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0WS BABY G?EBIAGL
?iORE THAN CENT UEY OLD
P -ambulator Owned by Massa
chusetts Man Was Built 104
% Years Age. W$*< . - r- .
'A'baby carriage ?which is believed
to be the oldest in the country is in
the possession of a Bay State man.
Known to be more than one hundred
years old and the property of one
family for more .than hali a century,
this ancient perambulator belongs at
present to S. B. Budington, of Leyden,
This great-grandfather of all the
baby vehicles and perambulators in
the country is in itself no perambula
tor at all. It ls a true "baby car
riage." Not only in shape but in con
struction it resembles Oliver Wendell
Holmes* "One Hoss Shay." It is, in
fact, built in every smallest detail
after the model " of the old two
wheeled chaises su^h. as were ?sed
by the elite of a century ago.
According, to Mr. Budington, the
small; sons and' daughters of. who6e
family have for the last ?fty years
been hauled about in the old carriage,
no one knows the exact history of the
carriage. The^address of its first
owner has "been lost in the mists of
antiquity. The onlys. identification is
the name, of its maker, '"Charles
Field," and the date "1805." , It is
supposed to have come originally
?.from some Southern plantation in"
'Virginia and to have been brought
'.North, only a few years previous to
the Outbreak of the Civil War.
"Mr. TBudingtr.ii, then a young man
iln.his'twenties, got possession of it iii
1858.: Soon afterward he went West,
.tourneying across country to Illinois,
where he settled In Cass County. The
carriage, then regarded as an heir
loom, was .taken along.
When Mr. Budington with his fam
ily returned East in -180 4 he brought
the carriage back with .him to Leyden,
"where he settled with his family and
Where he has lived since.
TALL AFRICAN GRASS.
f ?eautifal Scenes at Night cn the
\ Veldt When Fire Spreads.
Unlike a good deal of South Africa,
Rhodesia is largely wooded. In some
places the forests are of- value, but a
large proportion are not valued for
their timber. The grass in tills part
of ?frica grows to phenomenal height
iii the "valleys, and especially in tho
valleys of .the Sahl and .Zambesi
Hivers it reaches its greatest height.
"Xo say that the grass Is often twelve
feet high is no exaggeration. Natur
ally, it is very easy to lose one's way
lit this grass if one is unfortunate,
enough .to, stray, from, .the beaten
track. It is the custom there to burn
tils grass off each year when it gets
dry. This is usually in August and
"September, or even in October. Fires
"burn for miles, and as the country is
largely a -wilderness little damage is
dene by this, method of destroying the
grass. It is a beautiful sight at night
In the .fire season to see the hills for
xailes around encircled with flames.
After the grass has been burned
thu rainy season usually begins, and
it is .then that the country is at its
prettiest ' The grass is then green
an i tho foliage on the trees is beau
tiful. The old leaves drop oft grad
na ly and the new ones take their
place before the trees are bare. The
new leaves ar? of all shades of the
rai ab ow, and it ls much like the fall
scenery in this country when the dead
Meaves are falling from the trees.
Waterfalls are numerous in the moun
tains, and.^there are. many of great
nei,;ht, although the rivers are usual
ly ismall in volumer-Springfield Re?
Ni-. . ' -^----? '
y- Spanish Barracks.
The lot ot the Spanish soldier, even
in "times of peace, is far from envia
ble, for his food, lodging and clothing
are of the poorest. As regards bar
racks, the Spanish army is certainly
the worst equipped in Europe, and
this fact was practically admitted by
Senor Sagasta when he was Premier.
IA deputation waited on him to pro
test against the unfair manner in
which the law as to obligatory army
service "waa enforced, so that any one
with ?50 to spare can evade the duty.
?The premier admitted thiit the princi
ple of redemption from military ser-1
vice was'illegal, and that, strictly j
speaking, all healthy male adults
should serve, but, he added, "the
majority of our barracks are in Buch
"bad condition that we cannot expect
the sons of respectable parents to live
in them."-London Chronicle.
W* ' Pajamas.
t Pajamas,/around-which party con
troversy rollicked during the last all- j
night sitting, are, being interpreted,
simply "leg garments." They were
eagerly , adopted by Europeans in In
dia lr am the Mohammedans, probably
by thu Portuguese in the first place.
