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Scientists Protest Against Wan
Farmers Fail to Appreciate the True
Value of Their Feathered Helpers
-Their Work Extolled as
l~ Foes of Insects.
St. Michaels, Md.-"If all the birds
?Qpere destroyed the world would be
Overrun with in?"icts in from seven
io nine years," says Michelet, the
The slaughter of the bobwhite, bet
ter known here as quail and partridge,
has ceased, as the season is over and
the bird is about extinct The gun
ners have been persistent and every
covey that nested in the woods last
summer was trailed and' shot this win
ter. Maryland is one of only six
states, with the District of Columbia,
which has an open season for quail.
Forty-six states realize that the bob
white is a valuable asset and protect
him from the gunner.
The biological survey bas been and
ls making efforts to teach the farmer
that birds are his best friends and
that without them farming would be
There is something more than game
ness and six ounces of delicately flav
ored meat to bobwhite. Dr. Sylvester
Judd of the biological survey has held
autopsies over hundreds of dead, and
Mrs. Margaret Morse Nice of Clark
university has played detective on bob
white living. They have discovered
that bobwhite is marvelously benefi
cent to human kind. Nature has not
provided such another scourge to in
sects and exterminator of weed seeds.
He is nonmigratory and will be found
at his business place twelve months
of the year.
On his ordinary bill of fare will be
found 114 kinds of insects and 129 of
weed seed. The gunner who shoots
him imagines that grain is about all
he eats, but as a matter of fact it
amounts to only one-sixth of his food
for the year, and this is taken not
from the f tanding crops or among the
sheaves at harvest time, but from
what escapes the reaper. When grain
is sprouting in the fields bobwhite has
other matters to attend, for late in
the spring and summer two-thirds of
his food consists of the grain's insect
foes, which make 15 per cent on the ?
year's total in the wild, or more than
a third in captivity. It is an import
ant Hst, too, for birds not of his kind
eschew many cf his favorites. He
likes the potato beetle, the cucumber
beetle, squash lady bug, corn bill bug,
cutworms, tobacco worms, clover wee
vil, cotton boll weevil, imbricated
snout beetle, May beetle, plant lice,
grasshoppers. Rocky Mountain locust
and chinch bug.
The bobwhite chicks, eating 44 per
cent of their weight daily, live for six
weeks on insects, and in this time
consume 20,000 each. One, a week
old, ate 2.32G plant lice and 20 meal
worms, and was not done for the day.
Here are some single meals for
Boll weevils, 47; potato bugs, 101;
chinch bugs, 100; squash bugs, 12;
army worms, 12; cytvorms, 12; mos
quitoes, 568-all in three hours. And
as a sample of a day's work, in addi
tion to seeds, grain and green food,
note 1,350 flies and 1,286 rose slugs,
or 5,000 plant lice.
In the winter months the bobwhite
turns to weed seeds, which form more
than half his food for the year, and
here are samples of one bird's con
sumption for one day:
Barnyard grass, 2,500; beggar ticks,
1,400; black mustard, 2,500; burdock,
600; crab grass, 2,000; curled dock,
4,175; dodder, 1,560; evening prim
rose, 10,000; lambs' quarters, 15,000;
milkweed, 770; pepper grass, 2,400;
pigweed, 12,000; plantain, 12,500; rab
bit's foot, clover, 30,000; bush clover,
1,800; smartweed, 2,250; white ver
vain, 18,750; water smartweed, 2,000.
The year's consumption by one pair in
captivity was 130,905 insects and 10,
442,688 weed seeds.
If bobwhite was an expensive piece
of machinery farmers would mortgage
their lands rather than be without
him. But as a friend provided by na
ture they fail to appreciate his value.
"The cure for lessening game is
less gunning, and it is the only cure,"
said Prof. M. Llewellyn Raney of
Johns Hopkins university. "When a
gunner can be made to stop firing long
enough to realize that, it is possible
that he may listen to the economic
ornithologist, who is earnestly telling
what the real function of the bird in
the world is. The time was when the
southern rice grower was justified in
warring on what he called the reed
bird because of his depredations on
the crop in the spring and autumn.
