Housewives of Progressive Farm
ers Asked.for Views,
Many Seek Means of Increasing Per
sonal Income and Better Means of
Marketing Produce - Other
Farm Topics of Interest.
<Prepared by the United States De
partment of Agriculture.)
To ascertain the fields in which
farm women desire specific assistance,
a letter of inquiry has been addressed
to the housewives of 55,000 progres
sive farmers in all the counties of
the United States. This letter asked
no questions and left every woman
free to discuss any need which oc
curred to her. She was invited to
t?Jie the matter up with her neighbors
?nd make a reply which represented
not merely her personal need but the
recognized need of the women of her
community. Replies to this letter
#.ave been receivad in great numbers.
There has not been time for a com
pete analysis of these letters,-but
from those which have been read it
ii evident that women want help in
practically every phase of home man
agement, from the rearing and care of
children to methods of getting the
heavy work, such as washing, done by
Many women seek means of increas
ing the precious personal income
which they receive from poultry, but
ter making, or the garden in their
care. Many asked the department to
suggest new handicrafts or gainful
horne occupations, and others seek
better means of marketing the pre
serves, cakes, or fancywork that they
The overwork of farm women and
their fear of the effect of overwork on
their children is the text of many of
these letters. The difficulty of secur
ing domestic help, due seemingly to
the fact that daughters of farmers
no longer take positions as hom6
makers, has added to tbe farm house
Many ask the department to prove
to the men that their work is worth j
something in dollars and cents. Still ?
others express a realization that their
own lot is hopeless and self-sacrific- I
ingly ask that better things lu the
way of education, cheaper school
books, improved schools, lectures, li
braries, and museums be provided for
their children. Many request that the
department establish a woman's bu
reau, issue weekly or other publica-1
tions designed for women and dealing
with matters of cooking, clothing,
home furnishing, education of chil
dren and care of the sick.
Co-operation in Soil-Survey Work.
"With the view of making soil sur
veys more valuable to the farmer, a
new basis of co-operation has been es
tablished by the department of agri
culture with the states through their
experiment stations, agricultural col- ?
leges, and agricultural bureaus. Un
der this plan the department will give
precedence in conducting detailed soil
surveys to those states which co-opcr- j
ate with the department in the matter j
and which request that such surveys j
bi made. ,
During the past year 19 states have :
appropriated money for soil surveys
in co-operation with the department.
If the request for soil surveys on the 1
part ol' co-operating states absorbs all
the department's funds for such work, j
no projects will be undertaken in non
co-operating states. It is believed
that where the soil surveys are made
at the special request of the state ag- '
ricultural agency and in districts
where the state is actively engaged in
extension work, the state authorities
will be willing and able to help tho
farmer to gain The greatest possible
benefit from the department's reports
and soil-survey maps.
Farm Demonstration Work.
Tn the boys' demonstration work in
the south. 4S? members of the boys'
corn clubs in the various southern ?
states produced yields of over 100
bushels of corn to the acre. The work
of the canning and poultry clubs, ;
through which the girls of the farm
are encouraged to preserve in a form :
suitable for home use or sale such '
products as tomatoes and other veget-1
ables and fruits as can be profitably j
produced for local consumption, ou j
many farms has yielded satisfactory
In the northern states a good be
ginning has been made in farm dem
onstration work during the year. This
work is prosecuted for the most part
5n co-operation with the agricultural
colleges through county agents, who
devote their entire time to the study
of local agricultural conditions and ,
needs and act as counselors and ad
vlsers to farmers, encouraging the |
adoption of improved methods and i
where advisable the Introduction of
While the organization and estab
lishment of this work In the north
and west is too recent to indicate in
any very definite way what may be
?expected to result from it, a summary
of the work of the agents in the 30
counties longest establ'shed discloses
that more than (1,500 farms have been
visited and more than 1.800 farmers'
meetings addressed, with an a [tend
ance exceeding 13(1.000. Co-operative
work has been carried on directly
wi I h nearly 2,400 farmer?, many of
whom are being encouraged to select
and test carefully their seed corn.
Legal Standards for Food.
The establishment of ?=?;::I stand
ards for judging foods would render
the food and drugs act more effective,
2ess expensive in its administration.
and supply needed legal ciiteria. Un
der present conditions it is necessary
in the individual prosecution to es
tablish by evidence a standard for
each individual article. This proce
dure is very expensive, and sometimes
its cost is out of proportion to its
Moreover, it maylresult in lack of
uniformity in different jurisdictions.
With legal standards established, the
control of foods would be more uni
form and measurably less expensive.
The lack of such standards is today
one of the greatest difficulties in the
administration of the food and drugs
act. These standards, however, should
be in the form of definitions, because
numerical standards furnish recipes
for sophistication. The standards,
moreover, should be sufficiently flexi
ble to permit improvements in pro
Organization of the Department of
There were 14.478 employes in the
department on July 1, 1913. Of these,
2,924 were employed in Washington
and 11,554 outside of Washington. Of
the entire force, 1,812 were engaged
in scientific investigations and re
search; 1,323 in demonstration and
extension work; 687 In administrative
and supervisory work; 6,021 in regu
latory and related work and 4,035
were clerks and employes below the
grade of clerk.
