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EDGEFIELD, S. C., WEDNESDAY, OCTOBER 6, 1915
BEST RAIL GRINDER
SIMPLE MACHINE SAID TO DC
So Light That lt May Be Lifted From
the Track and Replaced With a
Minimum of Interruption to
The accompanying illustratior!
shows a very simple electric grinder
developed at London, Eng. The ma
chine is so light that it can be instant
ly taken off the rail on the approach
of a car and be put to work again in
the space of about thirty seconds.
Therefore, it may be operated without
interfering in the least with the regu
lar service during the day. The ordi
nary rail grinders have to be used at
night after the car traffic is stopped as
they are so heavy and unwieldy as
to call for a clear track and uninter
rupted operation, which means night
work and extra pay for foreman and
It is claimed that night grinding re
sults in some very indifferent work,
the fitful light being responsible for
disastrous "cuts" in the rail so that
more harm may be done to rails than
if they were left alone. When one
considers that much of the grinding
must not exceed l-100th part part of
an inch, it must be admitted chat such
a delicate operation should be done
only under good light conditions.
This electric rail grinder utilizes the
human sense of touch in graduating
the grinding force of the emery wheel.
The depth of the "cut" is regulated by
the pressure of the operator's hands
on the shafts, and he is made uncon
sciously aware of the depth of the
"cut" by the vibrations conducet along
the arms of the machine. The success
ful "cut ' should die out imperceptibly
about Iii to 18 inches away from the
joint, on either side.
The machine has a simple frame
work of ash providing a seating at
one end for the motor. As the motor
is close to its work, a low horse-power
is sufficient to drive the grinding
wheel. The motor is supplied with
current from the overhead wire. A
starter box is placed between the two
arms, and a switch is located near
the right handle.
There is an automatic "cut-out"
used in connection with the starter so
arranged that should the operator at
tempt to take a deeper "cut" than is
advisable, the current is automatically
cut off and the machine stopped. The
machine will grind out corrugations
equally as well as defectivo joints, and
will smooth 10 to 15 feet an hour, ac
cording to depth and freedom from
Interruption. By a slight tilting of the
machine one side of the rail can be
ground more than the other if required.
NOT THE FAULT OF RAILROAD
No Blame Can Be Attached to Man
agement for Deaths of Nineteen
Persons in 1914.
If every one of the million trains op
erated on one single system in 1914
had arrived and departed on time,
each one moving over its own partic
ular route without a semblance of a
train accident, nineteen persons,
classed in the interstate commerce
commission's accident reports as pas
sengers, would have been killed; but
not a passenger was killed in a train
accident on the 26,198 miles of track.
How the nineten persons lost their
lives: Six by falling, jumping or slip- ;
ping from moving cars or trains; two :
by attempting to get on moving
trains; two by slipping off station plat
forms in front of trains; two by stand
ing too close to edges of station plat
forms and being struck by trains; one
by jumping off ferry boat; one by
throwing himself between cars of mov
ing train; three by crossing tracks at
stations in front of trains; one struck
by coach and thrown under train; one
when assaulted by another passenger
and thrown from train. The railroad
was powerless to prevent the fatali
Center for Railroad Ties.
The place from which more railroad
ties are shipped than from any other
In the United States is Reeds Springs,
Mo., in the Ozarks. Tie hewers get
form twelve to sixteen cents a tie,
according to the hardness of the wood.
ACCIDENTS Cri THE DECREASE
Reports Made to Interstate Commerce
Commission Show Most Gratify
ing State cf Affairs.
