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The Jury System
.Voi Twelve Gc?d and True Men but
Perjurers Who Weed JHtention . ? ?
Ey F. IV. Hendrickson
NY-one who has had any considerable experience as a jury
man can readily call to mind many Instances of the pee1'1
mental efforts of a number of jurymen with whom he'has
at times been associated. When twelve men, strangers to
one another, are brought together seriously to examine and
decide some complicated question of facts lt can easily be
understood that the case is rendered still more complicated
by the diversity of opinion that is likely to prevail among
i While the conflicts of the jury room are for the most
clear result of pig-headedness as opposed to falrmindedness, often
jterminatlon opposed to stubbornness, still it must be said that the
suits are in the interests of justice. It is not always easy for., any
e individual jurymen to form a personal opinion, and the main dif
thls. respect is invariably his lack of confidence in the witness
on the jury system have been of common occurrence ever since
Edward HI. The problem to be solved at this time, however, is
the jury be replaced with some safer and surer method, but
witness stand be kept free from the large number of wilful liars
oath with a mental reservation, give their manufactured evl
fter the verdict is rendered, just or unjust, retire to the privacy
without a blemish and with a laugh up the sleeve at the im
[to be a common id?a among lawyers that they cannot hope to
?es if their opponents- produce too many untruthful witnesses,
that any man who is able on cross-examination to annihilate
of a witness on the stand is eminently qualified to secure
iroval of the jury system. Many lawyers, try as they may,
break down the testimony of* a well schooled witness without
[in a way that the jurymen are usually slow to understand or
well, now that a few shafts are to be directed at the system
the administration of justice, if a good proportion of these
a mark among the growing class of hell bent conspirators
,and others who give them encouragement.
ig the Revolvers
Ly Paul Thieman
Iaw requires that every bottle of poison shall be labelled
Inctly not only arsenic, laudanum, or strychnine, but
Usually skull and cross-bones are added to emphasize
deadliness of the danger.
And lt seems as If is actually necessary to require all
'firearms to bear a large red metal tag, relatively as plain as
labels on nolson bottles and signs at railway crossings.
The United States Constitution guarantees to the cltl-.
keep and bear arms. But it would not infringe that right to
ile of the red metal t?g:
a few simple rules for avoiding the accidental discharge of re
id sparing your own and others' liv's:
hand a firearm around to be looked at without first removing the
io not finger the trigger or handle the hammer until they are removed.
Count the cartridges!
Never clean a revolver that is loaded.
Never reload with the weapon at half cock or full cock.
Don't touch one if you don't know how to bindle lt.
Don't keep a revolver!
The last rule is most reliable in preventing accidents.
Did you ever think of the absurdity of keeping a weapon you couldn't
3dt a burglar with, even if he stood still and let you take careful aim?
For burglars, keep a halberd-you can scare them with that more than If
.you pointed two revolvers at them!-New York American.
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Horse a Stupid Animal
?y E. T. Brewster
HERE have been on exhibition, at various times, horses who
are, apparently, prodigies of mathematical insight; who can
do anything with numbers that the trainer can do. Yet we
absolutely know'that no animal can so much as count at
at all. Furthermore, it ls always the horse that performs
these marvels, though the horse is the most utterly stupid
of all the dumb creatures that man has made his friends.
That is precisely why the horse is always taken to be
made into an arithmetician. He is so stupid that he can
te taught anything-any habit, that is-and haying no mind to be taken up
"vrfth his own affairs, can be relied on to do exactly as he Is told. I
All these arithmetical fakes, whatever their details, are worked in es
sentially th? same way. The horse is taught, by endless repetitions, some
mechanical habit. A given signal, and he begins to paw the floor. Another
signal, and he stops. Press the proper button, and he takes a sponge and
rubs, lt over a certain spot on a blackboard, or picks up a card lying in a
certain position. That ls all he does. The meaning of the act exists for the
spectator only. The pawlngs count the answer to a problem In addition, the
card bears the reply to a question. But the horse does not know it. He
merely follows a blind habit, just as he will ?top when you say "Whoa!"
though you interpolate the word into your recitation of the Declaration of
Inde pen dence.-McClure's.
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f " The Greatest Glory ?
Of Any People"
By Col. George Harvey, Editor of Harper's Weekly
<>.:-:..>.>:..>?:..:.* F to-morrow this Nation should be obliterated, if the earth
Jjjf .v.; ..>.*..-..;..;..;. ?J.