Earlier Anglo-Indian ' generations
knew them as "long drawers" or
"mosquito drawers," and still earlier
generations as "mogul breeches," un
der lw!ilch name they are referred to
foy Bes.umont and Fletcher. European
improvers w?re at one time in the
habit of adding feet to these leg gar
ments; but a certain London, trades
man was not at a loss to find an out
landish "reason for this addition. "I
believe, sir, it U on account of the
white, imts," he relied to an inquir?
lag customer.-Lcmion Chronicle.
Th&fii is now searing completion a
six-foot steel n ain, which is being
bailt to supplemeut the masonry con
duit which carries the Brooklyn water
supply from Nassau County, New
York.- ' It is twenty-three miles in
length snd will cost over $2,500,000.
Tile present masonry conduit has a
dally capacity ot 120,000,000 gallons.
The daily consumption of Brooklyn
and Queens is 142,000,000 gallons,
part of which is drawn from local
artesian wells. The new steel main
will havo a capacity daily of 55,000,?
OOO. gallons.-Scientific American. .
!3alt is becoming one of the most
^Important minor industries of the
?3fca te of South Australia. The output
tihh? year is estimated at 70,000 tons.
Over 1Q0O tons is exported weekly to
other Australian States and to New
ISARS ON! THEIR LEGS. >' -
1 . ?
That Is Where an Ant's Grow and He
Has Six of Them.
Strange as it may seem an ant.has
at least six ears. Aside from their
multiplicity they are located in just
about the queerest place imaginable
-on the-legs. They seem deaf to all
sounds made by the vibration of th6
air, but detect the slightest possible
vibrations of 'solid material.
This is supposed to be to their ad
vantage, m. that such things as ap
proaching footsteps tell more of the
possibility . of danger than such
sounds as are transmitted through
So sensitive are their feet, says St.
Nicholas!, that they detect the impact
of a small birdshot dropped on the
table from a height of about six
inches and about fourteen distant
from an artificial nest- placed at the
other end of the table.
As curious as are their ears, their
noses are even more extraordinary.
As the ants spend most of th|ir time
in the dark, they must'depend largely
on scent for their guidance, and in
consequence have quite an elaborate
array of .noses, er ch for a special pur
Miss Adele Fielde believes that
their antennae are composed of a
number of noses strung along in a
line. Still more strange is that fact
that each of these noses can smell
only a special thing.
The nose on the tip or first joint of
the antennae, it ls said, is for recog
nizing the odor of home; the one on
the second joint is to recognize rela
tives. The third nose is the path
finder, and without it the poof ant
cannot follow a trail and soon gets
hopelessly lost. Thc noses on the
fourth and fifth joints are for recog
nizing the eggs and immature ants in
No creature is more tidy than an
ant, who cannot tolerate the presence
of dirt on her body. These little
creatures actually use a number of
real toilet articles . in keeping them
selves clean. No less an authority
than Dr. McCook says their toilet ar
ticles consist of coarse and fine
toothed combs, hair brushes, sponges
and even washes and " soap. Their
saliva is their liquid soap, and their
soft tongues are their sponges.
Their combs, like their ears are
fastened to their legs. They stop for
a hasty cleaning when they get uirty.
But a more leisurely toilet is made
when they feel in a loafing mood, and
they then lend a helping hand" to one
another in the process.
Man of Many Names.
Charles Stewart Vane-Tempest
Stewart, Marquis of Londonderry,
who has just entered his fifty-seventh
year, has bean obliged to change his
mode of signature five times. When
he was born in 1852 his grandfather,
the third marquis, and his uncle, sub
sequently the fourth marquis,* were
still alive. His uncle was Lord Cas
tlereagh, his father was Lord George
Vane, and he was Charles Stewart
Vane-Tempest-Stewart. On the death
of the third marquis Lord George
Van? succeeded to the earldom of
Vane, and his son, getting the cour
tesy title of Lord -Seaham,' .thus
signed'himself when he was at Eton.
The death of his uncle made his
father Lord Londonderry and him
self Lord Castlereagh, and as such he
signed himself before he left Oxford.
In 1884 he succeeded to the mar
quisate, earldom and barony of Lon
donderry and the viscounty of Castle
reagh (all Irish titles), and the earl
dom of Vane, viscounty of Seaham
and barony of Stewart in .the English
peerage. Since then his signature
has been Londonderry, except in the
House of Lords, where he sits by
right, of his English earldom and
therefore signs himself Vane.-West?
The World's Shoemaker.