But this basis for hi3 classification as
a game bird in the eastern states has
been swept away, because this indus
try has vanished. In the North it ls
En economic factor of great import
ance, for in May, June and July 85 per
cent of its food is insects.
"It ought to be a pleasure for the
South to treasure for the North this
Ifflcient and melodious harlequin of
the meadows, Just as the North should
foster the swallows and orioles, the
blackbiids and meadow larks, which
.work so bravely on the cotton boll
Weevil of the South.
"Another point in favor of birds is
their ability to travel long distances,
so that in case of a local outbreak ot
iany species of insect they are able to
.rall.> i lokly to the spot and render
good . ervice in checking the further
inc-< ise of the pest."
TO SOLVE INDIAN PROBLEM
Oneida Princess ls Championing Bill
for Autonomous Government
of Her Race.
Washington.-Egahtahyen, is the
name by which Mrs. O. J. Kellogg, an
Oneida Indian princess is fondly called
by the people of her race for whose
advancement she is always struggling.
She is in Washington, D. C., at pres
ent, working in support of a bill by
which the Indians will be provided
with a protected autonomous govern
"The Bill," says Mrs. Kellogg, "is an
economic solution of the Indian prob
lem. In brief, it organizes Indian life
into industrial communities and in
model villages on the reservations,
and it provides for the colonizing else
where of the elements that prey upon
the natives who do not speak the Eng
"Those who support my program
most are made up of the full-blooded
Indians, who complain that the young
generation has not made good, and
the thinking Indians. We do not waste
cur time on the past. Our program
is essentially a renaissance. We are
going to carry on an educational cam
paign among all the Indians. All the
tribes I have approached have been
most enthusiastic about it.
"The government does not and nev
er has understood the Indian's point
of view. But it has coddled him and
never given him legs to stand on. We
want to give him legs and show him
how to stand on them.
"I was born in Wisconsin. My
grandfather was chief of the Oneidas.
He moved out West. The Cherokees
gave me my name of Egahtahyen, and
it means 'The Dawn,' which they think
I bring to them. The word Loloma! is
a Hopi term meaning 'good, beautiful,
FEWER JOBLESS IN PARIS
Most Persons Thrown Out of Employ
ment at Beginning of War Are
Again at Work.
Paris.-No more remarkable signs
of the business revival in Paris can
be furnished than by the figures pub
lished of the progressive decline in
the numbers of unemployed, especial
ly during the last year.
Between September 23 and October
24, 1914, when statistics aro first avail
able, the number of relief tickets is
sued shows that the total of those who
were without work or means was 257,
435. This was Just after the battle of
the Marne, when the crisis was at its
height. In the fortnight between Feb
ruary 14 and March 1, 1915, this num
ber had dwindled to 150,864, or a dim
inution of nearly 70,000.
Since then the decrease has been
regular and rapid. Between November
20 and December 4, 1915, there were
but 79,791 of both sexes out of work.
It is in the liberal professions that
this decrease is least marked; but the
original numbers, both of men and
women, in this category were never
WOLVES ATTACK LIVE STOCK
Wild Animals, Alrru t l-amished, Kill
Many Head of C .le on Colo
Durango, Colo.-Orchards and live
stock in southwestern Colorado and In
northwestern New Mexico are reported
suffering greatly from the attacks of
famished wild animals, which are un
able, because of the deep snow, to
reach the ground for food.
E. D. Smith, county agriculturist, is
co-operating with fruit growers to ex
terminate the rabbits, many thousands
of which are said to be eating the bark
off the branches and killing the trunks
of the smaller trees.
Twelve head of cattle from one herd
near Pendleton, N. M., have been
slaughtered by wolves. Ranchmen are
handicapped in their efforts to protect
their cattle because of the lack of co
operation by the Navajo Indians, who
refuse to kill wolves or coyotes, which,
according to their religious beliefs, are
said to be sacred.
