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'EXPENSE OF GRAVELING ROAD
[Problem of Graveling Highways at
Moderate Cost Solved by Commis
sioner Rheinhardt of Idaho.
! Evidently Otto Rheinhardt, comm?s
?sioner of the Nampa highway district,
(Canyon county, Idaho, has solved the
?problem of graveling the highways at
j moderate cost, writes E. F. Stephens
jin Denver Field and Farm. Three
?years ago he decided to gravel the dis
trict's share of the boulevard between
! Nampa and Caldwell. A half mile
[away, Indian creek runs parallel with
:this boulevard and there an abundant
?supply of gravel was procured. Fortu
nately the very heavy traffic incident
'to hauling rails and ties for the In
terurban electric line track cut through
the gravel, mixing the underlying soil
?with the superimposed gravel in suit
iable proportions for cementing a firm,
?smooth roadbed. A percentage of clay
.smooth or volcanic ash soil mixed with
?gravel makes a hard, smooth roadbed
?not likely to absorb the rainfall. The
?result on the boulevard has been to
?secure a very serviceable roadbed
!highly commended, by local and United
Under the inspiration of this suc
cessful roadbed a neighborhood lying
Fine Stretch of Road in West
ito the west, called Orchard avenue, de
cided to gravel on the following plan:
?The farmers to donate the use of
?'teams and wagons with dump boards.
[The Nampa highway district to provide
?gravel, usuaiiy donated by those who
ihave it, pay the shovelers and a man
?to help dump the loads and also spread
i and smooth the gravel on the road
ibed, using* for this purpose a King
?drag. The freshly graveled roadbed
should be smoothed with a King drag
or other implement weekly for two
months or until settled and cemented
j with the underlying soil. Four inches
'of gravel in the middle of the roadbed
[with two inches on the sides most
?'readily mixes with the underlying soil
jin such proportions as to shed rain
?and form a smooth, solid bed. Heavy
?trafile cuts through the gravel In wet
?weather until enough underlying soil
[has been mixed and cemented with
?the gravel to shed rain and create a
I A moderate percentage of clay soil
.mixed with the gravel as applied will
?pack and cement from the beginning.
;The clay gravel banks along the re
clamation ditches piled by the dredges
?supply ideal material for graveling our
? roads. This mixture of clay, sand
?and gi^vel packs from the very first
land does not need underlying soil cut
lin by heavy traffic. Coarse gravel,
free from clay or soil, will need an ad
1 mixture of soil from below to secure a
?hard, smooth roadbed. Orchard ave
inue has now heen graveled two years.
Its success from the start has been
. such as to attract the attention of oth
J er neighborhoods.
I STATE AID FOR GOOD ROADS
.'One Reason Why Food Prices Are
High Is Because of Cost of Haul
ing Over Bad Highways.
Nearly every one of the state legis
latures is considering demands for
?more help for road building, says St.
I Joseph News-Press. Ten years ago
?all the states together put up but
?$2,000,000 for road building, exclusive
;of local funds. In 1914 they spent
?$43,000,000. But as four-fifths of this
?was done by six eastern states and
?two Pacific coast states, the problem I
jis far from solved nationally. Many
j of our big problems always comeback
Ito the costof-living question.
Plant Nut Trees.
Some nut or fruit-bearing trees set
?out on country roads 50 feet apart,
.would add much of beauty and com
?'fort to the highway. It would be nec
essary, of course, to have well-round
ed roadways to drain off the water,
?for mud holes and poor roadbeds
would not dry out quite so fast as
where the sun shines on the road
bed all the time. The better road
beds would be well worth while.
Personal Benefit and Profit.
Go at road improvement with the
same determination you would to dig
ditches or build fences-with the full
realization that it ls for your own per
sonal benefit and profit; and not only
merely a "public duty."
Aid for Permanent Roads.
State and national aid for perma
nent roads is sure to come, but lt is
not likely to come to any community
that has, by their lack of interest in
good roads shown that they are un
worthy of lt.
SPRAY TO PROTECT ORCHARD
Two Most Important Fungicides for
Summer Spraying Are Bordeaux
Mixture and Lime-Sulphur.
(By W. H. CHANDLER.)
Spraying is done for the purpose of
preventing injury to the fruit, foliage
and wood of trees and other plants
caused by disease and insects.
