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Mighty G erm a ny
Sy Admirai con Koester, of the German Mavy
HE carrying out of our naval Urogramme is necessary to
protect us against the attacks of nations, which view our
economic success with jealous eyes. We require these suc
cesses bectuse the steady increase of our population compels
ns to devote special attention to the growth of our over-sea
Interests. Nothing but the strict fulfillment of our naval
programme can create for us that importance upon the free
world-sea which it is incumbent on us to demand. It is
said that Germany cannot bear the burden of double arma
ments by Zand and sea. The steady Increase of our population compels us
to set ourselves new goals, and to grow from a Continental into a world pow
er. Our mighty industry must aspire to new over-sea conquests. The number
of our merchant ships must be increased. We must dignify our colonies
with more importance." Our world trade, which has more than doubled in
twenty years-which has increased from $2,500,000,000 to $4,000,000,
000 during the ten years since our naval programme was fixed-and $3,000,
000,000 of which is sea-borne commerce alone, can only flourish if we con
tinue honorably to bear the burdens of our armaments on land and sea. The
German nation in 1900, after mature reflection, adopted the naval programme
Meantime our national fortune has grown by at least $5,000,000,000-the esti
mate of'$500,000,000 a year is none too high-while the population has in
creased by 8,000,000. Thanks to strong land armaments Continental Ger
many .has enjoyed the blessings of peace for forty years, and has raised her
self to great affluence. Unless our children are to accuse us of shortsighted
ness lt is now our duty to secure our world power and position among other
nations. We can do that only under the protection of a strong German
fleet, constructed according to the provisions of our naval law-a fleet which
shall guarantee us peace with honor for the distant futre.
M**\ ff wtii^rftiTi?Vii V*\
European Superiority ?
Speculations on the Cause of Hurts to Amer?
By Padraic Emmet Smith ?
?tt*M*to??M4yw* WI/- ********** ?)
MKK1CANS sometimes compiadn of tue supercilious bear
ing shown by a good many Europeans, and particularly by
the inhabitants of. the British Isles, toward persons and af
fairs American. This European disdain is an undeniable
reality and 4s directly due to the infantile enthusiasm and
awe s?own by the average travelling Americans, and partic
ularly by their womenkincl, in the presence of anything
which has no counterpart in their own country.
A crazy old edifice marred by time, a chinless dude
with a title, a dirty little town which has been mentioned in history, anything
to which a rag of aristocratic sentiment can be tied, suffices to excite their
wonder. A manager at a London hotel once told me that an American girl
that day had collected the shells of some nuts which an earl had been eating.
Rich Americans in Europe have the reputation of being unmitigated snobs.
Mediocrists from Europe, whom the average European does not know, are
lionized here and mobbed by "society."
A few months ago a humdrum Teat by the brother, or rather the horse
ot the brother, of a British lord sent a Madison Square Garden "society"
crowd mad with enthusiasm. What wonder that Europeans are supercilious?
What wonder that they should be surprised and delighted at the social humil
ity of Americans, and that they should believe that everything here is below
the level of the smug mediocrity of which they are themselves secretly
V? & & ytf
- Neurasthenia- the 1
Cy Henry Van Dyke
URIOUSLY enough, it was in France that the best treatment
of this disease developed, and one of the famous practition
ers, Dr. Charcot, died, if I mistake not, of the complaint to
the cure of which he had given his life. In spite of the ract
that nervous disorders are common among Americans, they
do not seem to lead to an unusual number of cases of men
tal wreck. I have be"*n iooklng into the statistics of insan
ity. The latest trustworthy ligures that I could find are as
follows: In 1900, the United States had 100,500 insane per
? "ats m a population of 76 millions. In 1896 Great Britain and Ireland had
128,800 in a population of 37 millions. In 1884 France had 93.900 in a popula
tion of 40 millions. That would make about 328 insane persons in 100,000
for Great Britain, 235 in every 100,000 for France, 143 in every 100,000 for
Nor does the wesr and tear of American life, great as it may be, seem
to kill people with extraordinary rapidity. In 1900 the annual death rate
?per 1,000 in Austria was 25, in Italy 23, in Germany 22, in France 21, in Bel
gium 19, in Great Britain 18, and in the United States 17. 1 In America the
average age at death in 1890 was 31 years; in 1900 it had risen to 35 years.
Other things such as climate, sanitation, hygiene must be taken into account
in reading these figures. But after making all allowance for these things,
the example of America does not indicate that an active, busy, quick-moving
life is necessarily a short one. On the contrary, hard work seems to be
( wholesome, and energy favors longevity.-American Magazine.
