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Pictured in the accompanying en
graving is an apparatus that is being
used in Africa to permit of railroad
c instruction at night, reports . the
Scientific American. A freight car ls
utilized as a lighting plant. Project
ing from a tower built at one end o?
the car is a light arm that extends
far out over the track. At the ex
treme end of this arni two search
lights are placed, while other lamps
DEPEND ON RAILROADS
WARRING NATIONS HAVE BEEN
WELL SERVED BY LINES.
Importance of Communication In the
Great Struggle Shown-Russia's
Lack of Facilities Has Proved
a Serious Handicap.
Effective railway mileage has played
a potent part in the winning of mod
ern battles. The Russians have not
only had well-equipped, well-trained
men to deal with in the eastern war
theater, but, also, a wonderful, strate
gically invaluable net of railways.
The German railways have been in
struments of first importance in every
Russian defeat. On the western front,
where the fighting has been more sta
tionary, the highly developed railway
system of Germany meets the equally
highly developed railway system of
France. How well France and Ger
many are prepared to meet the emer
gencies cf war transportation as com
pared with the other belligerents is
shown in a recent bulletin issued by
the National Geographic society. The
"The total length of the railways of
the world is about 750,000 miles, of
which considerably more than four
fifths falls to the continents of Eu
rope and America. The United States
leads all the other nations of the
world in the total of its railroad mile
age, though it is proportionately be
hind some of them. Belgium, now
back of the invaders' lines, is one of
the best-supplied territories in the
world for rail communication, and the
railways of Great Britain, Germany
and France are equal to almost any
strain that a war traffic may put upon
4hem. Europe possesses more than
-212,500 miles of railway lines, of which
about one-third falls to the share of
the central German powers, the Ger
man empire and Austria-Hungary.
Germany, with its 210,000 square miles
of area, has about 40,000 miles cf rail
line, while France, with its 208,000
square miles, has 32,000 miles of track
Russia and Finland, together, with a
total are of 2,095,616 square miles, or
very nearly ten times the size of Ger
many, have a railway mileage slightly
less than that of Germany. In great
part, the Russian railways are far
flung trunk lines, and the Muscovite
land nowhere has anything corre
sponding to the interweaving railway
nets of Germany and France. This
lack of railway facilities has been one
of the disadvantages that the Rus
sians have had to overcome during the
Among the other countries of Eu
rope, Italy has some 11,250 miles of
railroad, so laid down as to bind al
most her entire frontier by a rail line
fringe; Spain has about 10,000 miles
of track; Great Britain and Ireland
have 24,000 miles, and Austria-Hun
gary has a total mileage of about 28,
The United States has about one
third of the total mileage of the world.
There ore 65,000 miles of railway on
the continent of Asia, about 26,000
miles on the continent of Africa and
21,000 milesin Australia. Japan, with
railway, and China has a mileage
which totals about the same.
The railways of Germany, France
and Austria-Hungary have been de
veloped with considerable attention to
their value in times of war.' This
feature of railway development has
been especially prominent in. Ger
many, where the state has presided
over the growth and destinies of
steam line communication. Several
great tiunk lines traverse Germany
from her western to her eastern fron
tier, and these lines are prepared to
bear almost any strain. Along the
French border an all-inchislve net
work of railroad has been laid, while
German railway lines parallel the Rus
sian frontier and receive feed lines
from all parts of the empire.
Chicago owes a vote of thanks to
the men of her steam railroads. The
way they met the recent crisis (the
street car strike) and helped carry
the million workers of this etty to and
from their tasks was a marvel of speed
and efficiency. They lived up to the
best traditions of American railroad
ing-and greater praise than that can*
sot be applied to any work done OB
-steel highways.-Chicago, journal.
about 6,500 miles-of
Vote of Thank*
are located at intervals along the arm
By means of this arrangement plertt:
of light can be shed upon the portioi
of the track that the arm overhangs
while beams of the searchlights cai
be cast ahead where the work of prc
! paring the road bed is under way. Th'
lighting plant permits of carrying ci
. work in the cool hours, while the toi
. rid sun has retired below the horizon
i and labor ls possible.
! VALUABLE L INES IN HAWAII
j Railroad System of Island Pays Hand
some Dividends to Those Who
Own the Stock.
