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CAUSES FOR SMALL LITTERS
One Reason Which Contributes to
Trouble More Than Any Other ls
Breeding Young Sows.
"Can you tell me why my brood
cows only bring between three and six
pigs per litter?"
Replying to thia question Prof. G.
W. Barnes, live stock specialist of the
University of Arizona agricultural ex
tension service, says:
"If you have studied hog conditions
in the United States you will find that
about four pigs per litter is the aver
age; and I can point to you men in
Arizona who are actually raising for
market two and three pigs to the lit
Weli-DeveJoped Sow With Profitable
ter, yet the cost of maintenance of
the brood sow is practically the same
whether she brings two pigs or ten
-pigs per litter, which means that the
fanners are losing a large percentage
?tf profit by keeping such brood sows
in their herds.
There are several reasons why
"brood sows bring small litters, and I
firmly believe that the one which con
tributes to the trouble more than any
other is the practice of breeding sows
too young. It is no uncommon thing
to find sows weighing less than one
hundred pounds with pigs. Usually
you find them with only two pigs. The
yoong sows which you intend to keep
for brood sows should never be bred
under nine months of age, and it is
much better to wait until they are
twelve or fourteen months old. Then
if they are not full developed, wait a
Stew months longer. Your brood sow
its good for six or eight years, and, if
i "by waiting a few months in the be- j
ginning before starting her on her life
-work, you can increase the size of her j
litters, you have certainly made good
wages for those months. Another
thing which contributes to no slight
extent to cause small litters is the .
lack of exercise.
WEANLING PIGS GROW FAST
Greatest Gains for Feed Consumed
Are Made in Early Life-Lard
Hogs Becoming Unpopular.
The prevalent opinion seems to be
that swine were designed to eat up
the corn crop and grow into 300
pound porkers. Under certain cir-1
cumstances there ls a better profit in j
.elong weanlings than in feeding
them up to the usual market weights.
Exact trials at many experiment
Stations show that the greatest gains
for feed consumed are made in early
life and that as the animals grow old
er it takes more feed to produce a
pound of pork.
The sucking pig grows very fast
and converts nearly all of its rations
into meat. If the sow is fed liberally
sae, too. will make some gains while
supporting her brood. The weanling
weighing 25 to 40 pounds is almost
dear gain and will often bring ten
cents a pound at this age.
On the same principle the 150-pound
pig will make more profitable re
turns on feed consumed than if left
until it weighs 250 pounds. There is
v an increasing number of farmers who
prefer to sell light "bacon hogs" and
fewer who continue to feed "lard
"hogs** np to the extra fat classes that
were popular a score of years ago.
GOOD VENTILATION FOR HOGS
Frequently When Shed ls Closed Ani
mals Become Heated and Must
Inhale Impure Air.
Of little less importance than the
ventilation of this year's crop of corn
is that of securing proper ventilation
for the animals that eat it, according
to the Nebraska College of Agricul
ture. This is particularly true of
PVequently when the shed is closed
tightly the hogs will become heat
ed, as well as be obliged to inhale
impure air. Such hogs, on being ex
posed to cold air, are likely to be
come susceptible to disease, espe
cially pneumonia and so-called hog
Noose vs. Halter.
A rope with a noose in it is some
what cheaper to tie an animal with
than a good halter, but if the noose
happens to slip, or the animal gets
into some unusual position which
?nvtn ib j rope tight enough to choke
the animal to death, the halter proves
a whole lot cheaper in the end.
EXPERIMENT IN GOOD ROADS
Road to Chevy Chase "Text Book In
.Concrete, Brick and Stone"-Ex
perts Are Interested.
There ls here a text book in con
crete, brick and stone-the road to
Chevy Chase, built by the plans and
under the direction of the office of
public roads of the United States and
for the sole purpose of informing the
public and the members of congress
interested in the improvement of the
public highways upon the methods and
cost of construction, types of roads,
adaptability of material and economy
Thousands of people travel over
this road, which is built in many sec
tions of different types, every day, and
hundreds of practical road builders
from all parts of the country have in
spected it from time to time and have
Sand and Gravel Piled on Subgrade
Ready for Use, Experimental Con
crete Road, Chevy Chase, Md.