The Point at Which We
Ey S. P. Eoione
OPULAR thought begins by assuming that matter is the
mest certain of all things. Spirit may be doubted, but
material things are undeniably there. This ls the convic
tion with which we all begin ?*nd it very easily leads us
toward mechanical and materialistic thinking. The view,
however, is invested. The only sure facts in life are our
selves and the world of common experience, t?e nuruan
world in short
This is where we really begin and waere ure itself goes
?o, and ail thinking whatever that we may do must be related to these facts,
and whatever we believe must in some way be deduced from these facts. Mat
ter, then, as a metaphysical existence is no first fact, but only an abstrac
tion from experience. Life and experience are the first facts.
Now with this starting point we find ourselves living, thinking, feeling,
acting and producing a great many effects in the world of experience. We
are in this world depending upon It in some ways and able to act upon it and
modify it in some ways.
The physical world, then, is far from independent of our thought and ac
tion. We, the living persons, modify the world of things, use it for our pur
poses, build cities; traverse seas, subdue nature to our service, develop gov
ernment, social institutions, etc.; and in all of this we find ourselves given
as active and controlling causes.-North American Review.
King Victor Receives Medal.
King Victor Emmanuel has re
ceived General Stewart: L. Woodford,
who, on behalf of the Hudson-Fulton
Celebration Commission, presented to
.the Government of Italy a gold me lal
struck in commemoration of the 300th
anniversary of the exploration of the
The audience w5s most cordial. H's
Majesty was greatly interested in the
medal, which he much admired, say
ing that it was one of the be2t type3
of the numismatic art.
A Worldly Impression.
"What is the cause of that prima
"The press agent," replied the im
presario. "He Siid she sang like an
angel. She says that all the aDpels.
she ever knew couldn't sing. They
merely wrote checks."-Washington
There is some question whether
London or Paris sets the fashion in
furs each year. London certainly sets
HOW AN AERO!
AS SHOWN B'
A Simple Explanat
? technical T<
The aeroplane of Glenn H. Curtlss,
In which he made his Albany-New
York flight, is the one from which the
accompanying diagrams are drawn.
The Curtiss machine is held to have
proved itself, by the. recent flight, the
mest advanced type of aeroplane yet
devised in. America, possibly in the
The Curtiss aeroplane is shown in
ground plan in Figure 1. The aero
plane flies in the direction indicated
by the arrows. A is the altitude rud
der, perched out at the end of a bam
boo framework, in front of the driver.
FIG: AROUND PLAN
B B, are the two stabilizing rudders,
out at the ends of the planes. C is
the rudder for lateral steering,
perched out behind, as A is before.
P P is the upper sustaining plane,
four feet under which lies the lower
sustaining plane, parallel and of the
same shape and size. In front of the
planes is the steering wheel, W. Just
back of W is the aeroplanist's seat, S,
and between the planes is placed the1
big engine. Back of the engine and
behind the big planes is the pro
peller, X. /
In the type of aeroplane now most
developed, the propeller, X, placed be
hind the engine, E, and the driver, at
S, forces the machine forward in a
horizontal direction. The planes, P,
P, catch the air on their under sur
faces, slightly inclined and concaved
for that purpose. The pressure lifts
the machine in the air or sustains it
there at a desired level.
The engine that supplies the power
is a gasolene explosion motor closely
similar to that used in automobiles.
Only slight differences are necessi
tated by the adapting of the engine
to the aeroplane. The controls for
the magneto and gjfeolene supply are
placed forward oiWhe engine, at the
driver's seat, S, for he is under the
disadvantage of sitting in front of the
It ts now to be seen how the pro
peller. X, driven by the engine, E,
sends forward the machine, which is
sustained by the gliding on the air of
the plane, P P, and the similar plane
under it. There remains to be seen
the more delicate and difficult part of
Rubies weighing eighty carats can
be built up. These rubies after they
have cooled are split lengthwise. They
are cut and polished, the final polish
ing being done with tripoli and wat
er. The cut gems ready for the mar
ket are worth about forty cents a
This price is insignificant as com
pared with that of the natural Burma
ruby, whose market value is almost
fabulous. Chemically, optically and
physically the "scientific" rubies are
identically the same as the natural
stones. Even in both forms the mic
roscopic air bubbles called "frogs" or
"inclusions" are present.
