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COST OF ROAD CONSTRUCTION
Much Depends on Amount and Char
acter of Grading Necessary-Oth
er Factors Considered.
(Prepared by the United States Depart
ment of Agriculture.)
The cost of a road is dependent up
on not only the type of construction,
but the amount and character of grad
ing to be done, the cost of labor and
materials, the width and thickness of
surfacing, the character and amount
of drain?ge required, and other fac
tors of equal variability. Based upon
general averages, it has been ascer
tained by highway specialists of the
United States department of agricul?
ture that under average conditions mac
adam roads can be built in southern
states at from $4,000 to $5,000 per
mile, gravel roads at from $1,500 to
$2,500 per mile, and sand-clay and top
soil reads at from $800 to $1,500 per
mile. In New England and the other
eastern states, macadam roads are re
ported at from $6,000 to $9,000 per
mile, gravel roads at from $3,200 to
$5,000, and bituminous macadam from
$8,000 to $1.3,000, according to the
character of construction, whether sur
face-treated, penetration, or mixing
method. The bituminous type is
quite general in the eastern states.
As indicating costs in other sections
of country, the state highway commis
sioner of Michigan reported in 1913
the average cost for macadam roads
$4,300 per mile, clay-gravel roads $1,
600 per mile, and concrete roads about
$10,000 per mile. The average cost of
Improved Michigan Road.
state highways constructed in Ohio
in 1913 was $8,383. According to types
in 1912, the brick-paved highways av
eraged $14,650 per mile and the mac
adam highways $5,950. In California
the first 356 miles of the state system
of highways cost an average of $8,
143 per mile and consisted principally
of thin concrete with a thin coat of
bitumen. The maximum and mini
mum figures given in this paragraph
are not absolute, but are intended to
present the usual range of costs. The
rates given Include grading, drainage,
surfacing, and engineering costs.
BOOSTER FOR BETTER ROADS
Cost of Transportation of Produce to
Market is Lessened-Ditch, Drain
and Drag Roads.
Good roads not only cheapen the
cost of transporting farm produce to
market, but make the country a de
sirable place to live in.
We hear muchjalk about federal aid
for good roads, yet if we watt for
this movement to crystallize into a
reality, the people of the country will
be riding in mud for some time to
come. The thing to do is to take off
coats and buckle into a plan for local
road improvement. Be a booster for
the grading of roads and follow up the
work with the King road drag for
The principle of all good roads in
all States is the same, viz., keeping
the water out and off of the roadbeds.
Ditch, drain and drag the roads. This
is the tripod of good road building.
ADVANTAGES OF GOOD ROADS
Scarcely Secondary to Rafi Transpor
tation In Their Far-Reaching Ef
fect on Civilization.
The two great necessities of
modern life are education and trans
portation, for civilization travels in
the wake of good schools and good
roads. Good roads lead in more good
directions than the most far-seeing
can contemplate. Commerce begins
on the country roads and byways;
they affect school attendance and lit
eracy; they control markets and
prices, values of land, the develop
ment and contentment of the people,
the cost and pleasure of living, and
are scarcely secondary to rail trans- J
portation in their far-reaching effect, j
They determine the character and
growth of the community, and the
necessity for them cannot be overes
timated, for a country that isn't worth
a good road isn't worth living in.
Idaho Boosts Good Roads.
The Southern Idaho Motor associa
tion was perfected at Boise, Idaho,
for the purpose of making a good
roads campaign in southern Idaho.
This marks an important step toward
giving impetus to the good roads
movement in the state.
Keep Weeds Down.
It does not take long to mow the
growth along the roadside, ditch
banks and fence rows. You could do
It going to and from the fields oftimes,
ot when you have an hour to spare.
- - /
BEAUTY AND GOOD HABITS
?Tao Few Seem to Recognize the Pari
i ! That Health Plays in Matter of
: It is Impossible to be beautiful with
out being healthy. Health is the foun
dation of beauty. If one wants to be
really beautiful, the beauty must be
more than skin deep. The trouble with
most people is that they are quite sat
isfied with a beauty that is superficial
enough to deceive the onlooker. Beau
ty includes vigor and efficiency.
To be really beautiful one must have
not only a beautiful face, b*t beautiful
hands as weil; not simply a good com
plexion all over. Not infrequently a
persoc's body is covered with pimples.
With such blemishes on the face one
would feel very badly, but so long as
they are out of sight, they are^not re
garded. However, they mean the same
thing as if they were face pimples.