The first world's shoe and leather
fair opened in Boston is an industrial
exhibition of great Interest. America
is fast becoming the world's shoe
maker. Its shoe factories employ
149,924 operatives, who receive
wages of ?69,000,000 annually, and
whose product is valued at above
$320,000,000. The concentration of
the industry In Massachusetts is
shown in the employment of upward
of 60,000 opera tives In this manufac
ture, of whom one-third are women.
Nearly fifteen per cent, of the entire
population of Lynn is engaged In
shoemaking. The output of American
boots and shoes has nearly doubled in
twenty-five years and the industry
has gained new markets in England
and on the Continent.-New York
Pastoral S taff of a Bishop.
Atter the recent consecration of
the venerable Michael Furee to be
Bishop of Pretoria, various presenta
tions were made to him, including a
'remarkable pastoral staff. In view
of the district in which it is to be used
it has been most cleverly designed,
with symbols illustrative of local
scenes and traditions, besides em
blems of the Episcopal office. It has
a "stack, a dump and a headgear" to
represent the mines. It has a wagon
and an ox crossing a ford, to repre
sent the diocese in which the newly
made Bishop was ordained. It has a
lion to represent England, and a cer
tain device to represent Pretoria, be
sides an anchor and an eagle to rep
resent the United. States, in honor of
the country from which the Bishop's
wife came-a. truly representative
Episcopal staff.-Pall Mall Gazette.
Beeswax From China.
British manufacturers of blacking
purchase large crates of beeswax/
The beeswax imported from China is
in large cubes, each done up .In a
written guaranty of purity and quality.
Nevertheless, deep down in the mid
dle of the crates are lumps of a sub
stance resembling European brick,
trimmed to the exact shape of a gen
uine packet of beeswax. In other
cases cubes when unwrapped are still
apparently genuine wax, but on being
sliced open are found to contain a
large core of shavings, dirt and gen
eral floor sweepings of a busy factory.
Last year more than 32,000 chil
dren were taught to swim at the Lon
don publie schools.
BORN IN POVERTY,
DR. COOK SUCCEED
Saving Worr His Medical Degree, He
' Jumped at thc Chance to Go
North With Peary.
% ?. "bB. h % ?. s io h
The man who has accomplished
what daring explorers 'for centuries
have striven to do was known in Sul
livan County, New York, where he
was born, as a "Callicoon Dutch
man," and for years was a partner
in the milk business with his brother.
Dr Frederick Albert Cook, physi
cian, surgeon, scientist and explorer,
comes Of Pennsylvania Dutch stock,
the family name being Koch. : His
father, Dr. Theodore Albert Cook,
settled with others of the same stock
near Callicoon, a station on the Erie
Railroad in Sullivan County, and
there Dr. Cook was born forty-four
years ago. His father died when he
was very young. He got his first
schooling in the primitive school
house at Hortonville, two miles from
Callicoon, and later in the. public
schools of Brooklyn, to which his
family moved in his boyhood, and
where he has since lived when not
trying to reach the North Pole or
the South Pole, or engaged in ether
scientific expeditions. He got his de
gree of M. D. at the University of
New York in 1890 when twenty-five
From boyhood Dr. Cook was Inter
ested in scientific explorations and
in 1891, after struggling a year to
build up a practice, jumped at the
chance to go to the Far North as
surgeon with Peary, That first trip
gave him the Arctic fever and fired
him with ambition to be the first
man to reach the North Pole.
In 1894 Dr. Cook was in charge of
an expedition for scientific research
along the coasts of Newfoundland,
Labrador and Greenland in the
steamer Miranda. The party includ
ed fifty-four scientists and students.
All that this expedition planned was
not accomplished, an accident to the
Miranda forcing it to return at a
date earlier than had been fixed.
The years 1897-8-9 he spent on an;
Antarctic expedition on the ship B?l
gica, commanded by Capt. Adrian de*
Gerlache. On that expedition the
B?lgica drifted more than 2000 miles
in the ice fields. The most, southern
point reached while fast in the ice was
70 degffees. Much new land in Wen
del Sea was discovered and active
Returning from his south Polar
trip, Dr. Cook devoted himself to geo
graphical exploration in this country,
his particular aim being to ascend
Mount McKinley, the highest moun
tain in North America and the most
conspicuous of the Alaskan range. It
is 20,400 feet high, dome shaped and
with two.simmits about two miles
'In 1903 Dr. Cook made his first
attempt to scale Mount McKinley,
and like all his predecessors, failed.