4? .;..>.>.;. .>*>->.:. v
Itself should be destroyed, the greatest glory of any people
would be left In these Imperishable words:
"Congress shall make UM law respecting an establish
ment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof;
or abridging the fr?edom of speech or of the press; or the
right of the people peaceably to assemble, and to petition
the Government for a redress of grievances."
There was the crux of human liberty, there shone the
noonday sun from whose face the clouds of the middle ages had been swept
away, there flashed the spirit of freedom from which ls now springing gov
ernments by the people from the land of the Spaniard to the home of Ma
homet; but underneath and upholding ail was and is the one great overpower
ing fact that there, for the first time in the history of the world, tolerance was
written Into the fundamental law of a land guided, guarded and inspired by
Torpedo Practice Scared thc Fish.
Argyll fishermen protest against tor
pedo practice being carried on in the
Firth of Clyde and "the Kllbrannan
Sound, by warships.
They .contend that it scares the fish
from the Firth and that the herring
fishing ls being gradually ruined. At
a mass meeting at Campbelltown it
was declared that not a box of herrings
had been landed since the fleet came,
?whereas the weekly average before
? . . Si' ,'. .
Mrs. Wickwire-If you go first, you
will wait for me- on the other shore,
won't you, dear?
Mr. Wickwire-I suppose so. I nev
er went anywhere yet without having
to wait for you.-Illustrated Bits.
The United States annually ex
ports more cottonseed oil than t all
the other countries of the world
combined-42,000,000 out of 52,000,
President Taft waG the central fig
ure iu a number of conferences Mon
day and is living up to the prediction
made many weeks ago that in the
conference consideration of the tariff
bill he would lend his influence to
conciliate all differences.
At a conference at the White
House it was definitely decided that
the rate to be levied under the new
corporation tax shall be reduced from
two per cent, to one per cent., and
that in redrafting the measure now in
conference along with the tariff bill,
due consideration will bc given to
the demands of the mutual life in
surance companies; whose incomes
would have been seriously affected.
The tariff conferees made satisfac
tory progress Monday in spite of tho
fact that the House members were
compelled to be absent much of the
time on account of the session of the
House. Thus far, however, the
amendments agreed upon in the
chemical, earthenware, metal and
wood schedules have been of minor
. . .
By passing over the cotton and
woolen schedules without taking any
af thc amended paragraphs, and skip
ping the disputed points connected
with the rates on lamber in the wood
schedule, the tariff conferees were
able to dispose of about 400 amend
ments Tuesday. This number however
includes subjects that were settled
tentatively on Monday and Saturday.
Many important subjects, such as
the House drawbacks features in the
alcohol paragraph, the rates on oil
cloth and the various, items under the
h*ad of lithographs, were submitted
to sub-conferees. The treasury ex
perts who helped thc Senate finance
committee in its consideration of the
bill are assisting the conferees in
fathering information about these
A representative of The Associated
Press Tuesday interrogated one of
the conferees as to the progress that
has been made. A list of practically
oil of the amended paragraphs of
public interest was submitted to him.
Strenuous objections were raised
by the House members of the tariff
conference Wednesday to the Senate
provision in the maximum and mini
mum feature of the tariff bill, which
gives to the President authority to
employ such persons as he may de
sire to aid him in enforcing the tariff
laws and which will be useful to Con
gress in tariff legislation in the fu
The provision which provides for
the establishment of a court of cus
toms appeals was adopted. It is in
tended that this court shall deal with
all cases of appeal from the hoard !
of general appraisers and that -its j
judgment shall be final. .The' salaries j
of the five judges were fixed at $10,- j
OOO, instead of $7,000 as provided by i
the Senate amendment.
The Senate maximum and mini
mum provision was agreed upon tenr
tatively as a substitute for the House
feature, with the exception of the
provision for the employment of tar
iff experts. The House conferees
claimed that the House ways and
means committee and the Senate fi
nance committee have the investiga-'
tion of tariff matters as their special
. . . .
Twenty-four hours would see the
end of the work of the Senate and j
House conferees on the tariff bill,1
and a substantil agreement upon the |
questions at issue but for the five
propositions-iron ore, coal, hides,
oil and lumber-upon which the Pres
ident stands firm for radical reduc
tion or even abolition of the tariff.