Twenty years ago the railway sys
tem on the island of Oahu, Hawaii,
had 23^ miles of track. Now there
are 127 miles, including plantation
spurs. At first this railroad almosi
ruined its promoters. Now it is on?
of the best-paying investments in the
Hawaiian archipelago. The companj
owns 22 locomotives, 44 passengei
cars and 520 freight cars. It hat
36,000 feet of -wharf and can st?r?
20,000 tons of sugar. Taxes on prop
erty from Ewa to Kahuku plantation
writes a Honolulu correspondent ol
Commerce Reports, which is tapped
by this railroad, amounted at the time
the road started to $28,853; in 1914 th?
taxes on the same property totalec
$310,000. This is one example how th?
land along the line has increased ii
value in the last twenty years. Th<
railroad paid $87,324 in taxes in 1914
which means that every two years th<
company pays back to the governmen
the amount of the subsidy granted t(
the railroad, which was $196,980. Th<
gross earnings of the road twent]
years ago were 15120,000, and now the]
are $1,300,000; the freight earning!
were $43,000 and today they are $813,
000; the passenger earnings wen
$25,000, and now they are $300,000.
Twenty years ago 79,000 passengen
were carried yearly, while in 191'
about 1,140,000 persons patronized th<
cars. There were 907,000 passenger:
carried one mile twenty years ago; ii
1914 they numbered 15,435,000. Pas
senger rates show lesa than two centi
a mile; this l3 lower than the a.ver
age rate on the mainland. This rail
road, which starts in Honolulu, tapi
five of the largest sugar plantations ti
the Hawaiian islands, all the big pine
apple plantations, a sisal plantation
Several stock farms and several rio
and banana plantations; skirts th
shores of Pearl harbor, where th
United States government is buildinj
a $2,000,000 naval station and dr;
dock, and indirectly taps one larg'
American army post and one of th
strongest fortifications under thi
American flag, Fort Kamehameha
which guards the entrance to Pear
harbor. In addition to its commercia
importance the road opens up some 0
the finest scenic features on the islam
RAILS ALLOWED TO EXPAM
Scientific Building Providea for thi
Effect of Heat on the Lengths
Anyone who i3 observing will nc
tice, if walking along a railroad traci
in winter, that the ends of the rail:
do not meet. There will be a spaci
between the rails of from one-fourtl
to one-half inch, according to thi
length of the rails, character of thi
track and climatic conditions. On sidi
tracks the rails will often be foun<
butting together or spaced one incl
apart, all within a few hundred feet
This is simply because the tracks an
unimportant and are laid with as littli
expense as possible.
The rails on the main line of a trunl
road will be found equally spaced witl
unending regularity. This is done 01
account of the expansion of the ralli
In the hot summer, for if the gap wai
not provided when the steel was laid
the heat would cause such a tremen
dous end pressure that the track
would assume a grapevine appearance
Crossings to Be Guarded.
New Hampshire has passed a lai
placing the protection of railroad gradi
crossings in the hands of the publii
service commission, which has orderei
that each city and town shall maintaii
warning signs at a reasonable distano
On each side of crossings. The sign
must be of enameled metal, 24x1!
inches in size, and have white letter
on a blue ground. If any town neg
leets to set such signs for 60 days i
forfeits one dollar for each day. Any
one injuring or defacing the signs ii
hable to a fine of ten dollars.
Ho who makes war on business re
moves roofs from homes, takes the
bread from mouths, leaves human
bodies naked to the 6torm-replaces
confidence with fear, hope with drond,
love with bato-and robs men of their
rigat to work.
SOMETHING ABOUT CURRIES.
Translated into our tongue curry
means palatable. In the Orient there
are forty or more ways of
preparing curry powder,
and in America our spice
houses are adding others.
Curry i3 like mince meat
or pickles; we like the
kind we have been ac
customed to use. In
India the following * in
gredients are used:
Coriander seed, tumeric,
cummia, pepper, -mustard seed, gin
ger, card&mon, chillies, mace, cloves,
poppy seed, cinnamon, nutmeg,. saf
fron, mangoes, lime juice, garlic, nuts,
cayenne pepper, cocoanut, milk and
oil, as well as many of the native
fruits. Rice and chutney are an invari
able accompan ruent to curry. One
of the most important things to re
member ip using the prepared curry
is to cook lt with the ingredients, or
the dish will be flat and tasteless.