He reached a height of 11,400 feet,
a little more than half the way to
In 1906 he made a second and suc
cessful attempt, profiting by the e&~[
rjerience gained in his first venture. .
He had to endure all manner of hard
It was in 1892 that Dr Cook mar
ried. His wife-and to her,belongs,
much of the credit of his achieve
ments-was Miss . Mary Fidell Hunt.
They have two children, both girls,
Ruth and Helen, who are seven and
eight years old respectively.
Mrs. Cook has contributed her
share to the success of her husband
as an explorer. Without complaint
she has remained at home, caring for
their children, while he has been
away. Her anxiety and worry for his -
safety have been most keen, as moro
than a year has elapsed at times with
out her receiving a single word from
him. Her anxieties have not beeni
confined to worry for his safety. Thel;
Cooks are not rich. The explorer hast
no fortune, not even a competence.!.
Since he left New York in the sum
mer of 1907 Mrs. Cook has had to
bear not only the strain of not know- j
ing whether her husband was dead or
living, but also of finding a way for
keeping the little f; aiily together.
Dr Cook has had many honors
thrust upon him for his achievements.
He has been decorated with the Or
der of Leopold of Belgium, with the.
gold medal of the Royal Society, Bel
gium, and with the silver medal of
the Royal George Society, Belgium,
He is a member of the American Na
tional and Philadelphia Geographical
Societies and of the Kings County
Baseball in Iowa.
In the third and fourth our swat
ters leaped upon Mr. Johnsing and
rent him, after which they sub-let !
him. By the time the dead had been
removed from the field the enemy
had yielded up four runs, due largely
to Mr. Johnsing's mistaking the M.
and 0. roundhouse for the plate. But
he was not the only one whose brain,
was ninety per cent, addled. The
nimble Mr. Rogers, who played all
day like a bunstruck goat, and the
agile Mr. "Brink, who cavorted around
in centre field like an ossified octoge
narian, gave Mr. Johnsing the daz-:'
zling support of a Ferris waist on a
lat lady. At the end of the fourth
Mr. Johrislng removed himself from
the footlights by request and twirled
sad thumbs on the bench.-Manches
ter (Iowa) Press.
Same, But Different.
Most lawyers take a keen delight
trying to confuse medical experts in
the witness box in murder trials, and
often they get paid back in their own
coin. A case is recalled where the
lawyer, after exercising all his tang
ling tactics without effect, looked
quizzically at the doctor who was tes-'
tifying and said:
"You will admit that doctors some
times make mistakes, won't you?"
"Oh, yes; the same as lawyers/*
was the cool reply.
"And doctors' mistakes are buried
six feet under ground," was the law
yer's triumphant reply. '
"Yes," he replied, "and the law
yers' mistakes often swing in the air.*'
' ?-Philadelphia Ledser. .'.u-?._
JSCHE WEALTH FUNDERS.
Many of Them Have Died in Wretch?
ed Poverty, 4$gg&^ '
"Recent -dispatches from Colorado
Springs carried the announcement 'Of
the death of Bob Womack, a man de
pendent on charity. Recently, also,
the cable from Melbourne told that
Francis Webster had died in the poor
house' at Ballarat, Australia. What
doth it profit a man if he find great
wealth and if the find wreck his life?
Life must have been one continual
tragedy for Bob Womack, as, when
doing odd chores around his sister's
boarding house he looked out over
the great Cripple Creek gold fields,
which he had discovered and which
have become the source of $250,000,
000 of the world's gold. Yet he sold
his life-and the find was his life-?
for $300. And as old Francis Web
ster sat idly in the Ballarat benevo
lent asylum he looked over on that
famous south hill out of which he
had lifted boulders of pure gold such
as the world fiad never dreamed of
even in fiction. The "Welcome Nug
get" alone weighed 165 pounds avoir
Both these men had dreamed of
great valleys of gold, but certainly
their dreams were nothing to com
pare with the gold they enabled oth
ers to find. First they dreamed of
gold and all of the reminder of their
lives they dreamed of what they had
lost. There often is a distressing
connecting link between great, sud
den wealth and the poor house. The
death of these two men on opposite
sides of the earth coming so close
together serves, to recall the uncer
tainty of windfall riches.
Three years ago William Deeson
died in an Australian poor house.