Great progress was made by the
conferees Friday. A preponderance
of the differences have been adjusted
In each schedule, however, are a few
items that have necessitated investi
gation in order to enable the con
ferees to get together. This is true
of lead products, such as paints, in
the chemical schedule; numerous ar
ticles in the metal schedule on which
the rates depend upon the settlement
of the iron ore question; the demand
for a change in the classification of
wool tops; the change from ad valo
rem to specific rates on cotton goods;
the increase made by the House on
gloves, and the wood pulp and print
paper contest. The rates on silks and
woolen goods were determined Fri
day. The Senate won in both cases.
On silks there will be a considerable
advance over existing duties; on
woolen, ne change from thc present
law except in regard to wool tops,
which are to be given a new classi
fication. The duty on tops is prohibi
tive now, and it is predicted that it
will continue so, even after the re
du?tion is put into force. The Senate
provision reenacted the Dingley rates
of the whole woolen schedule, while
the House provided for material re
. . .
Taft will win his fight for free or re
duced rates of duty on raw materials
Nearly every member of the confer
ence on thc tariff bill conceded Sat
urday. Thc indications are that
when the new tariff bill becomes a
law, the rates on thc articles whicl j
the President desired to. come in frei
will be as follows:
Iron ore, free (present rate 4(
cents per ton.)
Oil. free (now protected by coun
Hides, 71-2 per cent, ad valoren
(present rate 15 per cent.)
Coal, 45 cents per ton. (Presen!
rate 07 cents.)
Lumber will probably be $1.25 or
rough, with Senate rates on finish
ed. This would be a material reduc
tion throughout, the lumber schedule
When the conferees transferred tf
the President's shoulders the respon
sibility of putting the foregoing raw
materials1 on the free list, it was nol
believed he would meeet with success
in bringing about a changed ' senti
fent in relation to these articles.
A change of sentiment seems ap
oM??ffi WIVES m
Bigamist Johnson Recalls Twe
the K?turns Are Incomplete
i Swindling Women-Goe
to Serve Seven Years s
San Francisco, Cal.-It is all over
with Christian Johnson, the German
horse buyer and bigamy expert,
champion to . date' ot all his kind.
Johnson has been taken from San
Jose, where ie was Convicted, to San
Quentin prison, to serve a sentence
of seven years. "When he hes served
his term most any <?ity or village in
the country can claim him at will
and send 'r :m away on another charge
of blgam: He says that he has mar
ried so i \y /?romea that he cannot
remembf ;hem all. He was able
to recall enty of his victims, but
aa his ll: nslsts,. with'only two ex
ceptions, Western women, and as
he is km to have operated heavily
in marri" vows In New York and
New Jerfi-;* and New England, it ls
believed that the twenty represent
leas than half of lia actual wives.
He does not Include Miss Julia A.
Fredericks, of Freeport, L. I., whom
he married in 1900, decamping next
day with .$1600 of her money.
Johnson ia sixty-four years old,
portly and fine looking and, despite
the hardlcap of years, is known to
have married eight women since No
vember, 1905. His lovemaking has
been on oven a more generous scale,
and, according to his own statement,
he courted ten Portland (Ore.)
women at one time, but married
only one <if the lot. ?n probably hun
dreds of Instances he merely made
love to women and skipped away
with sums of their money varying
from $200 to several thousands.
Made It a Profession.
Johnson dates the beginning of his
criminal. career three y?ars back,
but as the marriage with Mls3 Fred
ericks took place nine years ago, and
he came to thi? country in 1871,
there ls no telling how long he has
made a living by the role of lover.
"In 1908." he said, "I quit my busi
ness of buying horses, and from that
day to this time I have been making
nay living by marrying, making love
tn'women, petting their money and
Johnson was known as John Mud
con, John C. Anderson aud C. O.
Moeller, and lt waa under the name
ol Madson that he married Miss
Fredericka. He said that at first he
was a woman hater, having been sep
arated in Germany from a sweetheart
wfio later died. "I married only one
woman under the name of Madson."
he said. "Her name was. .Tones-if
I remember rightly-Ada Jones. I
got $1800 from her because she said
She loved me. I could have got
The bigamist credits Mrs. Mary
Brown, whom he raarried In Spring
field, Mass., In 1905, and immediate
ly deserted, with being his first and
only legal wife, but it ls believed
that perhaps a score antedate her.
Johnson say? he was born on
March ll, 1845, In Flensburg,
Schleswig-Holstein. He learned mar
ine engineering and worked as a ma
chinist in Trenton, N. J., when he
came to America in 1871.
To Live on Cupid's Bounty.