Diseases of plants may be caused
by the growth in the tissues of bac
teria or fungi. Bacteria usually grow
beneath the surface and cannot be
combated by means of spraying. Some
fungi grow upon the surfacel sending
feeding organs down into the tissue
from which they secure nourishment
from the plant sap. These fungi are
reproduced by means of spores which
are carried in the air until they settle
upon leaf, fruit or wood, where they
germinate and grow, becoming the In
Young Plum Fruits-Upper Fruit?
Ready for First Spraying for Curcu
lio-Lower Fruits Still Retain the
Calyx Tube (Shuck), So That the
Spray Could Not Cover the Surface.
jurious fungous tissue. If the leaves
or fruit are covered v,Ith a substance
which is poisonous to the fungus the
spores will be killed at the time they
germinate. Substances that thus pre
vent the growth of germinating spores
are called fungicides. As a rule these
fungicides must be applied In summer
when the fruit or foliage is likely to
be infected. However in the case of a
very few diseases like peach leaf curl,
spraying in the early spring before
1 growth starts is successful.
The two most important fungicides
(sprays to prevent fungous diseases)
for summer spraying are Bordeaux
mixture and lime-sulphur.
We have two classes of insecticides
(sprays to kill insects). For insects
that eat from the surface of the plant
a poison on the leaves or fruit will
kill the insect. Usually the spray used
in this case is some compound contain
ing arsenic. The most important in
secticide is arsenate of lead.
There are also insecticides used to
kill insects that do not eat from the
surface, but penetrate the surface with
their beaks and suck the juices from
beneath. It is plain that such an in
sect could not eat any poison placed
upon the leaves, but must be destroyed
by a spray that kills by coming in con
tact with its body, so insecticides for
sucking insects are sometimes spoken
of as contact sprays. The most im
portant of these are probably lime
Young Fruit of tho Poach-Two Up
per Fruits Ready tor the First Spray
ing for Curculio- Lower Fruit Re*
taint the Calyx Tube (Shuck), So
That the Spray Could Not Cover IL
sulphur, kerosene emulsion and the
It ls impossible to give any accurate
estimate of the cost of spraying un
less the size of the tree is known. It
Is usually necessary to spray four
times a year.
Pruning Takes Time.
Pruning, like spraying, cannot ba
learned in a minute, ._ j
DUE TO AN
Many of the troubles of life sue!
as headache, indigestion, constipa
tion and lack of energy are due t<
GRIGSBY'S LIV-VER-LAX i,
a natural, vegetable remedy tba
will get the liver right and rnaki
these troubles disappear. It hai
none of the dangers or di^agreeabh
effects of calomel.
Get a 50c or $1 bottle of thii
splendid remedy from your drug
si ist today. Every bottle bears th<
likeness of L. K. Grigsby, whe
guarantees it through.
Land for Sale
Life is too short to go on
renting land, when you can
buy a small farm for almost
the l ent money.
I have land in small lots
around Johnston, and near
Batesburg, Meeting Street,
Celestia, Rocky Creek or
Fruit Hill, Ropers and near
Edgefield, and lots and
stores in the town of ?dge
Edgefield, S. C.
Go to see
Before insuring elsewhere. We
represent the best old line com
Harting & Byrd
At the Farmers Bank, Edgefield
A Pee (
Partial List o!
Pee CM Flittatt fe? htm? W
PM GM China Enamel Iff ht?
Pee GM Specification Var?les
PM Ge? Floor Wax
Pee GM Penetrating DyitaiB
PM GM Parch Paint
PM GM Seminaste RM! ail I
PM GM CretStaii fer Roofs
PM GM Adamant Floor Paint
PM Gee Wagon and Implement Pi
PM GM Pertlanite fer Concrete
Pee Gee Bine Ribbon Family Pan
Pee Gee Screen Enamel
Notice of Final Settle
ment and Final Dis
State of South Carolina,
County of Edgefield.
Whereas, Mrs. Annie E. Rivef
has made application unto this Court
for final discharge as administra
trix in re the estate of James U.
Rives deceased, on this the 10th
day of May, 1915.