marveled at the excellence of the
Manufacturers who have supplied
bituminous materials for the treat
ment of the road have detached their
special experts for this service and
the traffic over the road has demon
strated under carefully observed con
ditions the relative value of the sev
eral types of road makinr up this great
The Chevy Chase road is experi
mental. It consists of different types
of pavement-bituminous macadam
laid by the penetration method, sur
face treatments of waterbound ma
cadam, asphaltic surfaces on concrete
foundations, bituminous surfaced con
creto, plain and oil cement concrete
and vitrified brick, all of which are
under daily observation by expert
road builders to ascertain which ol the
types is best suited to the traffic and
which~is condemned by practical test
under the same conditions of climate,
soil, rainfall, heat and cold and like
traffic requirements. It would be just
the same to fhe office of public roads
which has written this open book in
concrete, brick and stone whether any
part of it or all parts of it should fail,
failure in materials used, in construc
tion, in durability, in cost, in mainte
nance^-the test is the thing.
Road building Is a science now, and
efficiency is the only test of quality.
In the stones used in the construc
tion of the Chevy Chase road, their
specific gravity, their weight per cubic
foot, their water absorption, their per
centage of wear, their hardness and
toughness are all determined by the
most careful scientific tests. Patrol
men are constantly employed on this
road to keep account of whatever de
fects in materials and construction
may develop and exact data as to the
cost of maintenance.
The Chevy Chase road was fortu
nately placed for the reason that all
of its sections: of types have been sub
jected to precisely ihe Game sort of
traffic year in and year out and the
section or type that has not stood the
strain has been as important an object
lesson to road builders as the section
or type that has maintained itself un
der like strain. The road, as a whole, j
is a great experiment conducted by the
most competent engineers to demon
strate the most practical things.
Good Stretches Useless.
Local contro1 in road building means :
a good patch where the officials are j
up to date, and a poor Stretch where
the local authorities arc slack in their
road work-and the poor stretches of
.road make the good stretchet useless.
We have the spectacle in most I
states o? pioneer roads for twentieth
century farmers whose equipment in
farming consists of modern machinery
and modes of travel. When, oh when,
.viii he put the up-to-date mode of
travel on an up-to-date road! I
Drag Improves Surface.
Is your roac to town rough and
bard to travel over'. A split-log or j
.ron ?iZ? drawn over tho road after
j3Ch rain helps tc give r good su;r-1
&ce >;nd does not cost much.
YELLOW CREAM AND BUTTER
Experiments Show Popular Belief
That Color Indicates Richness
?in Quality Mistaken.
The belief that a bright yellow color
in milk means richness in quality is
not true. Experiments conducted at
the college of agriculture of the Uni
versity of Missouri .show that the
change fctim the white cream and but
ter in winter to yellow cream and but
ter in spring .and summer does not in
dicate an increased fat percentage.
The very highest colored milk that a
cow can give may have the lowest fat
percentage. Such a condition is found
in the so-called colostrum milk, the
first milk that a cow gives after giv
ing birth to a calf.
The expl?nation of the wide differ
ence between the results of the ex
periments and the popular belief in
regard to the relation of color to rich
ness lies in the cause of the natural
yellow color of cream and butter. It
was found that cows were not able to
produce the yellow coloring matter for
their cream and butter. The coloring
matter must be derived from the feed.
The yellow coloring matter of milk
was found to be identical with a yel
low coloring matter that is widely dis
tributed in plants and fresh,grass.
This coloring matter is called carotin.
It takes its name from the carrot,
where it is very abundant, and where
it was first discovered by scientists
more than one hundred years ago.
The difference in the color of cream
and butter in winter and spring was
found to be due to the fact that the
winter feeds contain little or no caro
tin. No marked increase id the fat
percentage accompanies the increase
in color when foods rich in carotin are
fed. It has been shown that the aver
age cow gives a higher per cent of
fat. in its milk during the winter than
in the spring and summer.
BUTTERMILK GOOD FOR CALF
Feeding Value ls Practically Same as
That of Skim Milk-Some Danger
Calves can be successfully raiaed
with buttermilk instead of skim milk,
says one farmer. The feeding value
of buttermilk is practically the same
as that of skim milk. There is some
risk of contracting contagious diseases
such as tuberculosis in feeding fac
tory buttermilk, unless the buttermilk
is from pasteurized cream. For this
reason skim milk is more desirable
Buttermilk should always be fed as
fresh as possible so that the degree oi
acidity is the same.
Buttermilk may be substituted for
skim milk when the calf is three
weeks old. The substitution should
occupy a period of a week or ten
days, so that the calf is at least a
month old by the time the diet con
sists wholly of buttermilk.
