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Agricultural Co - operation as
. Practiced in Italy.
Merchants Near Florence Are Still the
Landowners and Peasants Work
> on Shares-Landlord Sustains
Florence, italy.-At the beginning
?of its Investigation of co-operative
banking societies the American com
mission on agricultural co-operation,
assembled by the Southern Commer
cial congress, had the advantageous
experience of first visiting a part of
Europe where co-operative banks had
not made much headway.
Agricultural co-operation is prac
ticed in only one form in the country
about Florence-societies for the pur
chase of agricultural machinery, fer
tilizer, seeds, etc. This is chiefly due
to the fact that in the early days the
merchants of Florence were the land
owners, and their estates werr farmed
on a share basis by the peasants.
If crops were bad the lan 'Td fur
nished food for the peasai. farmer
until the next harvest. This system
of land tenure still prevails, and study
of the systems near Florence has
shown the commission that coopera
tive credit institutions are only possi
ble where the need ls great.
Comparing Italian conditions with
American, one of the Florentine ex
perts who appeared before the com
mission suggested that in the United
States the solution of the problem of
farm finance might be found in an en
largement of the operations of exist
ing banks. Sig. Martelli, president of
the Savings bank of Florence, de
scribed a practice common with banks
about Florence whereby the farmer
gives a mortgage to a bank and re
ceives in return an open account for a
certain amount of credit. Thus a
farmer who considers that he needs
a credit of $10,000 to opeiate his farm
gives a mortgage for that amount to
the bank. As he needs the money
he draws on the bank. He pays in
terest only on the amount on which he
For the long-time loans of the farm
ers the savings banks are allowed to
Invest up to 30 per cent, of their de
posite in farm mortgages. These mort
gages are of two classes-for periods
up to ten years and for periods of
from 10 to 30 years.
The shorter-term mortgage leans are
repaid by the borrowers in one lump
sum, as in the United States, but
the longer-term loans are repaid by
amortization-that is, small annual
payments made upon the principal of
the loan. The banks are only per
mitted to charge borrowers one-half
per cent, more than they are required
to pay depositors. At the present
time the prevalent rate ls five per
cent., though generally it is four per
cent. Money is only loaned up to 50
per cent, of the appraised value of
There is also a mortgage bank in
Florence, the Monte di Paschi, found
ed by one of the early dukes of Flor
ence. This bank issues mortgage de
bentures at three and one-half, four
and one-half and five per cent. Most
of the debentures now outstanding
are at five per cent. They seli a
trifle under par. which is the usual
condition in Italy, and their market
price compares favorably with gov
The -co-operative societies for pur
chase -among the land owners have
been successful. The 'armers them
selves do not belong to these socie
ties, but the landowners do all pur
chasing of farm machinery and fertil
izer. These societies are also active
in educational work, and maintain ag
ricultural experts, who travel about
from village to village Instructing the
farmers in scientific agricultural
EMPEROR MADE GUESTS PAY
Old German Ruler Set Example of
Strictest Economy-Put Out
Berlin.-Those who have just as
sisted at the brilliant festivities which
marked the imperial wedding and who
remembered the court of Berlin in the
past cannot but have been struck with
the extraordinary difference between
the strict simplicity of that day and its
present regal state. So ingrained were
the habits of economy with the old Em
peror William that even after he had
assumed the imperial crown they
never deserted him. The emperor gave
the example. He always extinguished
the candles himself and lowered the
lamps before he left any room. When
at Ems or Baden guests invited to join
the emperor at dinner at some restau
rant were often embarrassed at the
end of the meal to discover that it was
a "pay party."
TAKE AN ANTI-TREAT PLEDGE
Democratic Candidates In George
town, Ky., Promise Not to Use
Money In Campaign.
Georgetown, Ky.-All of the twenty
live Democratic candidates for offices
In Scott county assembled here and
pledged themselves In resolutions
neither to "treat" nor to use money
In efforts to Influence the voters In
their favor at the primary to be held
to August They agreed to meet
gain on the eve of the election, pro
viding that anyone who could not
then make oath that he bad kept the
pledge ?hould withdraw from the
FOR S?J E
Nice 7-room house on Columbia road * one acre lol, good
barn, outhouses and garden spot. Terr?" desired.
Seven room house on Columbia rc gocd lot with servant
house in back yaru, good barn and < nouses and garden spot.
New ?-room house on Cowar street, half story can be turned
into 2 large rooms, 1--J acre lot with good garden spot and bear
ing fruit trees. Easy terms.
Haiti wanger place with about 10 acres land, nice dwelling and
outhouses also three adjoining lots, a bargain.