These, Are Therefore, to cite anj
and all kindred creditors, or parties
interested, that said administratrix
make a full and final settlemeni
of ?aid estate in my office on 10th
day of June, 1915. And will ask
The Standard Vigil
Yes, the crown
It is just out
For makers have striven a ]
again, as we scored when w
There is truly no oth<
touch so light that the trea
had the Optional Duplex Shift,
gers of the right and left hands,
of any standard typewriter. Th
ber "9" with more speed and grt
discovery. For while the Olive
pense to us by simplifying consti
spend a dollar for any typewrite:
more this one does. If you are 1
17 Cents a Day!
matic spacer, 6 1-2-onnce touch-ph
Yet we have decided to sell it
every user can easily afford to hav<
like print, included FREE if desiree
ists, employers, and individuals eve
It's a pleasure for us to tell you ab
The Oliver 1
t&&~ You can rent the Oliver Type?
If you are intending to 1
of Pee Gae Finishes. Rei
and varnishes or the Pee
look attractive. You w
Specify Pee Gee Knishes
COVERS more surface. lasts !
and 2s nore economical tl
Oil? hand mixed paint or ord.
paint MASTIC PAINT ts m
at said time and place for final dis
charge, as said administratrix of
said estate, and you are hereby re
quired to show cause before rae in
my office at Edgefield, South Caro
lina, at said time why said order of
discharge should not be eran ted.
W. T. KINNAIRD,
Probate .Judge E. C.
May 10, 1915.
We are receiving goods most
every day. We are carrying the lar
gest stock in this section. Prices
cut nearly in half. Don't buy your
hat until you see ours.
?i Sing's Blew Bimwry
;?JL:.S THE COUGH, CURES' TH? LUNGS.
mg typewriter triump
and comes years before
life-time to attain this ideal mac!
,Fe gave the world its first visible
er typewriter on earth like this ri
d of a kitten will run the keys !
The new-day advances that come alone <
>y Oliver. Even our own previous mo*
It put the whole control of 84 letters
And it lets you write them all with o
us writers of all other machines can in
I This brilliant new Oliver comes at
? more than lesser makes-now out-o
;r's splendid new features are costly
ruction. Resolve right now to see th
r. If you are using some other make ;
usine an Oliver, it naturally follows th:
Remember this brand-new Oliver "9" is
typewriter. It has all our previous speci
as the Optional Duplex Shift. Selective C<
to everyone everywhere on our famous \
2 the world's crack visible writer, with tl
for Full Details
rywhere are flocking to the Oliver. Just r
triter three (3) months for $4.00
build .5 repaint or redecorate, you al
nember the cost of labor ia the same 1
Gee kind. You want your buildii
ant to avoid the expense and trou
-the kind that has stood the test i
? "The Kind That Lasts"
longer, looks better fl Lead, fe-inforcec
mn Keg Lead and proportions, and
?nary ready mixed scale and keep?
ade of pura White appears on every
us for beautifully illustrated booklet, "Hom
? for color cards, booklets of any Pee Gee f
them to PEASLEE-GAULBERT CO., Incorp
U?T & KERN J
GEFIELD, SOUTH CAROI
Make the Old Suits
We are better prepared
than ever to do first-class
work in cleaning and press
ing of all kinds. Make your
old panta or suit new by let
ing us clean and press them
Ladies skirts and suits al
so cleaned and pressed. Sat
Edgefield Pressing Club
WALLACE HARRIS, PROP.
h is here!
experts expected it I
line. And Oliver has won
Lew Oliver "9." Think of
jn this machine are all controlled
dels-famous in their day-never
and characters in the little fin
nly 28 keys, the least to operate
iraediately run the Oliver Num
the old-time price. It costs n<
(-date when compared with tbi
-we have eqaulized the added es
is great achievement before yoi
vou will waut to see how mac
it you want the finest model.
the greatest value ever given in a
al inventions-visible writing, auto
rio* & Hachment and all these other
myment plan-17 cents a d"y! Now
ie famous PRINTYPE, that writes
among the first to know about this
of writing machines. See why typ
nail a postal at once. No obligation.
Oliver Typewriter Bldg.?
nould investigate the merita
whether you use poor paints
aga, inside and outside, to
ble of frequent refinishing,
for almost ll half a century.
I with Zac Oxide ia tba CORM
pure Linseed Oil. It does not
its color for years. The form?la
es and How tc Paint Them.'*
"?nish you may desire, or write
orated, Louisville, Kentucky.