Famous Relic Now in the Nation
j Derringer Rifle Used by Davy Crockett
and in thc Gravcs-C?ley Duel
ls Still in Excellent
Washington, D. C.-Among the
thousands of relics in the United
States National museum at Washing
ton, there are few objects more re
plete with historical interest than a
certain Derringer rifle, catalogue No.
9,509. This rifle was used by Col.
David Crockett of Alamo fame, and
was also the weapon fired by Hon.
William J. Graves in the duel with
Hon. Jonathan Cilley, resulting the
death of the latter. It was made about
a hundred years ago, and the curator
of the division of technology says it is
an exceedingly well-made and finely
finished gun, being still in excellent
Col. Wright Rives, U. S. A., who has
deposited the rifle in the museum,
states that it was made for his fa
ther, John Cook Rives, by Henry
Derringer. John C. Rives was one of
the publishers of the Congressional
Globe, now the Congressional Record,
and knew many congressmen, several
of whom he was accustomed to take
out for rifle practice to a field, some
times used for horse racing, near
where the corner of Fourteenth
street and Park road now intersect.
Among them was David Crockett, pio
neer, hunter, soldier and congress
man from 1827-31, and 1S33-35, who
later lost his life at the Alamo in the
Texas struggle for freedom.
Crockett seemed particularly to like
this rifle and often joined the shoot?
lng parties to keep himself in prac
The circumstances which led to the
fatal duel between Messrs. Graves
and Cilley of the house of representa
tives, in which this rifle figured so
conspicuously, were quite unusual and
more or less complicated. The report
of the investigating committee ap
pointed by the house, covers the story
of this duel well; an abstract of it
taken from "Notes on Duels and Duel
ing." by Lorenzo Sabine, follows:
On February 12, 1838, Henry A.
Wise of Virginia presented to the
house a copy of the New York Courirr
and Enquirer, charging a member of
congress with corruption, and asked
for an investigation of the charge. Mr.
Wise stated that the author of the
article was vouched for by the editor
of the paper, and that the house waa
called upon to defend its honor. Jona
than Cilley, member from Maine, op
posed the resolution, and inHfcfeftte
said that if it was the same editor
who once made charges against a
certain institution, and later received
facilities amounting to $52,000 from
the same institution, which he then
gave his hearty support, he did not
think the recent charges were intitled
to much credit in an American con
gress. Mr. Cilley was in order; he
was quoting a published house com
mittee report on the subject, but a
few days later the editor of the pa
per. Col. James Watson Webb, ad
dressed a note to him asking if he
were the editor referred to, and, if so,
demanding an explanation.
This note was directly responsible
for the duel between Mr. Cilley and
William J. Graves of Kentucky, who
undertook its delivery on the floor of
the house for his friend, Colonel Webb.
Mr. Cilley refused to receive the note,
because he chose to be drawn into no
controversy with Colonel Webb, stat
ing that by so doing he meant no dis
respect to the bearer; but he refused
to affirm or deny anything in regard
to Colonel Webb's character. Mr.
Graves was not satisfied, however, and
several notes between them were ex
changed, with the result that Mr.
Graves finally challenged Mr. Cilley
because he would not say whether he
refused the note on the grounds of
any personal exception to Colonel
Webb as a gentleman and a man of
Naturally Mr. Cilley denied Mr.
Graves the right to demand an abso
lute "yes" or "no" answer, and ac
cepted the challenge.
The duel was scheduled for 3 p. m.,
on February 24, 1838, and the two
parties met near the boundary line of
the District, on the Marlborough road.
Mr. Cilley fired first, and Mr. Graves a
second or two after him, but both
missed. Efforts to adjust the matter
were futile and the parties reassumed
their positions and exchanged shots
again, also without effect. Still being
unable to agree after further argu
ment, they went to their positions the
third time. This time they fired very
nearly together. Mr. Cilley waa shot
through the body and expired a few
The congressional committee found
Mr. Graves guilty of a breech of priri
leges in the house, but held that Mr.
Cilley had remained within his rights.
They recommended the expulsion Df
Mr. Graves from the house, and thit
the seconds and friends be censure!.