Other feeds should be used with
buttermilk just the same as with
skim milk. Equal parts of ground corn
and either oats or bran with alfalfa
or clover hay has given the best re
sults. Calves will usually begin to
nibble a little clover hay when two
weeks old. They may be taught to
eat grain at the same time by placing
a little in the bottom of the milk
bucket after feeding.
MILK MACHINE WORKS QUICK
Task of Milking Cow May Be Accom
plished Rapidly and Economically
-No Danger of Injury.
The Scientific American illustrates
and describes a milking machine, in
vented by A. Truchot of Choteau,
Mont., as follows:
By means of this device the milk
ing of a cow may be accomplished rap
idly and economically and with no
danger of injuring the animal. The
apparatus is of light weight, and is
adjustable so as to permit the move
ment of the animal during the milk
ing operation. The milking operation
closely simulates that of manual op
Ccst of Keeping Cow.
The annual cost of keeping a cow
is close to $65, if a man values his
labor at 15 cents an hour. It takes a
good milker to pay her way, one that
produces anyway 0,600 pounds of milk
a jrear sepa-rating out 200 pounds of
Ventilation ls Essential.
Ventilation is absolutely essential
for tilt health of the cows, but is one
of the hardest problems to solve in
WORTH KEEPING IN MIND
Some "Don'ts" for the Consideration
of Those Who Are Planning
Building of House.
If you are planning to build a house,
whether it be for your own occupancy
or for rental or sale, remember there
are many things which should be omit
ted in the planning. Some of these
are enumerated in the following
Don't, in the plumbing of the bath
room closet, permit the use of other
than a gas-proof metal to metal con
nections with the soil pipe.
Don't, in planning your home
grounds, forget that there is one
form only of Imitation that ls safe
the imitation of nature.
Don't, if you are building In the
country, think that you cannot have
an electric equipment. Private electric
light and power plants are quite with
in reach of even the moderate-sized
purse, and furnish abundant light and
current for the modern household ap
Don't forget that wall board is a
very good substitute for lath and plas
ter, and that fractures which often oc
cur in walls of plaster are not possi?
ble where this material is used.
Don't forget that you can make the
back entrance to the new house quite
as attractive as the front entrance.
Don't, when planning the fireplace,
fail to remember that good taste is
expressed in a simple mantel de
signed according to the architecture
of the house.
Don't forget that mirrors, in addi
tion to fulfilling their utilitarian pur
poses of reflecting objects, help archi
Don't fail to allow for plenty of
windows in the kitchen. This makes
for cheer as well as* for ventilation.
Don't waste space inside the ward
robe closets; utilize every inch. Poles
for hangers may be placed very high
for one-piece frocks, lower ones for
coats and skirts, and underneath these
drawers or shelves to take care of the
boots, slippers and hats.
Don't, in planning for the windows
in the sleeping room, ignore the
possibilities of a casement window
placed very high above the head of
This solves quite satisfactorily the
problem of an additional window, and
in appearance is most pleasing.
Don't plan for single doors between
the living rooms and the hall. Wide
openings give an air of spaciousness
and a hospitable effect not possible to
obtain with a single door.
Don't forget that a beamed ceiling
not only looks more durable than a
ceiling of plaster, but that it is so.
The more exposed timbers there are
in the interior the longer will be the
life of the house. Plaster retards the
action of tho air upon wood, and this
Petit Jury, Second Week.
A. A. DeLaughter, M e ri w th er; C. A.
Nicholson, Elmwood; T. M. Hammond,
Collier; J. R. Griffis, Moss; M. A.
Watson, Elmwood; C. A. Cheatham,
Moss; Pierce Timmerman, Blocker; J.
T. Reese, Meriwether; R. N. Mayson,
Blocker; G. L. Miller, Collier; J. E.
Cullum, Ward; 0. M. Eidson, Johnston;
J. L. Scott, Ward; E. H. Smith, John
ston; J. B. Pardue, Blocker; J. B.
Frontis, Johnston; A. C. Yonce, Tren
ton; J. H. Mathis. Collier; N. M. Jones,
Pickens; L. R. Brunson Jr, Moss; H.
H. Sanders, Pickens; W. A. Dow, Red
Hill; 0. 0. Timmerman, Collier; P. D.
Wood, Red Hill: G. W. Yor^e. John-1
ston; J. F. Lamb, Pickens; B. J. Day,
Trenton; J. A. Gibson, "oiin&iun; L?,
W. Crim, Pickens; J. G. Berry, John
ston; Clifton Hall, Elmwood: L. P.