They mean that the whole body is in
a state of uncleanness and of low re
sistance because of this uncleanness.
The only way to be really beautiful
is to live beautifully, to live rightly.
That means to live naturally. For ex
ample, if one is aiming to be beauti
ful, one Jiust eat beautiful things, be
cause our bodies are made of what we
eat. If one ei.ts corpses, how can one
expect to be beautiful? But if oue
eats the beautiful fruits and nuts that
are hung from the trees, inviting us to
reach -up and partake-if one eats
these and other natural foods* that na
ture has prepared for us, that are all
pure and sweet and good and clean,
then one may have normal, clean
blood, and tte result of good, clean
blood will be a clear skin and a good
complexion. A lady once asked the
writer what was good for her complex
ion, and we told her oatmeal. She
said, "Do you mean rub it on?" "Yes,"
we said, "rub it on, and rub it in
swallow it."-J. H. Kellogg, M. D., in
LITTLE DANGER FROM BOOKS
Infectious Diseases Not Likely to
Be Transmitted, ls Opinion Offi
Tho fact that infectious diseases
may sometimes be conveyed by books
has led to exhaustive investigations to
determine just how much danger there
may be from this source, particularly
in public libraries and waiting-rooms.
The particular disease investigated
as the one most likely to be transmit
ted, was tuberculosis, and the conclu
sions reached are gratifying and reas
suring, as follows:
There is probably no material risk
involved in handling Dooks recently
read by consumptives unless the books
are obviously soiled. Even then the
risks are slight. But in order to pro
vide against possible infection it is
suggested that suspected books should
be placed in "quarantine" for a month
-that is. placed in a room where
there is free circulation of air, such as
one with a window open. At the end
of 30 days all germs of tuberculosis,
and probably all other germs likely to
be found in the books, will have been
Air for the Human House.
Your body ls a human house, the
place in which you live. Food alone
cannot make this house a healthy
place. The lungs, the ventilators of
the house, must be filled and refillea
many times each minute with pure,
The air breathed deep into the tiny
cells of the lungs, meets and purifies
the blood which has been sent there by
the heart, the great pump in your hu
man house. This pump is kept busy
every moment. It must gather the
wasteladen blood from every part of
the body and send it to the lungs, then
it must take the purified blood back to
the farthest point of the human house.
Sometimes invisible enemies, the
microbes, creep into the human house
and try to steal our health away. Noth
ing can do more in the way of driving
these little enemies out than our ven
tilators, the lungs, when they are al
lowed an abundance of fresh air.
Tyranny of Power.
No citizen can do a higher duty
than to resist the majority when he
believes it wrong; to assert the right
of individual judgment, and to main
tain it; to cherish liberty of thought
and speech and action against the
tyranny of his own or any party. Tili
that tyranny, yearly growing more
burdensome as the main object of an
old party becomes more and more the
retention or the regaining of pow
er, instead of the success of the fresh,
vivid principles on which new parties
are always organized-till that tyranny
is in some measure broken, we shall
get few questions considered on their
merits, and fail-as we are failing
to bring the strong men into the serv
ice of the state.-Whitelaw Reid.
William Morris and Paul Polret.
We pay homage daily to Paul Poiret
as an apostle of good line and brilliant
color in dress, but the world does not
half know or praise what William Mor
ris did in interior decoration. Working
as did Poiret he banished the superfi
cial, artificial, superfluous adornment
of personal belongings. Down went
the spurious, up came the genuine, un
der his teachings. And yet, the most
that the many know of him is that he
gave his name to a reclining chair.
The very phrase "Nottingham cur
tains" would discourage him in the
same way as it pains Poiret to see a
woman wearing a string of pearls
with a tailored suit, as so many hun
dreds of American women, unfortu
1 nately, have a habit of doing.
MISTAKE TO CHANGE BREEDS
Start With the Kind Liked Best and
slick to lt-Cul! Poor Specimens
and Buy Better Ones.
To change breeds every now and
then is poor practice. Cne should be
very careful before the particular
breed is chosen. To use a Holstein
sire one year in order to obtain a
large flow of milk, a Guernsey sire an
other year to secure richness of milk,
and a Shorthorn sire the next time,
is the wrong principle to employ in
the breeding and raising of good cows.
Jn<Joubtedly some good cows will
be obtained in the herd from such
methods of procedure, but there will
be no uniformity of size, form, appear
ance and production, and th? owner
has no assurance of what he is going
to get in the future. It is a case of
too many in the mixture, and it Is
guesswork as to which one will come
to the top.