Wolves Approach a City.
Nevada City, Cal.-The spectacle of
wolves coming CIOBO to the residence
section of the city is the latest dev?
opment of the heavy storm that has
prevailed in this county. While Jack
Landsburg was out near his home r?
cently he saw three large timber
wolves come down out of ihe hills anl
approach as far as the dwelling of
J. M. Hadley before they were fright
ened back into the trees.
Uses ana ?louses of fertilizers
By Prof. R. J. H. De Loach, L-irtctcr of Georgia Experiment Station.
3. RUT n/Aivi6 i tj EXPfcRlrvlfcNT STATION AND FERTILIZERS.
Tne Third of a Series of Six Articles
The Rothaaisted Experiment Station is in England, and is noted for
the great work it has done along all lines of agricultural work, lt has
gone into the law-? ot soil fertility, has been the first to discover many of
these iaws, and hac in all its history been especially interested ir working
out a plau of farm management hy which soil fertility could be maintained
at minimum ccst to the farmers.
The Rothamsted experiments began in the year 1837, when Sir John
Bennett Lawes began experiments on his private estate. He was a man
who loved the soil and to experiment with it. Strange to say, he was a
fertilizer manufacturer in a certain sense, as he early discovered a process
for transforming bone into superphosphate by the use of sulphuric acid,
took out a patent for chis in 1S42, and built an extensive business which
he managed for about thirty years. In 1S43 he associated with him J. H.
Gilbert, and these two men for more than fifty years conducted extensive
agricultural investigations in regard to soils- and fertilizers, and feeds and
feeding of domestic animals. In 1889 Sir John turned over his large estate,
which had now grown so important, and had become so well known in all
parts of the civilized world, to a board of directors, and endowed it with
half a million dollars.
Twenty Years Experiments on Same Plots.
Among many other things that were done, experiments were conducted
with fertilizers, mineral salts, and many forms of amraoniates, also with
animal manures, to determine Just what soils needed to grow the most crops.
For this work plots of ground were set aside, marked off and carefully
measured, and then planted to the crop with which the investigator wished
to work. Small plots would be used for the different kinds of mineral and
animal manures, and in each, series one plot would be left unfertilized
throughout the entire experiments, while the others would have applied the
different combinations of fertilizers, etc. Careful reports were taken from
each end of these plots, and with interesting results. The same experiments
were continued for twenty years and more.
Many experiments were conducted with hay, and some of these with
the following results: The plots that had no manure of any kind averaged
in twenty years, 2,383 pounds of hay; the plots which had mineral manure
alone, 3,598 pounds; the plots with mineral manure and 400 pounds of am
monia salts, 5,711 pounds of hay; those with mineral manure and 800 pounds
of ammonia salts, 6,726 pounds of hay; the plots which received the mineral
manure and nitrate of soda G.407 pounds of hay. Considering the very low
coat of the fertilizers in comparison to the increased yields brought about by
their use, one could not fail to see the value of the manure salts.
Larger Yields Were Always Obtained.
The Rothamsted station was interested in the permanent improvement of
land and the part played in th's by the use of fertilizing materials. From the
many experiments carried out, there was never a doubt of the wisdom of
applying plant food to the soil. Larger yields were always obtained, other
tirings being equal, and the fertilization of the soils throughout England and
her possessions recommended. It was decided to ascertain the effects of
fertilizers on corn. Seven plots were treated as follows:
Wot 1. Unmanured.
Plot 2. Mixed mineral manure, 300 pounds sulphate of potash, 200 pounds
sulphate soda, 100 pounds sulphate magnesia, 350 pounds superphosphate
Plot 3. Ammonia salts, comprising 200 pounds sulphate ammonia and
200 pounds muriate of ammonia.
Plot 4. Ammonia salts and mixed mineral manures, as Plot 2.
Plot 5. Five hundred and forty pounds Peruvian guano.
Plot G. Two thousand pounds rape cake.
Plot 7. Fourteen tons farmyard manure.