Reports made to the interstate com
merce commission by the steam ri
reads of the country pursuant to law
covering the quarter ending March ' .
shows that C5 persons were killed an/1
1,072 injured in train accidents for the
quarter. Compared with the same , -
riod the preceding year this was a do
crease of nearly 100 per cent in the
fatalities and of more thr.a 5 per cc:;:
ir the accidents reporting simply in
There was also a considerable do
crease in the number of other acci
dents, including these of employees
engaged in other work than the opera
tion of trains, classed as "industrii-.i
There were fewer railway accidents
in the first quarter of the present year
thar, for tho corresponding period of
Altogether the report is an excel
lent showing for the railways, proving
that railway travel is becoming safer
every year. The report shows that
74.8 per cent of the derailments were
due, the commission finds, to defective
roadway and defective equipment. Of
the accidents due to defective road-:
way about 21.2 per cent were caused
by broken rails, and of the derailments
due to defective equipment 28 per cent
were caused by defective or broken
SIGNAL LAMPS IN DAYLIGHT;
Their Use on Electric Railroads Es-1
pecially Has Been Made an
Object of Much Study.
The use of signal lamps for daytime
signaling on electric railroads, as well
as for night signals, thus dispensing
with semaphores and operating me
chanism, has been the subject of
extensive experiments and study
The recent introduction of hooded
lamps and the development of the I
lenses and artificial backgrounds has
gone a long way in placing this sim
ple equipment far ahead of the old
style moving mechanisms and sema
phore movements over the face ol
a staiionory light.
The first signal system based on
scientific principles, for both day and
night service, was on the Brooklyn
bridge in 1907. The signals had five- j
inch lenses, giving both red and green
Indications, and were equipped with j
ten-inch hoods. These lights were not I
equipped with any artificial back
ground. Behind the lenses were mount
ed 16-candlepower lamps. These
proved only partly satisfactory, and
from then until 1911 there were but
few attempts to use lights for day
In 1912 the use of deeper hoods,
artificial backgrounds and the strong
white light of the tungsten lamps so
improved the signal as to provide the
first long-range Indications under the
mest severe daylight conditions.
The latest development of this
phase of railroad signaling is the suc
cessful installation and operation of
more than fifty miles of these signals
on the system of the Indiana Traction
company. These signals have 40-watt
lamps and eight-inch hoods, and in
daytime the signal indications can be
read clearly at 3,500 feet and at night
more than 2.5 miles.-World's Ad
Specifications for the 400 locomo
tives recently ordered by the Russian
government call for copper fire boxes.
It will require 1,600 tons, or 3,200,000
pounds, of copper to make these fire
boxes. In this country the railroads
ute boilers made wholly of steel. They
could use copper for the lower part of
the boilers, but this would only add to
the expense of the locomotives. The
question has been asked, Why should
Russia not content herself with steel
instead of copper? Engineers say that
Russia has used the copper fire boxes
so long that she wants no other kind.
They say that the climatic conditions
in Russia do not preclude the use of
all-steel boilers. Anyway, Russia will
have 1,600 tons of copper which she
would not otherwise have had. She
may eventually do what the Germans
were reported to have done, to replen
ish ammunitions shells; that is, strip
the locomotives of their copper fire
boxes and substitute iron boxes.
New York Times.
REALLY MATTER ?F BLUFF
Just How Most of Public Pests Secure
Immunity From Merited
Once upon a time there was a deg
whose delight it was to bark at the
moon. He knew nothing discret;?able
concerning thc moon, but felt, that
he just naturally must shew his su
periority. Sc he yapped and yowled
ar?d called it names and made faces r<i
it by the hour. All this caused the
other animals great annoyance, and at
last they held an indignation meeting.
"Something muse be done!" was die
general opinion. "Let us clo it by tak
ing ibis measly nuisance out to some
secluded spot and abating him in a
thorough and permanent manner!"