First, select the breed with great
care, then stick to it. If a mistake is
made the first time in obtaining poor
specimens and poor producers, then
rectify the mistake as soon as possible
by selecting the right kind of a sire
belonging to the same breed to head
the herd, or by selling the animals
Typical Dutch Milker.
already bought, and purchasing bet
ter individuals belonging to the same
It is usually safer to try to improve
within the same breed than it is'to
improve by changing to a different
breed. There are good individuals and
good strains within any of the breeds
intended for a particular purpose.
INFLUENCE COLOR OF BUTTER
Markets Demand Yellow Tint Which
lt Supplied by Use of Dyes or
Character of Cow's Feed.
Although it is a fact that some dairy
breeds give yellower milk than others,
even though it may be no richer in
fat, the thing of greatest influence In
color is the kind of feed the cows
are getting. Market demands call for
a yellow butter, which is supplied in
the creamery by the use of certain
harmless vegetable dyes, the use of
which dairy laws rightly permit
The color also can be fed into the
milk and make the use of dyes un
necessary. Carrots, for example, color
milk and creaiu quickly. One of the
natural coloring materials in milk and
butter is called carotin, from carrots,
and this arterial is found in many
food materials. It ls plentiful in fresh
green grass, hence the milk colors
up well in early spring. Alfalfa hay,
cured to have a bright green color,
contains good inplies of carotin, which
appears in the cream as a result.
Hay which has lost this green color,
dry corn fodder, silage, straw, yel
low corn and white, wheat, wheat
bran, cottonseed meal and other milled
feeds contain practically none, and
cream from cows so fed will produce
a light colored butter unless artificial
coloring is supplied. The color adds
nothing to the value or digestibility
of butter, save in one's mind, but the
market demands a yellow butter all
tile year round and the color must
either be supplied in the feed or In
SEPARATION OF SOUR MILK
Pour From One Pan to Another,
Breaking Up Curd as Fine as Pos
Milk that has curdled will separate
with difficulty. Such milk should be
thoroughly mixed previous to separat
ing, by pouring from one can into an
other. In this way the curd is broken
up as finely as possible, so that it will
not clog the machine. The separation
of curdled milk finally clogs the skim
milk tubes, with the result that more
skim milk passes through the cream
outlet, making a thinner cream.
On the other hand, when som* milk
which has not curdled ls separated,
the cream produced will be thicker.
This is due to the fact that cream
from sour milk has a high viscosity,^
or is less fluid, and a smaller propor
tion of cream is delivered, contain
ing a higher per cent of fat.
I Ordinary Cow Stalls.
The ordinary cow stalls should be
five feet long from the stanchion back
to the gutter. This is the standard dis
tance and does for all except abnor
mally large or small stock. The width
of the stall varies somewhat with the
breed trz? size of the cows, from three
feet four inches to four feet. Three
feet eight inches is a good average.
COMMUNITY PRIDE AN ASSET
The Town That Cares for Its General
Appearance Is the Town That
Community pride is an asset, and it
is one of the greatest of all assets.
The town that improves its streets,
cleans up the alleys, paints the houses,
cuts tho grass, rakes thc lawns and
plants its flowers is not only encour
aging cleanliness, but is making for
itself a name among the peoples of
the outer world.
Commercial travelers and others
como, and look, and go away and talk
-and the tUk is all In favor of the
town and its people.
Talk travels, and grows,,, and mul
tiplies until the tov.-n becomes known
;n many climes for its cleanliness and
In time other men who are looking
for a change of location hear of this
town-and then they go, and look, and
talk, and are pleased, and it becomes
And the town continues to expand
and progress, and as the years roll by
it gradually assumes larger propor- !
tions and a more commanding and j
dominating position in the world.
When Community Pride comes in
Prosperity enters by its side, and'the
two become the mighty levers that j
control the machinery of success.
Personal Pride and Community '
Pride should march side by side, for |
when these two potent factors join
hands in a laudable purpose opposi- j
tion quickly melts away.-Laredo j
Signs That Save.
A decided decrease in the number
of traffic accidents is reported from j
Portland, Ore., since the installation
there of a comprehensive system of
[ranting signs. The signs consist of !
red steel dials 18 inches in diameter 1
mounted on steel rods sunk three feet
in concrete at the curbs and standing ',
eight feet deep on the top of the dial.
The dials are pa.nted bright red with
black letters, and read: "School, Care
ful," "Caution, Bridge," "Caution,
Steep Grade." "Danger, Drive Slowly."