His name will always be known in
mining history, for he lifted out of
mother earth the greatest :iump of
gold that she has ever yielded. It
was 210 pounds of gold so pure that
it "cut like a Cheshire cheese."
With the possible exception of the
Witwatersrand probably no other
small area has ever produced wealth
equal to that which the Comstock
lode has yielded, yet Patrick Mc
Laughlin and Peter O'Riley died
paupers-McLaughlin filling a pau
per grave, and O'Riley wearing out
his disappointed life prospecting
alone. And Henry Comstock, beg
gared, and suffering from delusion,
ended his miserable life with a bul
So the tragedies of lives not mold
ed to enjoy or to be cursed! with
great wealth might be enumerated
almost without limit. The tragedies
have by no means been limited to
precious metals or to individuals.
The finding of the land, and the !
greatest gold deposit the world has
ever known, lost the Boers their na
tion; the child of Schalk Van Nie
kirk, that one day happened to carry
one of the shining pebbles from the
Orange River up to the house, where
It was rolled around as a marble un
til its sparkle, opened the greatest
diamond fields in the history of the
world, is a poor wanderer on the
face of the globe to-day while the
find even robbed the-Van Nlekirks of
their humble home. ' .
The tragedy of the negro shepherd
who found the great B?hia diamond
fields is only equalled by the tragedy
of the' convict that discovered gold
in Australia. The former, whim he
offered fer inspection $30,000 of as
pure gems as the world has ever
seen, was arrested and returned to
his master under severe punishment
and suspicion, while .the diamonds
were confiscated. But the poor New
South Wales convict that brought in
the small nugget that was the open
s?same to fields that have yielded
$2,500,000,000 of gold, suffered not
only loss of the nugget, but commit
ment to hard labor and 150 stripes
"laid on" for having "melted down
the case of a stolen gold watch."-?
Indianapolis News. .. .
B^'T Port?la Festival Sign.
By .the courtesy of the commandant
pf the Naval Training Station, the
committee which have in charge the
Port?la Festival, commemorating the
discovery of San Francisco Bay by
Port?la in. 1769, have constructed on
Yerba Buena Island, San Francisco
Bay, what is probably the largest sign
ever erected. The sign, which has
been cut on the sloping hills of the
Island, is 1300 feet long by 135 feet,
high. The words "Port?la Festival,
October 19th-23d,? are arranged in
two lines, each letter of which occu
pies a space forty-five feet,by forty
five feet, the outline of the letters be
ing eight feet in width. The work
was done by digging trenches eight
inches in depth and filling them with
lime, which shows up clear and white
against the green of the hillside.-?
. The number of students at the
German universities c?ntinues to in
crease. There were 51,700 matricu
lated students this year, compared
with 47,799 last summer. Of these
25,638 attended the Prussian univer
sities. The chief increase took place
In philology,medicine, natural science
and especially in dentistry. There
were 11,657 law students, 9642 in
medicine, 13,911 in philology and
ui3tory and 7385 in mathematics and
natural science. Berlin, as usual,
beads the list with 7194. There were
at Leipsic 4581; at Bonn, 3S01; Frei
burg, 27G0; Breslau, 2347; Halle,
2310; Gottingen, 2239; Heidelberg,
2171; Marburg, 2134; Tubingen,
1921; Jena, .1606; Munich, 1547,
and Wurzburg, 13G9.-The Athen?
? Dreadnought on the 'Phone.
When the English fleet assembled
for the recent display in the Thames
one of the first things done was to
make it possible to ring up the Dread
: A steam cutter with a drum cf tele
phone wire laid a submarine line from
the pier to the vessel. The shore end
waa connected with the regular ex
change. This was done to save the
high voltage electricity required foi
wireless.-New York Sun.
A blind and rich farmer is in Pitts
burg seeking a wife, who, he insists,
"must he pretty." .
.! Another Version*
Maud Muller donned a gingham neat
One Hummer's day,
And 'went and raxed the meadow sweet
?With new mown hay.
The Judge passed in his touring car,
A fast machine; #
'And then the meadow smelt of tar
. ' ;. --Philadelphia Bulletin.
.. V" ?
' Clumsily Put. v
"Going across for pleasure?"
"No, merely to' Dring the? wife
home."-Cassell's Saturday Journal.
.vaSS??? -- x$??ii3r~
ff An Early Skyscraper. .r?s
"We are trying to catch up with
the cost of living," they cried.