The Production of Eggs.
According to statistics of the de
partment of agriculture, the products
of the American hen aggregates a to
tal value of over $600,000,000 annual
ly. Poultry and eggs are produced
in all sections of the country, but it
is a noticeable fact that the bulk ot
these important products is produced
by the farmers of the Mississippi val
ley. In this section there are practic
ally no large poultry farms such ad
are commonly found in the eastern
states and on the Pacific coast. Poul
try keeping, therefore, is usually inci
dental, the hens being considered and
treated generally, as an agent for'con
verting material which would other
wise go to waste into a salable prod
uct. Consequently the poultry and
eggs produced constitute merely a By
product of the general farm.
In order that the farmer may sell
more eggs, better eggs, and obtain a
better price for them, the department
has issued the following suggestions;
Improve your poultry stock.
Keep one of the general purpose
bre ls such as the Plymouth Rock,
Wyandotte, Orpington, or Rhode Is
Provide one clean, dry, vermin-free
nest for every four or five hens.
Conclude all hatching by May 15
and sell or confine male birds during
the remainder of the summer.
Gather the eggs once daily during
ordinary times and twice daily dur
ing hot or rainy weather.
In summer, place eggs as soon as
gathered in a cool, dry room.
Use all small or dirty eggs at home.
Market frequently, twice a week if
possible during the summer.
The department has also issued the
following suggestions to the country
merchant and cash buyer:
Candle all eggs and buy on the loss
Allow the farmer to see you candle
the eggs occasionally and return those
rejected if he wishes them.
Pack care-felly in strong, clean
cases or fillers.
Do not keep in a musty cellar or
near oil barrels or other odoriferous
Ship daily during warm weather.
Bouillon Cubes Not Concentrated Mea..
The belief of many people that
bouillon cubes are concentrated meat
essence and of high nutritive value,
is shattered by a bulletin of the de-,
partment of agriculture. The depart
ment authorities say that while they
are valuable stimulants or lia vori n g ;
agents they have liulc or yo real focd ;
value and are relatively expensive in i
comparison with home-made broths !
and soups. The bulletin compares the j
contents and food value of bouillon j
cubes with meat extracts and home
made preparations of meat
The ordinary commercial bouillon
cubes, according to this bulletin, con
sist of from one-half to three-quarters
table salt. As they range In price
from ten to 20 cents an ounce, pur
chasers of these cubes are buying salt
at a high price.
The department's meat chemist has
carefully analyzed semi-solid meat ex
tracts, fluid meat extracts, and com
mercial meat juice, which are offered
on the market to the American pub
lic, in addition to the bouillon cubes.
He has also conducted experiments in
making home-made beef broth, and
meat and vegetable soup.
Both the bouillon cubes and the
meat extracts are stimulants and fla-j
voring agents, but have only a slight j
food value and are more expensive
than home-made soups.
The bulletin recommends a whole
sale meat and vegetable soup which
will furnish enough for a family ot
five, at a cost of approximately 16
cents. This may be made according
to the following recipe:
Ingredients and approximate cost I
fprices actually paid by department ?
chemist) : j
One soup bone, weighing about 24
ounces (one-third meat), ten cents, j
After being washed it should be
placed in a largo kettle with three
pints of cold water and heated foi
three hours, when the bono and meat
should be removed.
One-quarter of a small head of cab
bage, ono onion, one carrot, ono largo
potato, two small tomatoes, a little
flour seasoning, six cents.
Chop these vegetables and add tc
the soup. Boil th?? mixture for one
hour, thicken slightly with a little
flour and season with sab and pepper.
along one. or both bailies oi the stream
While it is impossible to give an ac
curate statement ot' the acreage suit
able for the production of whiter aud
spring vegetables in the Atlantic coast
region, it may be stated that the areas
now utilized for such purposes con
stitute only a fraction of one per cent,
ol* the total land areas which may ul
timately be made available.
The first requirement for the de
velopment of these lands will be a
market demand which shall justify the
increased production, through paying
a price for the production commen
surate with the expenditures and risks
undertaken by the producer. This
may be attained through the natural
increase in the consuming population
and, to a more marked degree, through
the extension of the markets to hun
dreds of thousands of city dwellers
who never taste the fresh vegetable
products at the period of the year
when these crops are placed upon the
market. Ehe tensive community and
private drainage works must be under
taken before some of the best soils
for trucking are rendered available in
the coastal regions.
j Relative Importance of the Potato In
German and American Ag
Potatoes in Germany take a more
Important place than they do in this
j country. Though the country is much
, smaller than the United States, the
area planted is 8.1C5.000 acres, as com
: pared with 3,500,000 acres in here,
j Th? average total yield is 1,653,403,
000 bushels, or 202.5 bushels per acre,
I as compared with an average annual
American yield of 343,587,000 bushels.