Large vacant lot, most desirable location, one block from de
pot, two blocks from postoftice, on main street, 90x44?., large barn
in rear, a good invest meet.
3-room house with 2 acres land in west Edgefield, a bargain.
3-acre lot, west side Beaver Dam known as Brick Yard place.
12 acres land in Modoc, well fenced, 6-room dwelling and out
houses also 3-4 acre lot with 4-room house and storehouse adjoin
ing just a'.-ross railroad from 12 acre place on easy terms.
165-acre farra 1 1-4 miles from Red Oak Grove 2 miles from
Clark's Hill a bargain on easy terms.
133-acre farm 10 miles from Edgefield on New Cut road. 20
acres in pasture, 20 acres in woodland. 93 acres under cultivation,
new 5-room dwelling, 2 tenant houses, 2-story barn, 2 buggy
houses, eotton house and blacksmith, 2 running branches on place
a bargain with terms to suit.
85 acres 1 1-4 miles from M-otloc, 20 acres pasture, 40 acres in
woodland, balance under cultivation, 4-room dwelling, ? tenant
houses, barn, stables and buggy house. T also have many attrac
tive *?r^?)ositions in Georgia and Florida timber, turpentine, truck
fruit ...1 agricultural. Call on or write me. or write me list of
your wants with me and I will do the rest.
O. P. BRIGHT, Real Estate Agt, EDGEFIELD, S. C.
J. G. LEE, President
F. E. Gibson. Sec. and Treas.
FARMERS, MERCHANTS, BUILDERS,
If you are going to build, remodel or repair,
we invite your inquiries.
COMPLETE HOUSE BILLS A SPECIALTY.
We manufacture and deal in doors,, sash, blinds
stairs, interior trim, .store fronts and fixtures,
pews, pulpits, etc., rough and dressed lumber,
lath, pine and cypress shingles, flooring, ceiling
and siding. ^
Distributing ? '"?nts for Flintkote ' roofing: and
Coatright Metal jingles. Ridge Koli and Valley
Tin# Estimates cheerfully and carefully mane.
Woodard Lumber Co.
AUGUSTA, * GEORGIA.;
Corner Roberts and Dugas Streets.
. Our Motto: SSS
Dain Vertical Lift nioner
Wc desire to announce to the farmers .that we sell
the celebrated Dain Vertical Litt Mower and Self
These machines are constructed in the most Substan
tial manner and do the work satisfactorily. We have
such confidence in the Dain mowers that we guarantee
every one we sell. If they do not prove satisfactory
after a fair trial we take them back. What more could
be asked? We know that they are constructed alono;
the most modern lines and do the work in the easiest
possible manner. The material of which these mowers
and rakes are made is the best obtainable.
Now is time to provide for harvesting your hay, and
you can not do so better than to purchase a Dain mow
er and self-dumping rake. Come in and let us explain
the strong points in these modernly constructed imple
STEWART & KERNAGH AIM.
Cures Old Sores, Other Remedies Won't Cure.
The worst cases, no matter of how Iocs standing,
are cured br the wonderful, old reliable Dr.
Porter's Antiseptic Healing Oil. It relieves
Palo and Heals at the same time. 25c, 50c, fl.00
To Cure a Cold in One Day
Take LAXATIVE BROMO Quinine. It stops the
Cough and Headache and works off the Cold.
Druggists refund money if it fails to aire.
E. W. GROVE'S signature on each box. 25c.
A FEW WHYS
Why does a boy yell when he
Why will he run three blocks to
"hitch on" .to a wagon to carry
him one block?
Why is his sister always the
lomeliest girl in the neighbor
Why is it harder to buy a hat or
a pair of shoes for 'one boy than
for a dozen men?
Why is he attacked with head
aches and dizziness just before
time to start for Sunday school?
Why does he come down to
breakfast unwashed and his hair
looking like a living feather-dus
Why can't he let a cat cross the
street in peace?
Why can't ' he see a dog trot
ting home in contentment without
wanting to jog and jar him?
Why is it that in summer he
wants to break windows with
stones, and in winter wants to
plunk every pedestrian in the eye
Why should he rather help Tom
my Smith carry an old mattress
through a mile of streets than to
carry the family kerosene can a
You are right the first time
guessing-it's just because he is
Put the lid on your peck of trouble.
The bottom of a hill is the easier to
?When a man is drunk he forgets
that he's a fool.
For disobedience the small boy fre
quently gets the palm.
We never see ourselves as others
see us, or as we see others.
Become familiar with the workings
of the tariff. It's your duty. "
Many a man who seems dead to the
world is only buried in thought.