Herewith they added the 'steento
story.-New York Sun. ;.v
'~ -:;-.)^-- The Worst.'"'"
Knicker-"What is the worst that
Bocker-"If women dressed to
please men and cooked to please
themselves."--New York Sun.
^rmnfyri His position,
"A lock of Napoleon's hair recently
fetched $40 at auction."
"Well, I'd gladly pay at that rate
for my own hair if I could get it
hack." - Louisville Courier-Journal.
P'T''* Pleading For Tim?
.'Amelia, I am going to ask you the
old, old question."
"O, Herbert, this is entirely unex
pected! I need tim? to think! Please
ask it hypothetically!"-Chicago Tri
f '-? The Rub. ' : ?.
"I want work of some .kind." * 7*
"Why don't you pick up an aban
doned farm and run it?"
"I would if I could also pick up
some abandoned experience."-Kan
sas City Journal. t
f" A Rainy Spell Philosopher.
Noah was disgruntled.
"It is very nice to be saved, but
there is nobody to borrow an um
brella from," he complained.
Thus we see all situations have
their drawbacks.-New York Sun.
; -. . m
pri.?^.-.r,.>. i.. . ubel. ""r,"^~
"I see that royal blood has been
discovered iu au old American fam
"Don't believe it. Some gossip Is,
always making a slam at our old fam
ilies."-Philadelphia Public Ledger.
To His Credit. [
"What do you most admire about
Hamlet?" said one actor.
"The fact," replied the other, "that
he didn't employ alienists to prove
that he had a brain storm or some
sort of dementia." - Washington
c. -- - Familiar Scenes.
"Yes; I'm just back from Europe."
"Did you see any towns abroad
that reminded you of home?"
"Oh, yes. In Venice everything
was flooded, and in Pompeii the
streets were dug up."-Kansas City
"Now that you're living In the
country," said Cityman, "don't you
miss the early morning noise and bus
tle of the city?"
"I do," replied Subburbs, "if I
miss the 7.10 train." - Catholic
Standard and Times.
l' IP"' A Pructical Youngster.
"Why do you think your baby ls
such a clever child?"
"Because," answered the sensible
woman, "he just laughs and plays
and has a good time instead of think
ing up smart sayings for us to :-epeat
to the neighbors."-Washington Star.
Good Reason. Y."^:v-r
"Ma," said a newspaper man'.? son,
"I know why editors call themuelvei
"So the mau that doesn't Ilks the
article will think there are too :aany
people for him to tackle."-From An
swers. . -
The man who has just married his
stepmother is the most cheerful opti
mist in the world.-Philadelphia In
Indeed? And what have you to
say of the man who married his
mother-in-law? - Cleveland Plain
A Champion cf the Cause.
Friend-"Why do you encourage
these woman suffrage meetings?
Surely you don't approve of theta?"
Husband-"Approve? With all
my heart! I can come home as late
as I like now without finding my wife
at home to ask questions."-File?
They were on the St. Joe boat.
"Percey," asked Claribel, snug
ging closer, "what's making that
rasping, cracking noise?"
"It's the wireless telegraphic ap
paratus, dear," said Percey. "It's
sparking, too."-Chicago Tribune.
Not Quite So Cad.
"It would please me very much,
Miss Stout," said Mr. Mugly, "If you
would go to the theatre with me this
"Have you sccureo. the seats?" in
quired Miss Vera Stout.
"Oh, come, now," he protested,
"you're not so heavy as all that!"
Modern Method*' Ti
Farmer, Fruit Groi
Renewal of Old Strawberry Beds.
Many of the leading growers of the
strawberry recommend taking but a
single crop from a plantation. This
means getting only one crop from the
land during two years. Thus, after
the picking season is over the plants
are plowed under and the land is pre
pared and planted to some late forage
or other crop. This method also re
quires setting a new plantation each
spring and keeping a double area of
land in strawberries* for at least a
part of the time.
In this State, however, two, three
and sometimes more crops are-taken
from a plantation in successive years.
Some growers state that the second
year's crop ls often greater than that
of the first year after setting the
.plants, while the third is apt to be in
ferior to the first two. The number
of crops that can be harvested with
profit appears to depend to a consid
erable extent upon the method of re
newal, the care and freedom from
weeds, and the use of fertilizing ma
terials. In some cases six and seven
crops of berries have been taken from
the same plantation before putting
the land into other crops, but this is
not regarded as profitable. .