! If the states of Maine, New York,
j Michigan, Wisconsin and Minnesota
j alone were to plant 12.5 per cent, of
j their arable land In potatoes, as Ger
I many does, and secure an equivalent
i yield, the produce would amount to
j 1,558,944,000 bushels, four and one-half I
j times our present production from the
j entire country.
At the present rate of consumption I
of potatoes in the United Btates,
which is considerably less than three
bushels per capita, the needs of the
entire country could be supplied from
any one of the states of New York,
Michigan, Wisconsin or Minnecota
and lease a surplus unused, whereas
all the states combined have several
times failed to produce enough pota
toes to supply the domestic consump
tion, and in such years large quanti
ties of potatoes have been imported
from foreign countries.
Such an immense production of po
tatoes as is found in Germany is man
ifestly not required to feed the peo
ple. Ts a matter of fact, only 28
per cent, of the crop is used for hu
man food, while 40 per cent, ls fed di
rect to farm animals and 12 per cent,
is set aside for seed purposes. The
Germans plant over twice as many seed
potatoes per acre as is the custom
here, or more than 24 bushels. An ad
ditional portion of the surplus, in
round numbers, 100,000,000 bushels, a
little less than six per cent, of the
total crop, is made into alcohol and
J;,V.'J for industrial purposes, and to
replace petroleum products. Over
50,000.000 bushels, or about four per
cent., are made each year into starch,
dextrose, and related products. This
accounts for about all except tee per
cent, of the Cern?an crop, which it is
estimated is lost through decay.
WINTERING THE LIVE STOCK
Cattle Owners Have Faith That
Prices Are to Rule High for Some
One of our neighbors put up a silo
this fall and filled it with what thc
dry weal her left of his corn. He has
bargained to feed a bunch of 100 head
of cattle for six months, says a writer
in the Farmers' Mai! and Breeze. For
this he receives $1,500, $2.50 a head a
month. This seems a fcood price com
pared with what we used io get in for
mer years. We wintered cattle, years
ago. for $5 a head for the winter, re
gardless of whether it was a long or
short winter. We have heard of other
cattle being taken at $2.25 a head a
month for the winter and as high as
$2.75 being paid for some.
Time will tell whether cattle will
pay out when wintered at such prices.
It will mean the cattle will have to
sell for $15 more a head next spring if
they are to cover the cost of wintering
alone. In addition there ls the danger
of loss and the interest on the value
of the cattle, which will be no small
amount. But cattle owners have faith
that prices are to rule very high for
some time to come and probably they
are right. Cattle are decreasing in
number every year. Missouri, alone,
has almost 1.000,000 head less than 20
years ago and in that time its ponula
tion has increased 700,000.
CORN FODDER IS VALUABLE
Greater Feeding . Value Is Obtained
Where Fed Early Than When Al
lowed to Stand in Shock.
(By E. J. MILLER.)
The best way to use corn fodder ls
to cut and feed it as it ripens, saving
the hay and other feeds in storage for
later use. Corn fodder fed early has
greater feeding value than that which
is allowed to stand In the shock for
several weeks or months, and more of
it will bo consumed by the animals.
When you go to the field for a load
of corn fodder, haul out a load of ma
nure, and scatter on the ground when
tho fodder is cut. It is economy ol'
farm labor to do this, and by so doins
you are returning to the soil an
equivalent of what you are taking
from it. Late cut fodder is alway?
in lilli inmirni
Wc desire to notify our farmer friends that we are ready to supply them
with fertilizers in all of the popular brands and formulas. We sell the cele
These goods have been used by farmers of this county for many years and
have given satisfaction.
We also have contracted .for a large supply of ingredients for mixing rer
tilizers at home. Dearin mind, that we can rill your orders for any kind of
plant food, the dependable kind. Come in to see us.
W. W. Adams, & Company.
Screen The House.
NOW is the time to protect your ho^re against
the pestry disease-breeding fly, by putting in
Screen Windows and Doors. We have all sizes of
both and can fit any size opening. Windows at
40, 50, 60 and 75 cents, and doors at $1.25, $1.50,
$2.00 and $2.50.
Remember that one doctor's bill will screen your
Full stock of Ice Cream Freezers, all sizes- "See~?t"~
our Water Coolers. We have numerous other
seasonable articles for the home.
Stewart & Kernadian.
Our two stores, No, 972 Broad and No. 1,286 Broad
Street, stand wide open to our Edgefield friends.
In our up-town store in addition to a full stock of
furniture we carry a large supply of farmers hardware
that^we are selling at close prices. Mr. Wyatt H. Ham
mond of Colliers is a member of the salcsforce at our
upper store, and will always be pleased to see his Edge
We can supply anything you need in furniture.
Call to see us when in need of anything for the house.
If we haven't what you want in stock wTe will order it
E. M. ANDREWS FURNITURE COMPANY
)J2 Broad, Phone 145. 12S9 Broad, Phone 2311
xml | txt