"Hospital. Quiet." "Caution, Fire Sta- ?
tion." "Danger. No Outlet." "Cau- j
tion. Dangerous Corner," and so on.
The signs are set in pairs about 100
feet from the danger point and in all
street directions from it, and are so
placed that the street lights will shine
upon them at night. Portland has a
population of about 20,000 greater
than Rochester, and embraces more
than twice the area of this city.
WAR UPON PAIN!
Pain is a visitor to every home1
and usually it comes quite unex
pectedly. Hut you are prepared for
every emergency if you keep a
small bottle of Sloan's Liniment
handy. It is the greatest pain kill-j
?er ever discovered. Simply laid j
on the skin-no rubbing required-j
it drives the pain away. It is really
wonderful. Melvin ?. Soister,
Berkeley Cal. writes: "Last Satur- j
day, after tramping around the Pan-j
ama Exposition with wet feet, I j
came home with my neck so stiff j
that I couldn't turn. I applied
Sloan's Liniment freely and went to
bed. To my surprise, next morn
ing the stiffness had almost disap- j
peared, four hours after the second ;
application I was as good as new." j
ali 25c drugyi-is.-1 . j
All persons owning property of any
kind whatsoever, or in any capacity,.
as husband, guardian, executor, ad-'
ministrator or trustees are required to
make returns of the same to the Audi- !
tor under oath within the time men- !
tioned below and the Auditor is requir- ?
led by law to adda penalty of 50 per;
j cent to all property that is not return- j
; on or before the 2Uth day of February j
; in any year.
All male citizens between the ages
I of 21 and 60 years except those ex
. empt by law are deemed taxable polls, i
i The 50 per cent penalty will be added j j
j for failure to make returns.
For the convenience of tax payers, I
I or my representative will be at the
following appointed places on the dates
i mentioned to receive tax returns:'
Ropers, Wednesday, Jan. 12, 1916.
Meriwether, Thursday Jan. 13.
Colliers, Friday Jan. 14.
Red Hill, Saturday Jan. 15
Clark's Hill, Monday Jan. 17.
Modoc, Tuesday Jan. 18.
Parksville, Wednesday Jan. 19.
Plum Branch, Thursday. Jfan. 20.
Morgan's Store, Friday Jan. 21.
Liberty Hill, Saturday Jan. 22.
Gl?ora, Monday, Jan. 24.
Pleasant Lane, Tuesday Jan. 25.
Meeting Street, Wednesday Jan. 26.
Johnston, Thursday, Jan. 27.
Herring's Store, Friday, Jan. 28.
Trenton, Saturday, Jan. 29.
The office will be open to receive re
turns from the first day of January till
i the 20th day of Feb. 1916, as prescrib
ed by law.
J. R. TIMMERMAN,
Auditor, E. C. S. C.
A. H. Corley,
Appointments at Trenton
DR J.S. BYRD,
OFFICE OVER POSTOFFICE
Residence Thone 17-R. Office 3.
Ford Cars Have
Stood the Test
The ?xperience of scores of own
ers of the Ford Automobiles has
i proven that there is nothing better
made for the Edgefield roads. Ford
cars will carry you safely over any
road that a buggy or any other ve
hicle can travel. ;
An Alkhe-Year-Arowid Car g
They are light, yet substantially
built. They are cheap, yet the best
of material is used in their con
struction. Are you contemplating
purchasing a car? Let us show
you a Ford Run-About or Touring
Car. * / ?
G. W. ADAMS
Edgefield Auto Repair Shop
Next to Court House
ARR?NGTON BROS. & CO.
Wholesale Grocers and Dealers In
Corn, Oats, Hay and all
Kinds of Seeds
Corner Cumming and Fenwick Streets
On Georgia R. R. Tracks
YOUR PATRONAGE SOLICITED
?}Wm See our representative, C. E. May.
B. B. RUSSELL, Jr. B. E. ALLEN
SHIP YOUR COTTON TO
RUSSELL & ALLEN
Cotton . Factors . and
Bonded Warehouses, Liberal Advances Made on
Cotton in Storage.
S. M. Whitney Co.
Personal Attention to all Business. Correspond
BEST BY TEST
Sluskys Roofing Materials
Metal Shingles, Galvanized Corrugated Iron, Painted
Iron Siding, Rubber Roofing, Mantels, Tiles, Grates,
Paints, etc. Lowest prices. Prompt deliveries.
Let us quote you before you buy,
Augusta, Ga., 1009 Broad St. Agent for the Great Majestic Range.