Lacroix, the geologist and mineral
ogist, asserts that the artificial ruby
cannot be distinguished from the nat
ural, while Pinier, a leading gem ex
pert of Paris, claims that they can
readily be distinguished. At any rate
the pawnbrokers of Paris have placed
rubies under the ban, and it is almost
impossible to secure loans when ru
bies of any description are offered as
Y GLENN GURTISS
ion of Flight in Un?
erms For the
flying,' namely the work of keeping
the flyer straight and level. Each of
the ruddere, A, B B and C, does its
own particular share of this work.
It is a threefold work, and far more
complicated than the control of auto
mobile, ship or bicycle. All these
travel on a horizontal surface and
are guided only to right and left.
The function of the forward rud
der, A, is to turn the course of the
aeroplane up or down. Right here
the tremendous difference between
the aeroplane and almost all methods
of locomotion known to us becomes
OF ?URTISS AEROPLANE}
apparent. To realize the difference,
it is only necessary to try to conceive
an automobile that one could, by a
turn of (the wrist, start to soaring up
ward frbm the ground. Nothing elso
so freeland complete in the whole
realm of motion, as known to human
experience, exists as in the aeroplane
of to-day, rude and imperfect, com
pared td Its prospects, as it still pre
sumably is. And the freedom and
compl?te command of space that dis
tinguish the aeroplane all lie in rud
der k, the altitude rudder.
Figure 2 ls a drawing of the essen
tial Retails of this wonderful rudder
The rudder is shown from a point of
observatbn forward of it and to its
The r'tdder consists of two hori
zontal panes, p p. They are con
nected vith a framework similar in
shape to the skeleton of an oblong
box. Tbs framework bj? the planes
p p for it top and bottiw^ides. The
framewok hinges at the two ends on
the axis; represented by the dotted
line, a. ,t is by turning on this hinge
that theplanes are made to act as
This ation is produced in the fol
lowing ianner: When the frame
work is ilted so that the fronts of
the plans point upward, the air
through vhich the aeroplane is ad
vancing atches on their under side.
The presare of the air on the under
sides of .te planes lifts them up, and
so lifts te nose of the whole aero
plane upimaking it take an upward
When, m the other hand, the i
HE AERPLANE; SHOWING, TH!
How tiiunt Wolves in India.
The auOrities of Hazaribagh are
inviting sHsmen to help in the ex
terminaticof a pack of wolves which
have estabhed a reign of terror in
the neight-hood. The reward is at
present R 50 for each full groxvn
wolf. Elpn children have been
killed betten February 7 and 23 in
the tract [lng between Barhi and
Cohwparapolice stations, a distance
of thirteejniles. The wolves hunt
from earlmorning till noon and
again fro? o'clock till sunset.
The aufrities make the following
suggestioij Sportsmen should not
attempt tTlde up to the wolves,
j When thetck is sighted the sports
man sho'ujsend away his pony and
his attencjts and should approach
them leisiy and alone. He should
wear a tuin and make himself look
as like a lisant as possible. The
rifle shoul e carried as if it were a
eral of t
of the Lieutenant-Gen
Uaited States Army ls
THE TWO MO
planes p p are tilted downward, th<
air as it is cleft presses on theil
top surfaces and forces them to poin
earthward. And so they give th<
downward direction to the course o
the aeroplane, when the flyer desire:
to fly lower.
It will readily be seen that withou
the altitude rudder, A, the aeroplani
would be helpless.
How is the altitude rudder con
trolled by .the areoplanist? Th<
view in Fig. 2 shows this in the ap
paratus, eec. This is a peculiar bu'
perfectly simple device. The ruddei
is pushed forward or pulled back bj
a long rod. The rod runs from a
crosspiece of the framework of the
rudder back to the steering wheel. 11
is fastened at the hub of the wheel
The wheel works backward and for
ward as well as turning.
More vital still than the altitude
rudder, and certainly more of a de
parture from all other known meth
ods of equilibrium, are the stabilizing
rudders or fins, B B. The working ol
these is shown in Fig. 3.
An aeroplane is poised as delicate
ly on its airy even keel as a tightrope
walker on his wire. The stabilizing
fins serve the same purpose as do the
fan of the Japanese tightrope per
former. They save the flyer from tip
ping over to one side or the! other.
Fig. 3 will show how this is done.
The purpose of the arrangement here
shown is to to tilt the one plane up
ward and the oppisite one downward
at the same time.
