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MAKE USE OF OLD BICYCLE
iPower for an Emery Stone May Be Ob
tained by Using Discarded Parts
An old bicycle may be used to fur
?nisb power for an emery stone. It
.can be rigged up on the frame of an
old grindstone, or something slmi
ilar. The large sprocket and pedals
'are placed between the two 1 by 4's
.of the grindstone frame, as in the
drawing, the hub, on either side, fitting
into large holes bored into these cross
pieces, writes Floyd C. Miller of Inola,
Okla., in Farmers Mail ami Breeza
The counter shaft is placed below the
top of the frame. The mandrel ls
Power for Emery Wheel.
raised about 3 inches 60 the stone will
not rub against the counter shaft. If
there are no boxings handy, good ones
may be made from maple, or other
close grained wood, -and babbitted. A
is the emery stone, B the counter
shaft, C small sprocket on the stone
shaft, D large bicycle sprocket, D
sprocket chain, and F the bicycle sad
VALUE OF PLOW AND HARROW
In Purchasing Implements for th?
Farm Their Construction Should
Be Carefully Studied.
(By H. G. WEATHERSTONE.)
The value of a plow or other farm
implement consists of its doing the
thing we want it to do. The plow
with a light draft simply turns and
cuts the furrow with the least resist
ance, resulting in very smooth work
to look upon, but its effect upon the
soil is not nearly so valuable as that of
the plow that runs harder and gives
more resistance to the soil and breaks
it up finer. The plow that has a
harder draft goes through the soil and
not only breaks it up and turns a fur
row, but in the process it grinds and
pulverizes it into smaller particles.
The more . horoughly the soil is
broken up, the more the plant food is
made availabi and plant food is what
we are after. In purchasing plows
we want to study their construction
with this in mil c.
The same apples to the selection of
the harrow. Tl:- harrow that has an
easy draft cannc. do as good work as
one that moves more soil and runs
v-??t_'i>?r>rA harrow should do smooth
work and*"Tncorpcrate the vegetable
matter and fertilizers with the soil in
a uniform manner.
The function of the harrow is to
still further reduce and refine soil par
ticles, because in every process of re
finement we are getting at the plant
food which is still so abundant in our
On the average farm where there
are various types of soil, a disk har
row, a spring tooth harrow and a
smoothing harrow are practical neces
sities. It is worse than folly for farm
ers to spend for commercial fertilizers
or chemical plant foods until they
have first made use of that which is so
plentiful in their own soi! at the pres
ent time. .
I am a firm friend of f :!ili>:ers but
I do not believe in buying them until
we have made use of every method of
getting at the plant food already con
tained in our soils.
GROWING RUSSIAN CA3B.A?E
Conspicuous Because lt Requires Two
Weeks' Less Time to Mature
Than Other Varieties.
Among the maturing varieties of
cabbage the Volga, a. comparatively
new sort in America, is conspicuous
because it requires about, two weeks'
less time than other varieties of this
class to mature, says Farm and Fire
side. Concerning it the late C. L. Al
lon, whose book on cabbage, c. uli
fiower and allied plants is the ac
knowledged authority, writes: "This
new Russian variety is of the greatest
uniformity. In a field of several acres
frequently not a ?jingle plant shows
any variation from a true and valua
ble type. In some respects it is a
vegetable wonder, as the heads are
about equal in size and shape, weigh
ing from 12 to 15 pounds each, round
as a ball, the largest measuring about
12 inches in diameter either way. Un
like most varieties, the heads are per
fectly solid, and the stem does not run
up into the head; the flesh is exceed
ingly firm, tender and white. In re
spect to hardiness, we have never seen
a type which would favorably com
Feed Calves In Stanchions.
Calves should be fed in a stanchion
so constructed as to prevent them
from sucking each others' ears after
they have drunk their milk. The feed
ing of grain by placing a little before
them after every meal of milk will
also discourage the desire to suck the
ears of the calf in the next stanchion.
When pruning, have a reason for
every cut made and cut close to the
limb or trunk. Leave no stubs.