'clay!" spoke the hog. "Let us not
act hastily. ? traveled widely in my
yr unger days, appearing in tho dime
museums all over the lend as the just
ly celebrated educated pig. I have
looked this matter up. It is true that
the varr:int u::d?r discussion is an
abomination. Still, he is one of the
pests to whom all the rest of creation
appear to feel compelled to give ear
aud deference-men call them reform
ers or agitators, or statesmen, as tte
case may be. As I understand it.
there is no way of stopping I113 bark
ing rf the moon except by paying him
to quit. And that, aias! would not give
us permanent relief, for as soon as
he had spent cur money he would find
something else to howl about, and we
should have to buy him ?ll over
Morrl-From this we should learn
that the average pest secures Immu
nity from retribution because' he has
MATTER CF JUSTICE FIRST
Vermont Judge Had Little Use for
Lc^?i Quibbles That Amounted
Tlie Central Law Journal says thai
Theophilus Harrington, a Vermont
judge in the early part of the last cen
tury, was a mau who loved the right
and cared little for mere legal quib
bling. "If justice controls your ver
dict," he would often say to the jury,
"you will not miss the general prin
ciples of the law." At one trial when
the possession of a farm was in ques
tion the defendant offered a deed of
the premises to which the plaintiff's
lawyer, Daniel Chipman, objected be
cause it had no- seal.
"But your client sold the land, was
paid for it and signed the deed, did
he not?" asked the judge.
"That makes no difference," said
Chipman, "the deed has no seal and
cannot be admitted in evidence."
"Is anything else the matter with
the deed?" asked the judge.
"I don't know that there is." ittjg
"Mr. Clerk," said the judge, "gijfi
me a wafer and a three-cornered pie^H
The clerk obeyed, and the judge de-'
liberately made and affixed the seal.
"There, Brother Chipman," said he,
"the deed is all right now. It may be
put in evidence. A man is not going
to be cheated out of his farm in this
court when there is a whole box of
wafers on the clerk's desk."
A Mistake in Scott.
Novel readers who bke to combine
the classic with the topical may be !
turning back, now that another great !
chapter in the history of Constanti
nople is opening, to one of Scott's less
?popular works, "Count Robert of
Paris." And there they will find one
of those curious slips, analogous to j
the indy novelist's horse that won the j
Derby three years running and the
eclipse of the sun in "King Solomon's
Mines" followed by a moonlight
aight. Scott's slip is more excusable,
seeing that he had not seen Constan
tinople, but it cannot be explained
away. Sir Edwin Pears, while testi
fying that Scott's descriptions are
upon the whole singularly exact, ob
serves that he makes the Crusaders
wait before crossing a bay on the
Bosporus until the tide has .ebbed.
Now there is no tide in either tho
Bosphorus or the Marmora.
Eyes Stand the Strain.
The number of persons wearing
glasses is often taken to mean that
eyes are deteriorating. But scientific
opinion does not hold to this view. So
far as science knows there has been
no change in the structure of the hu
man body in historic times.
Examination of the eyes of Indian
students in schools shows as large a
proportion with defective vision as of
white pupils. Several years ago aia
oculist measured the refraction of the
eyes of many wild animals in the
Bronx Zoo of New York. Their eyes
proved to be as defective as the eyes
of human beings. Nature is often a
bit careless in its work. But there ls
no evidence that its optical glass is
breaking down under the strain im
posed by ^?*?tation.
Life and Death.
The final use of the greateut men of
a nation is, after all, not with refer
ence to their deeds in themselves or
their direct bearing on their times or
lands. The final use of a heroic, emi
nent life-especially of heroic, emi
nent death-is its indirect filtering
into the nation and the race and to
give, often at many removes, but un
erringly, age after age, color and fiber j
to the personalism of the youth and
maturity of that age and of mankind.
. . . The dramatic deaths of every j
nationality are its most important in
heritance value--In some respects be
yond its literature and art.-Walt
The Standard Visible Writer
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Oliver Typewriter Bldg.,
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C. M. MELLICHAMP, Agent
GEO. F. MIMS
Eyes examined and glasses fitted
only when necessary. Optical
work of all kinds.
EDGEFIELD, S. C.
S. M. Whitney Co.
Personal Attention to all Business. Correspond