The control- of the planes, B E, lies
in the wires cece. The axis of each
plane lies in the dotted line, A. "fhe
wires, cc, fastened behind the axes of
the planes, tilt them by an upward or
downward pull. The wires c c run
down from each plane to a pulley at
the corner of the lower sustaining
plane, P. From the pulley they run
straight to the top of the back of the
driver's seat, S. There they are
fastened. When it sways to the right,
it pulls the wire that draws down the
rear of the stabilizing plane out at
the left wing tip. When the seat
sways to the left, it draws down the
stabilizing plane at the right wing
The wring, c c, runs also up from
the tops of the stabilizing planes
through pulleys overhead, and so con
nects the stabilizing planes from
above. When, therefore, one stabiliz
ing plane has its after edge pulled
down by the tilting of the seat back,
the same pull, communicated by the
wire overhead to the other stabiliziug
plane, pulls its rear up. Whichever
way the one stabilizing plane is
turned, the other .one is turned oppo
The manner in which this action
rights the aeroplane-will be readily
understood. The process is as fol
lows: As soon as, in the course of
flight, the ?aeroplane sags to the left, !
the driver leans over to the right in
his seat. It is the motion that he !
would naturally make to find his own
equilibrium. In leaning to the right
he pushes the seat back over with
him. This pulls the wire that draws
iown the left stabilizing fin's after
part. Thus the fin turns on its axis,
Dr in such a way as to present a slant
lng under surface to the wind. The |
wind delivers an upward pressure on
his surface, and this upward pressure j
:ends to right the sagging left end of
;he aeroplane. At the same time the ?
lull that started from the seat back
An Opalized Snake.
What is supposed to be an opalized
nake has been discovered by a pros
ector at White Cliffs opal fields,
outh Australia, from whom it has
een secured by an Adelaide rest
ent named S. Saunders.
On what appeared to be a piece of
.on-stone, dark brown in color, and
lerefore making an excellent back
round to show off the precious stone,
as embedded the form of a small
aake or lizard of pure opal. Tbe
liling body measured about two in
?es in length and the head and eyes
re to be plainly seen. Even the
:ales of the back can be discerned.
Before Mr. Saunders secured it the
lecimen had been submitted for ex
nination at the museum, and he was
iforrned on making the purchase
lat it was a reptile of some kind os
fied and then opalized.-Adelaide
At the bottom of the sea the tem
:rature remains practically unal
red at any one spot throughout the
hole of the year.
JEW YORK-CHICAGO FLIGt
ST FEASIBLE ROUTES FOR THE A]
is sent on from the left fin over the]
overhead wire and down to the upper
surface of the right fin, which is
drawn up. The right fin is thus made
to present .its upper surface to the
wind, and the wind then depresses
the right end of the aeroplane at the
same time that the left is being
raised. In a moment the aeroplane
is righted. The driver thereupon
straightens up in his seat, bringing
the seat back again to the upright
position and so drawing the stabiliz
ing fins back again to their original
The third of the important con
trols of the aeroplane in the air is
shown in Fig. 4. It is the side jp side
steering gear, the most complicated,
'FIG."" 1-ELEVATION OF.
because it.is the least important. It
needs a second motion of the hands,
which are already busy with the alti
Fig. 4 shows a view of the side-to
side rudder, C. It is cleft, and
through this cleft passes a horizontal
plane. This is just a fixed plane,
placed to sustain the weight of the.
after end of the aeroplane. The rud
der C, save for this cleavage into an
upper and a ?.ower part, is very sim
ilar to a ship's rudder. It is note
worthy that this is the only vertical
plane on the whole Curtiss machine.
The rudder C swings on a vertical
axis, a. The positions into which it
may swing are shown by the dotted
It is with this wheel, of course, that
the driver turns to right and left,
doubles on his course and makes the
most complicated evolutions.
There are other things that the
aviator has to attend to besides his
direction and stability control, of
course. But they do nqt require his
ever taking more than one hand from
the steering wheel. There is the
(throttle which feeds the fuel to his
engine. It is a short, slender lever,
at his right hand. A brief motion
ruts,off his fuel and shuts down his
engine, or lessens nts speed or in
creases it. The electric control is in
a little twist-button fastened on the
front of his seat between his knees.
In starting, Curtiss, after testing
bis engine, first takes his place in the
driver's seat, turns on the throttle
and grasps the steering wheel. Then,
while two or three men hold the ma
chine from darting forward on its
wheels, a mechanic starts the engine
with a quick turn of the propeller.
With the propeller going briskly, Cur
i [ FIG~?^ELEVATION. OF SI
tiss gives a signal, and the aeroplane
is released by the men holding it. It
starts forward rapidly on its wheels.