Curried Lamb.-Remove the bones
from two pounds of the neck of Iamb
and divide into neat squares about an
isch; fry them brown in hot fat, take
out the meat and add two chopped
onions, one chopped apple, one and
a half tablespoonfuls of curry pow
der, three tablespoonfuls of chopped
cocoanut, one teaspoonful of sugar,
a quarter of a cupful of milk, and the
tame of good stock, and the pieces
of lamb. Cook slowly for an hour,
remove the fat, add a teaspoonful of
salt and a tablespoonful of lemon
Juice. Serve in the center of a plat
ter with the sauce poured around it,
and garnish with bolled rice. '
Chicken Curry.-Cut up a plump
young broiler and fry brown In hot
oliva ell. Remove from the frying
patt and place in the oven. Mix to
gether two tablespoonfuls each of:
HOOT and curry powder, then add
gradually a cupful of good stock. Fry
two sliced onions in the hot fat, add
the prepared stock, cook for five min
utes, then turn in the chicken. Cover;
and allow to simmer fifteen minutes.!
Serve hot with boiled rice. If the)
sauce seems too thick, add a little
more stock. The dish should be thick
and hot when served. Curry sauce ls
good with cold meats and makes an
agreeable change in serving them.
Economics change man's activities.
As you change a man's activities you
change his way of living, as you
change his environment, you change
his state of mind. Precept and in
junction do not perceptibly aifect
men; but food, water, air, clothing,
shelter, pictures, books, music, will
and ?? adc ci them.
lj A FIW HOT WEATHER DRINKS.
f j There is nothing so refreshing as a
good cool drink when tired, wann and
thirsty. The following
will prove valuable dur
ing the hot dog-day
Milk Shake.-Put four
tablespoonfuls of finely
crushed ice in a glass,
pTTZ% I add to this two and a
1 ' half tablespoonfuls of
rich sirup, one egg and a cupful of
. : milk. Shake thoroughly and turn into
3 j a serving glass. Nutmeg and cinna
B mon may be added if desired.
l\ PInard.-Mix one cupful of-sugar
~ j and a cupful of water together, add
the juice of three lemons and one can
of B&a$pple (grated). Strain and
pour oror a quart of chopped iee.
Cherry Punch.-Boll together five
minutes two cupfuls of sugar and four
cupfuls of water. Then add one cup
ful of lemon juice, three cupfuls of
orange juice and three cupfuls of
cherry juice. Chill and serve with
Grape Nectar.- -Put a cupful of su
gar and a quart of water'over to boll.
Cook ten minutes, then add, when
cool, the juice of three lemons, two
oranges, one-half can of pineapple
and a pint of grape juice. Let it
stand about three hours, then add one
nice orange sliced thin. Serve with
Raspberry Mlnf.-To a quart of
good lemonade add a half cupful of
red raspbeny juice and a dozen
bruised mint leaves. Let the mixture
chill for two hours, then remove the
mint, fill glasses and garnish each
gktts^wi?i a sprig of mist.
Serve Iced tea with sprigs of mint
asl A toeflge of lemon. }
<feffe0Ar Ale--Remove the skins
fasti *fx large lemons and slice them
tat? a large earthen kow!. Add to
thara ?tx ounces of bruised ginger
root, six cupfuls of sugar and four
galls?* of boiling water. When the
ll|ttM ts lukewarm, put In a fourth
of t> yeast cake dissolved in a little
wat**. Cover the bowl with a thin
clot* aadWet stand a day. Bottle and
keep fa a' cool place.
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TO-DA Y- Write for Fall Details
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THERE'S. NONE SO. GO O Pr
Means a pure, wholesome, refreshing beverage
that is popular with those who play the game
and with those who witness it?
GEO. F. MIMS
Eyes examined and glasses fitted
only when necessary. Optical
work of all kinds.
EDGEFIELD, S. C.
S. M. Whitney Co.
Personal Attention to all Business. Correspond