Two methods of renewal, with
some variations, wei , noted. In one
method the old rows are narrowed
down to about one foot by light plow
ing or deep cultivating between the
rows. During the remainder of the
season cultivation and irrrigation ure
given the same as in new plantations,
the runners being allowed to root
along the sides of the rows until the
spaces are only about one foot wide.
Additional thinning of the plants
in the rows is frequently secured by
"blocking" the old rows. This is
done by hand with a hoe or by means
of a cultivator run crosswise of the
In the second method of renewal
the rows are plowed along one side
about one-third only of the width of
each row being left. The correspond
ing side of each row is plowed under
and the next year the reverse side is
thus treated. In this way all cf the
oldest and weakest plants are re
moved, ?nd the next year the rows do
not stand on the same land as the
This method possesses two dis
tinct advantages over the former.
First, it allows of the breaking up
and cultivation of the soil in the cen
tre of the old row, which has become
packed and hard. Second, the plants
left to send out runners are younger
and possess more vitality than those
in the centre of the old flow, and are,
therefore, capable of producing better
plants. This method seems better
adapted to longer duration 'of the
plantation than the former, and is the
one practiced by many of the most
Canse of Gapes in Chicks.
' Gapes in little chickens are caused
by the eating of earth-worms. There
are parasites in the earth-worms
which find their way into the wind
pipe of the chickens and lodge there,
where they take the form of little red
worms. The 'best preventive is to
keep the chickens from the surface
of the ground; or use salt or strong
salt water on the soil, so as to kill the
earth-worms; or strew strong lime
or something of tho kind on the
ground, so that the chicks will not
get hold of the worms to eat them.
After the chicks have been attacked
with gapes, however, you can dis
lodge the worms by making a very
small loop in a twisted horsehair,
draw out the tongue of the chick
slightly, insert the horsehair kop in
the windpipe opening, which will be
seen between the forks at the base of
the tongue, and, twisting the hair
around, withdraw it. The worms are
likely to be found within the loop, or
some of them will have been thus re
moved, and the operation can be re
Another remedy ls to dip the tip of
a soft feather into kerosene and in
sert lt in the windpipe opening to dis
lodge and kill the worms. Such
treatment, although severe, ls bet
ter than letting the worms remai a un
disturbed, to severely annoy the Jowls
and even kill them.
Mixing turpentine or other sub
stances in the food of the young poul
try has not proven satisfactory as a
remedy for gapes.-H. A. S.
Best Summer Pasture.
In reply to a Mississippi subscriber
who asked about a pasture grass for
rather poor upland, making about
half a bale of cotton to the acre, I re
plied as follows:
"Bermuda is certainly the best
summer pasture grass you can have
on such soil and in your climate, and
I think that there is very little danger
of its spreading unless cut and fed
for hay. Closely pastured it will sel
"But if you do not want Bermuda'
Little Room For Improvement.
""Well," asked the agent, "how do
you like this flat?" "I must say,"
replied the lady who was examining
it, "that there's little room for im
provement. ' '- Chicago Record-Her
"Seeing Things at Night."
Mrs. Upper Tenne: "Yes, doctor,
black and red spots appear before my
eyes every night. -What would you
advise me to do for it?" Doctor:
"Stop playing bridge, madam."
"I like to visit that collection of
musical instruments in the museum."
"What pleasure can you derive from
viewing a lot of musical instruments
locked up in cases?" "I like to see
'em safely out of circulation. I live
in a flat. ' '-Louisville Courier-Journal.
To Be Quite Modern.
"Tomnry, you have written this
sentence. 'The pen is mightier as the
sword,' and it is incorrect. How
should it be changed?" "Pen ought
to be changed to typewriter, ma'am."
haf Are Helpful to ? ,
ver and Stockman.
I would use a mixture o? ten pounds
of orchard grass, five pounds of red?
top and ten pounds of . tali :neadcw,.
oat grass per acre. You must use
liberal seeding to get a good turf.