The results of six years of experiments follow; The greatest increase
In yields was obtained with fertilizers richest in ammonia. The ammonia
salts, the guano and rape cake gave the .largest increase, which was about
four or five bushels increase of dffessed corn. In Plot 2. where cnly the
mineral manures were used, the increase was least, while in Plots 3 and 5 it
was greater, and in 4 greatest. It seems that the mineral manures needed
the effect of the ammonia salts in order io help them become available. There
was in every case a substantial increase where fertilizers were used over the
plots that remained unmanured.
The great object in giving the above information Is io bring to the atten
tion of fanners and business men that the question of fertilizers for the aver
ago farm crops is a subject as old as any farm of agricultural education, and
Rothamsted did much fundamental work on it. In no case was it found
that ammonia sa?s and other mineral manures, when applied together, were
not valuable. Farmyard manure was somewhat valuable by itself, but far
more so when ammonia salts were applied with lt.
We have the largest assortment of pres
ents in every department that we have ever
shown. We have ordered largely of Clocks.
Watches, Gold and Silver Jewelry, Sterling
Silverware, Cut Glass and China. Every de
partment is filled.
It matters not what you want we have it or
will order it out at once.
Come in to see us. We have our entire stock
marked very low, much lower than yow find the
same class of goods elsewhere.
70S Broad Street, Augusta, Georgia
Will keep the joans: folks at home.
It will make them happy and con
Ini mclbl, Dayton Electric Lighting Syjtom
ls the best plant on the market.
Complete plants Installed as low
as ?175.00, Including- engine with
Can you afford to do without
R. H. MIDDLETON,
Clark's Hill. S. C.
ELECTRIC LIGHT PLANTS AND
lr Hing's !
'HIS TME COUGH
. nuRil? THE LUNGS:
Premier Carrier of the South
Passenger train schedules, effec
tive October 24, Iii 15.
Trains arrive from
108 Augusta, Trenton 8:20 am
130 Columbia, Trenton 9:40 a m
110 Aiken, Augusta 3:00 pm
106 Columbia, Augusta 8:30 p ra
Trains depart for
109 Trenton, Columbia 7:20 a ra
129 Trenton, Augusta 8:45 a m
131 Aug-Columbia-Aiken 11:45 a m
107 Augusta, Columbia 7:30 p ra
Schedules published only as in
formation and are not guaranteed.
For further information apply
J. A. TOWNSEND,
Edgefield S. C.
To Preveut Blood Poisoning
apply at once the wonderful old reliarle Di
PORTER'S ANTISEPTIC HEALING OIL, a sut
gleal dressing- that relieves pain and heals at J
the same time. Not a liniment. 25c. 50c. $1.00. 1
Cures Old Sores, ?thet KShietiies Won't Cure
The worst cases, no matter cf how lon;: standina
are cured by the wonderful, old reliable Dr
Porter's Antiseptic Healing Oil. It relievei
?ain and Heals at the sam* ?:=2. 25c. SOC, $1.*
Statt; of South Carolina,
County of Edgetield,
Court Com mon Pleas.
Elizabeth C. Cobb--Plaintiff
-a CH i nat Ki I la William J-De
Pursuant to the decree in this
itause, 1 shall offer for sale at public
out cry to th? nighed bidder, be
fore the Court House, Town of
Edgetield, County of Edgefield aud
State of South Carolina, on sales
day in May 1910, same being the
first day of said month, between
be legal hours of .-ale, the follow
ing de."cribed realty to wit:
All of that Land situate, lying
md being in the Town o>* Edgetield
v'ounty and Slate aforesaid, con
taining one and three quarter acres;
bounded on North by Sallie Dun
ton, East by landa of \V. W.
Adams; South hy W. VV. Adams
and West by public road leading to
Terms of Sale Cash: If purchaser
at said sale ?hall fail to comply
with terms thereof within one hour
from the time of said sale, said,
premises, upon direction of Plain
tiff's Attorney, will be re-soid on
said day at the risk of the former
Purchaser to pay for papers.
J. H. CANTELOU,
Master E. C., S. C.
March 28, 1916.
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want a car, drop us a card and we will
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