What He Considers Its Real
Meaning Pointed Out by
[By Charles Stelzle, Church Effici
ency Expert and Consulting Sociolo
gist; Formerly Head of the Social
Service Bureau of the Presbyterian
It is beginning to dawn upon some
of us that the church hasn't a monop
oly of all the Christianity in the world.
The church undoubtedly became the
custodian of what Christianity there
was 2,000 years ago. although it must
be confessed tbat even ;.h<-!i it hadn't
a monopoly of all of it any more than |
it has today. But the teachings o? i
Jesus were so much bigger and^ so
much more significant than anything
that had been taught up to that time
that the church which Jesus estab
lished through his disciples at once
stood in a peculiar way for Christian
Since those days the very truth
which the church taught has influ
enced vast areas outside of itself.
This truth waa so broad and compre
hensive in its application that men
outside the church began to appropri
ate it without accepting the church
itself. Now the church is simply a '
means to an end. The church is not
an end in itself. The people tire the
end of its endeavors. The moment
that the church sets up its organiza-1
tlon or its machinery or its member-1
ship roll as the supreme thing, that i
moment lt will lose its grip on the I
This is precisely what has happened ?
in some instances. The church sought !
to perpetuate itself through denomi
national enterprises with narrow sec
tarian teachings, and men lost inter
est in it. Denominations undoubtedly
have a legitimate place at this period
in the church's history. What will
happen to most of them In the future
no man dares prophesy. Sometimes, ',
when the discouraging features tn the
social, the economic and the political
world are discussed, somebody within
the church of Christ is sure to win."
True enough, but what is the church
If by the church or Christ one meanB
the Methodist church, or the Baptis;
church, the Presbyterian, the Congre
gational, the Episcopal or the Catholic
church, I'm not so sure about it. The
history of the denominations in every
age has demonstrated that God is not
limited in his plans by the prevailing
denomination or communion. Always
has he raised up other leaders and
churches to carry out ' his purpose,
when those in existence proved them
selves too narrow or too inefficient.
He may yet again raise up still anoth
er movement, and this very movement
may become the real "church" of
Christ. Surely this cannot be denied \
by those who themselves owe their
origin as a church to certain situa
tions which seemed to call for their or
The peculiar thing about some of
the present denominations among the
churches is that their founders never
dreamed that the movements which
they established would ever develop
into full-fledged, distinct church organ
izations. They each of them stood for
some neglected truth and preached it
with great earnestness, and usually
in spite of the fiercest opposition.
Soon they had a strong following;
not always made up of the great ones
of the earth, either. This was notably
true of the Church which the imme
diate disciples of Jesus established.
Not many great ones, not many
mighty, were identified with it. lt
was composed for the most part of
working men and slaves. It had a
strong grip upon those ?denti?ied with
the great labor guilds ol' that day.
First Followers of Christ.
Indeed, so plainly is this revealed
in history that some students of eco
nomic aud social conditions of that
period have insisted that Paul and
some of the other followers of Jesus
were leaders in the labor guilds of
that day, and that the church was
actually a great movement in behalf
of laboring men. One can easily im
agine that this was true when one
considers the character of its earl
Who knows what influences are at
work today to challenge the church of
the twentieth century? And is it not
apparent that whatever these influ
ences may be they are social in their
character? The next great revival
will have as its emphasis the social
gospel of Jesus-that great forgotten
truth taught so clearly by the founder
of C'.'.ristianity. Perhaps there's In
training somewhere a group of men
and v. omen who will soon proclaim the
new message which will give the
church the greatest opportunity for
service that it has ever enjoyed, or
which will crush it BO thal it may
make way for the greater church
which is sure to come.
Justice ss Well as Mercy.
The love which provides an atone
ment ls a tar surer basis of faith than
the love s.liich would forgive without
atonement. Our assurance, and peace
rest on thc justice of God no less than
on the mercy and love of God.-Se
W;.;l<ing With God.
"If you c? ?mot be anything, be a
mystic; walli with God: do his will;
set your hand to his plow and help
prepare his earth for his coming com
monwealth."-Edwin A. flu m ball.