After, his desertion of the Spring
field widow Johnson went ?to,New Or
leans as si horae trader. Then his
health failed and he determined to
live on Cupid's bounty. His next
venture, according'to his story, was
With Mrs. Sylvia Pollard de Bonnett
at San Francisco.
Two weeks after this false mar
riage Johnson said he had lio go to
Germany and left town. Neit he ap
peared In Portland, where ho mar
ried Mrs. Eliza Jones, a widow of a
wealthy coal dealer. Two weeks
after the marriage he took her to
Oakland. Cal., where, with $1800 of
her money in his pockets, he skipped
mt for Memphis. His next marriage,
victim's name forgotten, took place In
the East. A ceremony was resorted
Pigeons Cover 510 Miles In Nine
Hours and Seventeen Minutes.
Baltimore, Md.-In a fiight of
birds of the Southern Federation of
Homing Pigeon Fanciers, just con
cluded, a record that has stood for
the last twelve years has been
broken. The hirds, all owned in this
city, were liberated at North Bay,
Ont., 510 miles air line, from Balti
more, and the first to arrive covered
the distance in nine hours and seven
teen minutes, an average of 1600.05
yardB a minute. The best! previous
record Is ?340 yards a minute.
Notes of the Diamond.
Can't stop that fellow Red Murray
when it comes to a pinch.
The Senators won't be seen In New
York City again this season.
Outfielder O'Hara, of the Giants, is
a graceful worker and a pretty judge
of a fly ball.
Jimmie Canavan is now covering
the Southern League, scouting for
the Detroit Club.
There are few pitchers in either of
the big leagues that have any. hisser
curves than Hughes, and when he's
right he's good.
i by Davenport, in tho New York Mall.
DIDN'T pw WHAT TO DO
nty Spouses, But It is Believed
-Made Living by Wedding and
:s to San Quentin Prison
it the Age of Sixty-f our.
to, he said, only when money could
not be obtained beforehand.
Returning last spring to San Fran
cisco, Johnson married Mrs. Henri
etta Leopold and Mrs. Josephine
Tretheway, of Stockton, within one
month.of each other, on A?ril IB and
May 17. On June 16 he wedded
Catherine Hoene, of San Diego, a
maiden forty-two yer.rs old, who gave
him $200. He was traced back to
San Francisco by Miss Minnie
Cather, I whom he had married,
and then the police got him.
List of Wives.
Here is Johnson's "official" list of
his wives: Mr8? Catherine Hoene,
San Diego; Mrs. Josephine Trethe
way, Stockton; Mrs. Sylvia Pollard
de Bonnett, San Francisco; Mrs.
Henrietta Leopold, San Francisco;
Eliza Jones, Portland; Mrs. Mary
Brown, Springfield, Mass.; Mrs.
Frances Hepburn, Oakland; Miss
'Minnie Cather, San Francisco; Mrs.
Josephine Henninger, Oakland; Mrs
Birdie King, Hot Springs, Ark.; Mrs.
Elizabeth M. Jackson, Iola, Kan.;
Mrs. Mary Frick, East St. Louis;
Catherine Hospital nurse, St. LOU?B;
Mrs. Alice Richardson, St. Louis;
Mrs. Catalina Saughman, St. Louis;
Mrs. Minnie Allen, St. Louis; Mrs.
Bertha King, Memphis, Tenn.; Mrs.
De Loem, Portland, Ore.
Among Eastern women from whom
he received money was Mrs. William
Kirkman, a wealthy widow, of Little
Neck, L. I., from whom he got $1500
and whom he was to marry on the
day he led Miss Frederick, to the
altar.. Others were Miss Carrie
Bandford, of Roseville, N. J., $1500;
Miss Bertha Love, of Newark, $600,
and Miss Josephine Hanson, South
Brooklyn, $600. j
From most of the women, Johnson
says, he obtained money or Jewelry,
br both. When in the East Johnson
ensnared women with a picture of
his mythical ranch in Southern Cali
fornia, with Its orange groves and
mellow climate. In the Weat he de
scribed hie palatial dream home on
the Hudson. But now his pleasures
are ended. He fears that he will
succumb to his weak heart before
he ls released from San Quentin. He
asserts that the only wife he ever
really loved was Mrs. de Bonnett;
He advises women to keep away
from matrimonial agencies, declar
ing that he never used them except
with deliberate intent to defraud.
On the train from Son Jose to this
city women crowded about and
seemed to take great interest ki him.
