New England, I understand,
they used to call tlie raspberry 'tlie
rhimblebcrry,' on account ol' its re
semblance to a woman's thimble."
Detroit 1'iee Press.
No Russian otticer may marry until
bc is twenty-three.
In Russia factories are usually near
forests, wood being still the chief fuel. I
Ninety per cent, OL' ?be 12S,000,UOO
people 01 tlie Russian empire atv farm
Vladivostok possesses ilk? only cre
matorium ?hil! ti ceil erected in ?hi
whole Ru sa ?un en ip ir
Clll'PixR \tork Llorac*.
Whether or not it pays to clip work
horses, was 'tested at the Michigan ex
periment station and reported in a
recent bulletin. The conclusions were
not as definite as might be desired. The
station, however, believes that the
horses which were clipped did their
work with much greater comfort in
early spring than those which were not
clipped. This of course means a great
deal when animals are at work pre
paring land for spring crops. They
clipped horses always look better.
Object or Corn Cultivation.
The Object of Corn Cultivation is
three-fold: To destroy weeds, to con
serve moisture and to make available
latent soil fertility. In a wet season
the chief value is to destroy weeds. Re
member that weeds rob the corn crop
of moisture which in a dry season is
needed very much. If the early part
of the season is wet and the latter
part dry, particularly at earing time,
the damage done by weeds may
amount to half the value of the crop.
The best time to kill weeds is just
after they germinate. Cultivate, there
fore, on hot, sunshiny days when the
weed will soon die.
The Abuse of Shade.
For our hot summers shade around
the house seems to be an absolute ne
cessity. It is well to remember, how
ever, that, like most other good things,
we may so use shade that it becomes
absolutely harmful. It has often been
observed that while a home is new
and has little shade it is healthful, but
after thc house is buried under trees
the family begins to suffer from va
rious diseases, which when the trees
were small and cast little shade they
Were entirely free from.
The explanation is this: When a
house is buried in shade, it becomes
dark and damp. Darkness and damp
ness are both favorable for the growth
of moulds, mildews and disease germs.
Sunlight dries the house and kills out
right the germs of most of our formid
able diseases. Rheumatism and con
sumption thrive especially in dark and
In the dark dirt acumulates; disease
runs rampant in dirt and dampness.
And then in darkness ann dirt the arch
enemy of man, the devil, too is at
home, and we have the quartet, dark
ness, dirt, disease, and the devil.
Shade should be around the house,
QOt over it. Let there be open places
all around the house, so that the sun
may shine directly upon it. This will
?keep it dry and wholesome.
Another evil which comes with too
fto?y trees" ls_the~~shuttvng ott, pf", the
very hot Heat is much more endur
able with plenty of moving air than
it is when there is no circulation what
ever. Plant trees, plant them In abun
dance, but not too close to the house,
and when they become too dense cut
some of them out. Remember the in
juncfions, "Be temperate in all things,
Hold fast to that which is good."
G. G. Groff, in New York Tribune
Keeplne Old Hens.
Experiments along the line of egg
production show that the pullets from
the time they are six months old un
til they are 18 months old lay twice as
many eggs as will hens three and four
years old in the same* length of time.
It has been found by keeping a care
ful account that it costs from 55 to
75 cents a year to feed a hen. If, when
well cared for, she only lays about
seven dozen a year, it is readily seen
that there is but little profit in keep
ing her for the production of eggs. The
well-cared for pullet laying fourteen
dozen eggs annually is much more pro
fitable, as the last seven dozen she lays
will all be left for profit, allowing the
first seven to pay for her board.
A large flock of pullets would be a
very profitable investment if well
housed and fed, but the majority of
farmers do not give sufficient care in
cold weather and do not expect to get
eggs except through spring and sum
mer. At this time the old hens per
haps lay as well as the puUets.but to
keep fowls that Jay during the en
tire year would bo much more profit
able to the farmer.
The hen that moults late in the fall
is most usually an invalid all winter
and it would be economy to sell her at
any price unless she is a special fav
orite for settir and raising chickens.
Such hens (those that are good
mothers), should be kept until they die
of old age, as they are useful and us
ually very scarce. They should be
marked with metal leg bands.
One reason so many farmers allow
their flocks to consist of hens of all
ages is that they cannot raise enough
in one year to replace the old ones.
If mixed breeds were kept the old
ones could be exchanged at the mar
ket for pullets which would be much
better management, but we do not rec
ommend keeping mixed breeds. Thor
oughbred stock is so much more sat
isfactory and more profitable.
The question of the feeding value of i
corn at prices which have ruled this
season has made many doubtful about
making any money in fatteniu-i cattle,
but while some arc complaining that
lt is impossible to make anything,
there arc others who are showing a
distinct and satisfactory profit. It is
possible for a feeder to pay fifty and
fifty-two cents per bushel for corn, and
expect to fatten cattle off it which sell
between $5 and $6 per one hundred ?
pounds, and make money? This has !
been the problem \.resented during the I
past season to man.- farmers and iced- j
ers. The whole question has practical
ly been answered both ways, and I rom j
the conclusions di awn one is forced to
lo say that it all depends upon the
feeder. One man can make a profit. ?
rl.d another will lose. It is the differ- \
ence between intelligent feeding and j
haphazard feeding. But there is some- j
thins more which must not be over- !
looked. It is also a difference in the
rattle and the ii 'ders stand out proini- j
ncntly. Then it is that tile lirst-eias?
mimais show their superiority. They
fatten easier and quicker than the poor
icrubs and common barnyard creatures,
and for every pound of feed given they
add more to their weight than the vor
acious poor stock wnich eats but never
seems to fatten up.