Smith, Pickens; T. C. Stillwell, John
ston; E. S. Johnston, Pickers; G. T.
Barnes, Johnston; E. M. Bledsoe, Elm
New Through Sleeping Car.
Between Aiken and New York,
Wa-hingtop, Baltimore, Phil-I
ad**lphia, effective November j
23, lulo on the Augusta Spe-i
rial Via Southern Railway. I
Lv Aiken 1:45 pm
Lv rJ'renton 2:25 \> m
Ar Washing 7:l)0 a in
Ar Baltimore 8:32 a m
Ar Philadelphia 10:5ua m
Ar New York 12:57 p. m
Drawing Room, State Room and
Open ?Section Steel Electric Lighted
Sleeping Cars? Dining Car Service
Fur AH Meals. For reservations
and information, applv to
J. A. TOWNSEND,
Ticket Aeeni, Ed*refi<-ld, S. C.
Only One "BROMO QUININE"
To pet the genuine, call for full nome, LAXA
TIV? BROMO QUININE. Look for signature of
E.W. GROVE. Cures a Cold in One Day. Stops
cough aud headache, aud works off cold. 25c.
Cures Old Sores, dthei ftemeties Won't Curt
fhe worst ca^cs.nomr.'terci how loaf; siacdir
are cured ey the iwondevf'il, old reliable Di
Poker's Antiseptic Healing Oil. It relier
'?in anti Virnhi .->. SI?* f- '".\ r?*. tl
Tor Weakness and Loss of Appetitt
The OM Standard general strengthening tonic,
GROVE'S TASTELESS chill TONIC, drives out
.\Iahria and huilds un thc system. A true ionic
n.n.t ?Sur?. Appetizer. For adults and children. 5?c
Ford Cars Have
Stood the Test
The experience of scores of own
ers of the Ford Automobiles has
proven that there is nothing better
made for the Edgefield roads. Ford
cars will carry you safely over any
road that a buggy or any other ve
hicle can travel.
An AU-the-Year-Around Car
They are light, yet substantially
built. They are cheap, yet the best
of material is *used in their con
struction. Are you contemplating
purchasing 9, car? Let us show
you a Ford Run-About or Touring
Gk W. ADAMS
Edgefield Auto Repair Shop
Next to Court House
ARRINGTON BROS. & CO.
Wholesale Grocers and Dealers in
Corn, Oats, Hay and all
Kinds of Seeds
Corner Cumming and Fenwick Streets
On Georgia R. R. Tracks
YOUR PATRONAGE SOLICITED
j tJtF See our representative, C. E. May.
How to Grow Bigger Crops
of Superb Fruit-FREE
YOU need- this practical, expert information. Whether
you own or intend to plant a few trees or a thousand, it is infor
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name and address on the coupon-or on a postal, If you prefer.
We will gladly mail you a free copy everywhere aro getting prodjtlous
of our New Catalog-an ll x 8 in. book crops and large cash profits from crops
that ls simply packed with hints that
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you-facts about how fruit-growers
of young, thnttyfzentrine Stark Bro's
trees-facts that emphasize the truth
of the axiom "Stark Trees Bear Fruit."
Beautiful life-size.natural-color photos
of leading fruits all through the book.
Send for your copy today to
Stark Bro's Nurseries at Louisiana, Mo.
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At Lou isiana Mo.
Get Our New Catalog
FRFF ll x 8 inches-filled jf
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DR J. S. BYRD.
OFFICE OVER POSTOFFICE
Residence 'Phone 17-R. Office 3.
A. H. Corley,
Appointments at Trenton
OUyfclLH *> fe sa > . ... . . -.
How To Give Quinine To Children.
FEBRILINE is the trade-mark name given to an
improved Quinine. It is a Tasteless Syrup, pleas*
ant to take and does not disturb the stomach.
Children take it and never know it is Quinine.
Also especially adapted to adults who cannot
take ordinary Quinine. Does not nauseate nor
cause nervousness nor ringing in the head. Try
it the next time you need Quinine for any pur*
pose. Ask for 2 ounce original package. The
?tame FEBRILINE is blown in bottle. 25 cent*.
Whenever You Need a General Tonic
The Old Standard Grove's Tasteless
chill Tonic is equally valuable as a
General Tonic because it contains the
well known tonic properties of QUININE
and IRON. It acts on the Liver, Drives
out Malaria, Enriches the Blood and
Builds up the Whole System. 50 cents.