EFFECTIVE TRAPS FOR RATS
Useful Around Corn Cribs, Barns and
Other Farm Buildings-Rodents
The Burmese use an ingenious and
simple method ol' trapping rats. A
jar with a weighted cover is sunk
into the ground. A hole is punched
in the side of the jar on a level with
the surface of the ground and -just
large enough to admit a good, big
rat. It is not necessary to use a
poison in the jar for the purpose of
killing the rats, for the rodents can
not get out of the jar and may easily
Burme6e Rat Trap.
be drowned. A bait of cheese or
some other food which rats are fond
of will attract the rats by Its odor.
This kind of a trap ls very effective
around barns, corn cribs, sheds and
VARIOUS SOILS FOR WHEAT
Moisture Content, Especially During
Period When Crain ls Filling,
Affects the Quality.
(By R. W. THATCHER.)
There is a quite common idea that
the difference in quality of wheat
grown in different localities is due
to the effect of the different soil types
upon the composition. In order to
ascertain whether this be true the
writer, in an experiment conducted in
another state, shipped soil from each
of two localities, wher3 wheat of
widely different quality ij grown, to
the other, and after carefully placing
the soil back into as nearly its natural
condition as possible, planted seed
wheat from each locality upon both
the native and the transferred soil at
both places. This was repeated for
two years, and each year the wheat
was of one quality when grown at
one place, regardless of the kind of
soil upon which it ,','rew, and of a dif
1 ferent quality when grown at the
other place. Further, the whe -.t
\ which grew on the different soils, at
: either place, was aa nearly alike as
any two samples grown on adjacent
plots of the same soil were found to
A similar experiment which is being
conducted by the United State? depart
ment of agriculture, in which soil has*
been shipped from Virginia and Cal
I ifornia to Kansas, and from Kansas
and California to Virginia, and seeded
j to wheat in the same wy, is giving
precisely similar results. It appears,
therefore, that the composition of tho
soil has very little influence upon the
quality of the wheat which grows on
: it. The moisture content of soil, es
, pecially during the period when tho
; grain is filling, does have a very
! marked effect upon the quality of the
POTATO BUGS ON EGGPLANTS
Ordinary Wire Screening Placed Over
Each Plant ls Most Effective
Means of Protection.
One vegetable that potato bugs like
better than potatoes is the eggplant,
says Agriculturist. You may pick the
marauders twice a day, but even then
i they often get the better of the suc
i culent plants. An effective method of
meeting the situation is to protect the
plants by covering. Cut ordinary
wire screen, such as is used tor win
dows, into the proper form to mako
j cones (a semi-circle) and fasten to
gether by sewing with fine wire. Ap
ply a coat of thin paint for their pres
ervation and set one over each plant.
The patch of August Graff of Ulster
county. X. Y., certainly shooed well
the difference between protected and
unprotected plants, in spite of dili
gent efforts to save the latter. The
covered plants seemed also to be bene
ficed by the slight shading during their
i early growth.
? The wire coner! cost money, it is
j true. Mr. Graf? invested $32 in tho
i material for f>00 covers. However,
; one or two good eggs from each plant
? will cover the cost. The cones may
j be used year after year. This device
on first sight appears impractical, but
on actual test it has proved a money
Great Value of Silo.
Has your farm a silo? If not. you
had better enlighten yourself more
concerning their great value in the
dairying business. A silo enables the
farmer to store a greater amount of
feed in less space than he can other
wise do. It requires double the
amount of space to store the same
amount of dry nutrients and rough
Poultry Feeding Notes.
Where the dry feed system is adopt
ed, the fowls should be watered at the
time they are fed
Then- is not much danger of over
fattening the laying hen.
Von cRTinot offend the hen hy giving
he:* ;1 dish of buttermilk.
Soft fnor! incre:is<\s egg production.
Great Commandment to His Chil
dren ls to Love Him, and Thy
Neighbor as Thyself.
Christ declared that toe great com
mandment is, "Thou shalt love the
Lord thy God with all thy heart and
with all thy soul, and with all thy
mind." "And thc second is like unto
it, Thoa shalt love thy neighbor as
thyself." The law of love is as prac
ticable now as it ever was. The Ameri
cans o? today are not lower In the
scale of life than were the Jews to
whom Christ spoke the law.