When the right speed is reached, Cur
tiss palls the steering gear back a
little toward him. The aeroplane
rises from the ground. The ground
friction overcome, it gains speed rap
idly and rises faster, till it reaches
the desired level.
In descending, Curtiss picks out
with his eye the favorable spot.
When within some 200 yards of it
and at some twenty yards' elevation,
lie shuts off his engine with a move
ment of the right hand. Depressing
the head of his flyer, he glides down
mentum.-Condensed From the New
X"ork Evening Sun.
Camels in South Australia.
Camels are used by pastoralists
md others in central Australia for
:arting wool and stores. These are
?vorked by English as well as Af
ghan drivers. They are used for sad
ile at eighteen months of age; at
:wo years, says the British Austral
ian, they carry from one cwt. to
;wo cwt., at three years, four cwts.
3ulls at four years can take six cwts.
The camels are bred in South Aus
ralia; those locally reared are becter
veight carriers than those imported;
hey are lower set, better boned, and
veil footed. They thrive on the
;rasses and bushes of the country, on
rhich they can be worked for many
Drop in England's Birth Rate.
England's birth rate last year was
he lowest on record-2 i>. 5 S a thou
and of population. This is nearly
.0 below the rate for 1?0S, which
howed a slight increase over 1907,
ie first for many years.-Medical
The experiment tried by Professor
McKeever, of the Kansas State Agri
cultural College, as to the reliabilityr
of the average witness is but the rep
etition of other tests upon a me re ex
tended scale and directed toward the
same end. The results also, were sim
ilar, and they help to satisfy us that''
the evidence of the ordinary eye-wit
ness has a very slight value and that
there are few among us who can de
scribe accurately even the simple -
events that transpire in full sight.
hi) VTUDE RUPPER7to
Professor McKeever went to some
trouble in his experiment, which was
arranged in imitation of an actual
crime. He drilled three of his stu
dents to perform a "hold up," and
the little drama was enacted upon Sf,
stage in front of the class. A subse
quent examination of the audience
disclosed the fact that it was at sixes.
and sevens as to what had actually
happened. The students were unable
to agree as to which of the "robbers"
had carried a revolver or worn a rain
coat, and all the other facts were sim
ilarly obscure. Any one of the wit
nesses could have given an account
of what he believed he had seen, and"
no doubt by itself it would have
passed as good evidence, :but unfor
tunately the student who sat next to
him believed himself to have seen
something quite different.
Professor Munsterberg recently car
ried out a whole series* of experi
ments directed toward the same end,
and the result was even more remark
able. He used for the purpose a
large class of students whose powers
of correct observation ought to be
above rather, than below the average.
He tested them in a great many ways,
requiring them to estimate the num
ber of colored spots upon a sheet of
white papei, he numberof persons in
a room, and the length of a pendu
lum stroke. The results showed not .
only an extraordinary incapacity 1 to
observe correctly, but a still more ex
traordinary difference in the kind of
incapacity, inasmuch as the estimate
of one student would be ludicrously
too high, while that of the man next
to him would be ludicrously too low.
It is evident that we must revise
sur opinion as to the value of eye
witness evidence. Its value teems to
DE' TO" SIDE RUDDEIC & 4
e very slight, even with the best of
itentions, and we may yet find it
ecessary to subject our legal wit
esses to r.ome kind of test before al
>wing them to testify as to what
ley have seen. They may be incap
ble of seeing anything with accu
icy.-San Francisco Argonant.
Mother (reprovingly) - "Bobby, I
dd you distinctly if Mrs. Jones asked
JU to have a second piece of cake, to
ty 'No, thank yon.' " ?i
Bobby - "I know, ma, but she
idn't say would I 'have,' she said
ould I 'like' another piece, and if
i said 'No,' I'd er told a He."-Bos
Woman's Gift of Rare Mosses.
Announcement was made recently
r Dr. J. M. Macfarlane, professor of
itany at the University of Pennsly
mia, that 300 specimens of moss
Lve been received as a gift from Mrs.
isephine D. Lowe, of Washington.
These specimens will be made the
teleus of a large collection of mosses
presentative of every section of this
untry and of many other countries
the world, he stated. In it were
re specimens from Canada, Ireland,
lgland and Japan. The work ot
creasing the number of moss speci
?ns will be delegated to members
the society and men connected
th the university botanical d?part
ant.-Philadelphia North Ameri
"Will Plant a Virgilinn Grove.
A plan is approved whereby an area
tween Mantua and Pietole, Italy, is
he converted into a wood sacred to
; memory of Virgil whee all tho
rbs, trees and plants mentioned in
Bucolics will be represented.-?