"It just goes ;o show you women
are fools," remarked Johnson to the
"Look at them. If any man would
come along here and say nice things
to most of them, be polite and- show
interest In their doings and hopes
they would smile and. smirk until
the poor man would find himself fak
ing pity on them and proposing.
"That was what got me into
trouble. Men of my temperament
are always in danger unless we re
fuse absolutely even to talk to
Johnson's confession is full of
comment. Here are a few extracts
which show his philosophy.
"I've led a rather sporty life, and
I want to say that whatever I got
out of women I spent on them right
away. They kept me broke.
"I have found it did not pay to be
soft and sweet With the women.
Treat them a little harsh and be a
little distant and they will -come to
you. If I saw a woman that.I really
liked I made up my mind I would
make her fall In love with me, and I
"Once started with the idea of get
ting money from women. I continued
to dupe them, and I did not marry
those from whom I could get money
Inventor Of Night Flying Machine
Says Big Company is Forming.
London.-The Daily News quotes
Dr. Boyd, who is the inventor anil
builder of the new English airship
which has been making flights at
night, as saying that wealthy men
are interesting themselves in forming
a private company with a capital of
a quarter of a million pounds sterl
ing (SI,250,000) to operate the pat
ents which are being taken out..
Dr. Boyd hopes to begin daylight
trials of tho machine in aoout a
Women in Day's News.
Miss Crawford invented the word
"muncheon" to describe one of Hor
ace Fletcher's feasts.
Miss E. Claggett has been elected
assistant secretary of the Chamber of
Commerce of Natchez, Miss.
As women refused to use the "for
women only" cars in the Hudson tun
nel the company ended that exclusive
Friends of Mrs. Cora W. Rose, who
died in poverty in New York City,
with her clergyman huBbaud absent,
nald an undertaker to avoid Potters'
I . LEGISLATOR MAKES RECORD.
.Mrs. Aima v. Lafferty has not let
the grass grow under, her feet as a
ra ember of the Colorado Legislature.
She Is the only woman who has sat In
that, body, and, further, ls one of the
most strenuous of all the legislators
since the session began. ? She has
introduced fifteen bills, and, more to
the point, all have passed. ' Still more,
6he says she is not yet through, and
may make her record an even score.
Mrs. Lafferty has more than held
her own in debate, and also in com
mittee. She has shown a remarkable
faculty for grasping the most involv
ed questions, and has a grasp on all
me business of the House. She rep
resents one of th-2 strongest possible
arguments for the cause of equal suf
frage. If all women were as practica'
and level-headed as she is the prayer
of the suffragists might be granted
without further delay. But the point
is, would men want all women that
way?-New York Press.
THE NATIONAL BANK OF AUGUSTA,
L. C. HAYNE, CHAS. R. CLARK,
Surplus & Profits $190,000.00.
The business of oar out-of-town friends
receives the same careful attention as that
of our local depositors. Tho accounts of
careful consei^stlre people solicited.
'linn M-H iirii H-w
The Planter's Loan
ai\d Savings Bank
Pays Interest on Deposits,
J* Accounts Solicited.
LC. HAYNf, CHIAS. C. HOWARD,
PRE?i DEi\ i'. OA.SHIEU,.
f^ESCMJki.ES OVER $1,000,000.
??'H-H I 1 I I M 1 I Mill 'Mi
1 nov/ represent a strong
line of Fire Insurance
Companies and can insure
Your patronage will be
Light Saw, Lathe and Shin
?fie Mills, Engines. Boilers,,
Supplies and repairs, Porta
qle , Steam and Gasoline En
gines, Saw Teeth, Files, Bell?
and Pipes. WOOD SAWS
and SPLITTERS. k
Gins and Press Repairs.
GO TO SEE
' HARLING & BYRD
Before insuring elsewhere, Wegrepresent the Bes*
Old Line Companies.
HAf?L/flG &. BYRO*
M The Farmers Bank of Edgefield
1 On $1000 Insurance
17 to 20
E. J. NO?O^?^,
THE tKG. ENCIN?T
th: t runs like
a top, smoothly
edly. If an engine
balks or stops and you
have to fool awa^ your
time to find out the cause,
you don't want that engina
because it means a waste of
tim: and energy. -:- -:- -..
I. H. C.
are so prac
tical and so
simple that when
you start them they
run until you stop
them .whether you are
watching or not Nev?r
out of repair; don'twaste fuel.
Caji on us and we will gladly
expiais tho good points of the
I. H. C engine. -:- -.- -r- f T