If there is any truth in evolution,
men are better today than then. If
there is any hope in civilization, men
are botter today in the republic than
they were then, under the Roman em
pire. The Jews of today are equal to
the Jews of Christ's day. and we are
not willing to admit that the Jews of
today are better than the American
citizens of today. If there ls any pow
er in the Christian religion, then the
Christians of today are equal to the
Jews of Christ's day, and he gave the
law to his countrymen. If centuries
mean degeneracy; if the Christian re
ligion breeds men of less character
and caliber than Judaism breeds, then
we may shrink from a law given in
Palestine centuries ago.
Begins With Loving God.
The question concerning the second
law arises because we break the first
law. The man who loves God supreme
ly will have little trouble in loving his
neighbor as himself. The man who is
indifferent to God, or rebellious against
God, cannot love his neighbor. The
man who loves God supremely can.
God loves men. The men who love
God look upon men as he looks upon
Not to love one's neighbor as one's
self simply proclaims that I am so
much better than my neighbor that I
am worthy of more love. I care more
for my mirror than for my window.
I find virtues in myself that are miss
ing in my neighbor. In my judgment
he is my inferior and so unworthy of
unequal love. TraitB of character
that are worthy of love in me are
worthy of love Ul him, and if I cannot
love thrm in him. it must bu because
they are lacking in him.
Such an attitude of mind makes it
very hard for my neighbor to love me.
Not loving him, I become unlovely.
A crost-t-yed man is not pleasing, and
self-love ls being spiritually cross-eyed.
Love calls for love, egotism calls for
contempt and you get what you call
Test Shows the Real Man.
In the supreme moments of life
men do love their neighbors better
than themselves. When the ocean
steamer is sinking a real man steps
aside for the weaker woman and child.
If we could live on the same high
level on tho sea of time the question
of practicability would never arise.
The soldier loves his country better
than he loves himself, and his country
is Bimply the sum total of his neigh
bors. The fireman loves the unknown
man or woman in peril better than he
loves himself. Men, like violins, need
to be strung up to get the music out
of them. Men. like mines, need to be
mined to get the treasure out of them.
Men, like diamonds, need to be pol
ished to get the beauty out of them.
Left alone, the grape withers or rots;
crushed, it gives wine. Men need to
bo crushed to get the real juice out.
Hut crushing would not frop the juice
if it were not there. What a man
is at his best that ls he in reality.
Christ commandod us to love our
neighbors as ourselves. He knew
men. Unless we are less men now
than those he faced it is practicable
now. Under pressure when a man is
at his best he does love his neigh
bor better than himself. Pressure
breaks the skin of egotism and frees
the juice of altruism, revealing tho
Juice and seeds ol' the real man.
Ornateness is a sin of commission
barrenness of omission.
The childish is often the ornate. It
is generally the disjointed.
Ornamentation for its'own sake is
crude, barbaric or childish.
Nail your flag to the masthead ami
go to it in the name of the Lord.
True beauty is only embodied in the
simple-Grecian art is an example.
The words "onrbarlc and childish"
are near synonyms. Simple and child
ish are opposites.
Simplicity means the wholly essen
tial-as the essential is profound, sim
plicity is profound.
The connection of simplicity with
I childishness in the popular mind has
caused much confusion.
The time ls coming when Jesus
Christ will be worth more than ten
thousand worlds like this. Jesus
Christ is the ark that God has pro
vided. Friends, will you come into
the ark or will you die outside lt?
That is for you to settle. Men may
cavil as much as they please and say
they do not believe these things, but
do you know the average life of man
is only thirty-three years?
It ia an Inch of time and eternal ages
roll on. It Is but a shadow and a vapor
and we are gone. If God spared not
the angels when they foll from their
first estate and cast thom out; if God
spared not Adam; but turned him out
of Ed 3?; do you think ho will spare
'' you if you reject this salvation and
I this offer of mercy?-Dwight L Moody.
EDGEFIELD, S. C., \#DNESDAY, JULY 1, 1914 NO. 15.