It's fairly safe for a pretty girl to
be nice to a married man in a crowd.
Confidence in the almightiness of a
dollar has proved the undoing of sev
A girl can enjoy a kiss in the dark.
She doesn't have to worry for fear
she can't blush.
Some men find it as easy to climb
a greased pole as to keep in the
straight and narrow path.
A poor man is always saying he
would like to be rich because of the
great amount of good he could do
with the money.
The blackbird, which claims nothing,
eats good food; the goat, which claims
much, gets stripped of its hide.
By an ingenious machine a California
rancher slices potatoes that are un
salable for various reasons into chips,
dries them and stores them for use as
stock feed in winter.
In Arabia there is a tract of unex
plored territory nearly five times the
area of Great Britain, while nearly a
quarter of Australia awaits the inves
tigation of civilized man.
. Salesmen of machinery too large to
be carried around are finding motion
picture films useful in showing pro
spective customers the operation of
the machines they have to sell.
Though women were not admitted
as students in German universities un
til 1905, they now number more than
3,000 and compose more than 5 per
cent, of the entire student body.
A new iYench three-handed watch
tells both twelve-hour and twenty-four
hour tima, one hour hand being used
for each kind on separate dials while
a single minute hand does for both.
After long research a French physi
cian has decided that the use of tobac
co is harmful only under certain con
ditions, and that it is a valuable tonic
and an antiseptic when properly used.
GEMS OF THOUGHT
An idle rumor is always busy.
Opportunity fairly bumps into some
The prospectus is all there is to
Some stage performances aro worth
going miles to miss.
Love and riches make a rare com
No army ever yet advanced aa r?>
dly as lt can retreat.
E. J. NORRIS, Agent
Edgefield, South Carolina
Representing the HOME INSURANCE
COMPANY, of New York, and the old
HARTFORD, of Hartford, Connecticut.
The HOME has a greater Capital and
Surplus combined than any other
The HARTFORD is the leading com
pany of the World, doing a greater
Fire business than any other Co.
See Insurance Reports
'HAS THE STJF.XGTH OF GIBRALTAR.
FIRE AND LIFE INSURANCE.
The roofing that lasts as long as
the building and never needs
They won't burn, crack, curl or rot
like wood shingles, nor have they the
great weight or brittleness of stone slate ;
besides they are inexpensive and look better than either.
For Sale by
Stewart & Kernaghan
If not interested. But you are obliged to be interested where mot?
ey ts to be savrd in tho purchase of necessities of life both for your
self and livestock. We are now in our warehouse, corner of Fenw:rk
and Cumming ftreets, two blocks from the Union Passenger Statua
where we have the most modern warehouse in Augusta with floor
space of 24,800 squa.e feet and it is literally packed with GrocerL-j
and feeds from cellar to roof. Our stock must be seen to be appre
ciated. Our expenses are at least $450.00 a month less since discon
tinuing our store at 353 Broad street, and as goods are unloaded
from cars to wareheuse, we are in a position to name very close
prices. If you really want the worth of your money see or write us
,s a step toward greater profits. It isn't the amount eaten that
counts, but what ii digested and turned ?uto marketable producta.
f*r?i& Animal Regulator
puta howes, cows and hogs in prime condition and insures perfect
digestion. That pays 1 Ask the men who use i t, or test at our rule.
25c. 50c. $1. 25-lb, Pail, $3.50
"Your money back if it fail*"
pt0> Healing Ointment
cures sores and wounds. 25c, 50c. Sample free.
Get Pratts Profit-sharing Booklet
W. E. LYNCH & CO.. L. T. MAY, JONES & SON, TIMMONS & MORGAN,
Edgefield, and S. T. HUGHES, Trenton
ll GENERAL TONIC - TAKE CHIVE'S
The Old Standard Grove's Tasteless chill Tonic is Equally
Valuable as a General Tonic because it Acts on the Liver,
Drives Out Malaria, Enriches the Blood and Builds up
the Whole System. For Grown People and Children.
You know what you are taking when you take Grove's Tasteless chill Tonic
as the formula is printed on every label showing that it contains the well known
tonic properties of QUININE and IRON. It is as strong as the strongest bitter
tonic and is in Tasteless Form. It has no equal for Malaria, Chills and Fever,
Weakness, general debility and loss of appetite. Gives life and vigor to Nursing
Mothers and Pale, Sickly Children. Removes Biliousness without purging.
Relieves nervous depression and low spirits. Arouses the liver to action and
purifies the blood. A True Tonic and Sure Appetizer. A Complete Strengthener.
No familj should be without it. Guaranteed bj your Druggist. We mean it. 50c.