Then on that land apply 300 pounds
of cottonseed meal and 100 pounds
of acid phosphate per acre burrowed
in before sowing the grass. Sow in
late October or early Nov?mbei:. Here
I would add. to the fertilizer about
fifty pounds of muriate of potash;
per acre, but they say that potash is
not needed in your State. Atter get
ting a stand of grass, keep it fiood by;,
an annual top-dressing of some fer
tilizer and keep the weeds mown oft
.and the droppings scattered with a?
harrow, and the pasture wili improve
annually. Then to prevent brooms
edge from getting started, spread!
some lime on it and harrow it fine
with a slant-tooth smoothing harrow;
about once in four or five years, and
if the Bermuda creeps in do not worry; *
about it, for you can have nothing
better in summer.-Progressive"
Very much has been written on this
subject during the last few months,
since the fact that a number of cases
have been reported In the '.Southern.
Pellagra is an old disease, and oc
curs extensively in the northern, partis
bf Italy, where it has been called- Al
pine scurvy, or Italian leprosy. The '.:.
trouble begins with indefinite diges
tive disturbances with insomnia, but
as it progresses there appears an
eruption of the skin, followed by su
peration and the formation o i dark
crusts. The "mental depression is
profound. It'is claimed to be caused
from eating bread made of moldy or
smutty corn. Reports are made that ~
this disease has been known in the .
South for the past thirty yeare, but
the physicians have diagnosed the
disease under various names. With? *
the numerous reports sent out by the
press of the gravity of this dreaded}
disease, a complaint followed front.
the operators of grist mills ? of tho
falling off of their trade for corn!.
meal. While it is a much dreaded!
disease, there are no reasons for be
coming unduly alarmed, for if usera
of corn meal exercise care in purchas
ing meal from reliable mills there is
no danger whatever of contracting1
this disease.-Southern Fruit Growee
Hay For ?3 a Ton.
With beef cattle on the farm the
millions of tons of corn stalks that
rot in our fields, and that-represent'
from thirty-five to forty per cent, of
the feeding value of the corn crop,
would be'converted into beef anti
manure. The thousands of tons of
oats an.d wheat straw, tb? large q nan-,
titles of slightly damaged hay, the
many tons'of sorghum, peavine and
soy bean hay too coarse for; the mar
ket, would all be eaten by the cuttle
and help to enrich the farm and the
The question of producing feed to
grow beef cattle is not a serious one -
in the South, as I will "endeavor to
prove. Last fall we planted one Held '
in oats; the oats were cut for hay In.
the dough state; the land was then
planted in sorghum; the sorghum'
yielded two cuttings; the total yield '
of hay per acre from this field was
six and a fourth tons. Including $3 Y
per acre rent for the land, the liayf
cost $2.60 per ton in the rick. An
adjoining field was planted in wheat
to be cut for hay; the wheat was fol
lowed with cowpeas, the total yield
of hay per acre was 3.85 tons; includ
ing $3 per acre rent, the hay cost $3
per ton in the rick.-Professor E. R,
?-? ' ?i :
Cut the Grass Early and Often.
I have heard men who should have
known better, say that it is best to
let newly sown lawns grow without e
cutting, and let the grass run to seed,
the notion being that the seed w.'H
help thicken the sward. But try this
and you will find that you have a
brown hay stubble when the ripe
grass is cut, and the formation of
seed has weakened the grads so that
more harm than good is done by the
seeding. Start the mower on the
newly sown lawn as soon as the grass
is tall enough for it to catch, ani
then, while rain is abundant, run th 3
mower every week.
In making a new lawn where th?
soil ls sandy on the surface, get tho
plow down to clay if practicable, for
clay ls essential to grass in the South.,
and if deep sand, then haul clay on
it, and grow peas for a time to get
organic decay in the soil before seed
ing to grass.
A fine green sward is well worth'
working for, and when you have got
ten a fine sod around your house use
trees and shrubbery for the framing, *
and do not frame it with a fence and
then make a pasture of it.-W. F.
There's a Difference.
Curch: "Does your wife spent
much of her time shoppin?" Goth
am: "She says not. She says she
spends most of her time waiting for .
her change."-Yonkers Statesman.
Seasoned Well, of Course.
Ostend: "Pa, this magazine states
that there are so many seasoned duel
ists over in Germany. What is a
* seasoned duelist V ' Pa : ' " One that
has been well peppered, mv son."
Landlady (to Prospective Lodger):
"May I harsk what you har, sirf" ?
Prospective Lodger (impressively) r
"I am a humble follower of the mnse,
madam." Landlady: "Hindeed, ?r?
My last lodger was connected with
the stables, sir."-The Tailer.
'Tis the mind that makes the body
To live in hearts we leave behind
is not to die.-Camubell.