We must take the two factors into
consideration-the cattle and the feed
ers. It may be asserted without fear
of contradiction that good profits have
been made in the past season only
where good feeders have had good cat
tle to prepare for market. A wise, in
tellicnt feeder with inferior scrubs
would be so handicapped that he would
probably lose in the end or barely
make both ends meet. Tl?e haphazard
careless feeder with the best of cattle
for fattening would probably waste
his corn in such a way that it is
doubtful if anything would be made in
the end. In either case the results
would prove satisfactory. This mere
ly emphasizes what has often been re
peated. It takes an inteligent feeder
and good cattle to produce the highest
results. In seasons of plenty, any one
may accident-1 ly make money, but
when the price of feed and cattle pinch,
then only thc intelligent feeders make
a profit-E. P. Smith, in American
The Value of Hoc Wallowa.
The hog is a native of hot climates,
where his thick skin served as a pro
tection against poisonous snakes and
other enemies. In the state of his pre
sent higher civilization his thick skin
is in soihe respects a detriment to his
best welfare. When closely confined
in filthy quarters it provides a har
boring place for mites and vermin,
from which they are with difficulty dis
lodged. The extreme thickness of his
skin also tends to retain the body heat
too closely when penned up in hot
weather, out of reach of his natural
protective clement-a moist mud bath.
The hog that is free to find it well
knows how to escape from insect ene
mies; or, if overheated, into a wallow
hole, where he wtil plaster his entire
body in an armor of mud, which when
peeled off cleans and invigorates the
The hog is not so filthy an animal as
he is represented. If there are clean
natural or artificial wallows within
reach he will select sucTi in which to .
take his wallow bath in preference to
filthy holes containing yard drainings
which he, perforce, often has to make
use of. Where natural running streams
cannot be made use of, it will be found
a profitable investment to provide ar
tificial wanows made of plank, so con
structed as to slope gradually to a
depth surficient for the largest hog to
thoroughly plaster himself with the
mud and water supplied.
The wallow box should be built so
it can be conveniently cleaned and re
filled with fresh water and dirt Espec
ially is such a wallow beneficial where
the hogs-are kept in large or consid-. -i.
erable ^numbers and kept rung, and
therefor^essable to?'provide Theil1 WWII 1
Where such wa ?lows are provided
they will often save the lives of many
valuable animals and help ward off
disease, besides contributing in no
small degree to the health and thrift of
the herd. Brood sows farrowing dur
ing hot weather are especially benefited
by access of clean, well adapted wal
lows. By such means they will keep
in check the danger from overheating
and fevering of their blood, which
often proves fatal to both the sows
and their litters.
The hog furnished with plenty of
room and given a chance to select his
natural environment soon becomes
healthy, happy and wise.-B. F. W. T.,
in Farm and Fireside.
Sunlight in Orchard*.
It is not sufficiently appreciated that
in order to secure healthy trees and
wholesome fruit the influence of tho
sun's rays must be brought into full
operation. Trees are placed too near
together in the orchard, and trimming
does not sufficiently a?m to open the
growth to the sun and air. Half of
our orchards stand more like groves,
with interlocked limbs, than as or
chards should stand, without intruding
one tree upon another. Some varieties,
of course, need more room than others;
so it is that we must consider varieties
instead of laying down the rule that
orchard trees should stand just so
many feet apart. Cherry trees should
stand particularly well cpen, and out
of shade of oih^r tr?es. Otherwise
they will be attacked with mildews
and black aphis. I do not know any
variety of fruit that will endure be
ing planted very close, except the plum.
I hav? sometimes thought that a plum
grove gave better results than a plum
orchard. This is not quite true, be
cause the richness and coloring of the
Green Gage is a marked exception
depending on open trees and sunny
The influence of the sun is to de
stroy germs, precisely as in the case
of human beings. Sunlight has been
proved to be fatal to some or the lower
forms of life, including those disease
germs which are tne most fatal to the
human race and to vegetable growth.
Anthrax, as a rule, in its different
forms, is very much provoked to de
velopment by shade. If you have a vi- ;
humum or snowball in a shady place it
is sure to be loaded with lice or aphi
dae. Set the same bush in a sunny
spot and I will be nearly or quite free
from the pest. Cherry fees should
never be set in on the sunless side of a
house. Peivrs also are very sensitive
to an abundance of sunlight. The dis
eases which attack these trees are a
low class of vegetable organisms, which
thrive as a rule better in darkness than
i.. t. .ylight. This subject has not had
sufficient consideration, either as re
gards unman being or plants Stern
berg made experiments which demon
strated that the cholera bacillus is
killed by direct exposure to sunlight
for one hour. Koch shows that the
tubercule bacillus is dest oyed by short
exposure to the direct rays of the sun.
I find out one or two shrubs or plants
that persist in sustaining fungoid dis
ease in spite of the sun. Gooseberry
mildew need light and air to destroy it
or to prevent it. Bushes of this sort
should as a rule be set in rows run
ning north and south.-E. P. Powjell,
in Nev.' York Tribune Farmer.