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GROWING DEMAND FOR SANITARY MILK
Splendid Type of Dairy Cow-Note the Raw, Rough Backbone and Hip;
Large, Smooth Udder; Thin, Long Neck; Broad Forehead and Nose, and
Big BarreJ of Bread Basket-Dairy Cow ls Not Necessarily Pretty Ani
mal; She ls a Machine to Convert Feed Into Milk and Butter.
(By W. A. STOCKING. Jr.)
There is a steadily, and in many
places a rapidly growing demand for
cleaner and more wholesome milk,
both fpr direct consumption and for
the production of butter, cheese and
other milk products. This demand
will continue to grow just as rapidly
as the milk-consuming public comes
to realize the Importance of using
milk which has been produced under
healthful, sanitary conditions, and the
dangers which may accompany the use
of milk which has been produced and
handled under conditions both insani
Right Kind for Milk.
tary and unhealthful. Many progres
sive dairymen are awake to this call
for an improved quality of milk, and
are desirous of knowing how to meet
it. The increasing interest and im
portance of this question has led the
experiment station in nearly every
state in the Union to undertake the
work of finding out through careful ex
periments the best methods of produc
ing good milk.
Various methods of clarifying milk,
such as straining, filtering, sedimenta
tion, and the use of centrifugal ma
chines, have been employed both in
this country and in Europe. Some of
these have been fairly successful In
removing both dirt and bacteria, but
none has proved entirely satisfactory.
One important objection to such meth
ods of handling milk, especially in the
small dairy, is that they require con
siderable time, and some of them ad
ditional machiner^', and thus add to
the cost of production. It ls much
more important, however, to go far
ther back than this, and to prevent
I the dirt from getting into the milk at
j all, because much of it dissolves read
? ily In the warm milk, cannot be re
moved, and thus contaminates the
milk with both filth and the bacteria
of the dirt. It is necessary, therefore,
to secure some means whereby the
dirt can be originally excluded.
It has been found that if the stables
are well cleaned and ventilated and
exposed to sunlight, if the cows are
kept well brushed and cleaned; if, just
before milking, the parts of the cow
immediately above and around the pail
are washed or wiped with a damp
cloth, and if the milker ls clean, wears
clean clothes, and 'ises sterile uten
sils, the quantities ot dirt and bacteria
which get into the milk are greatly
A number of devices for excluding
the dirt have been tried in this coun
try and in Europe. One of the sim
plest and most practical of these ls a
milking pail with a cover which re
ducer the area of the surface exposed
during the milking. In order to test
the efficiency of such a pail for keep
ing out dirt that would fall into an
open pail, experiments were carried
on at the Connecticut experiment sta
tion which resulted in the following:
The amount or dirt in the milk from
the covered, pail was only 37 per cent
of that in the open pall. By the use of
the covered pail an average of 29 per
cent of the total number of bacteria
and 41 per cent of the acid-producing
bacteria were excluded from the frer.h
DRAIN SOGGY SPOTS ON FARM i CARE FOR WATERMELON CROP
Wet, Marshy Places Are Not Only In
convenient to Work Around, but
(By DANIEL SCOATES. Mississippi Ex
Couldn't you turn into money-mak
ing patches those soggy spots on your
farm-marshy spots, where the young
corn turns yellow and has the
"drowned-out" look? Such spots are
not only inconvenient to work around,
but are expensive as well.
Tile drains, as a rule, have proved
to be the most economical form of
drainage, as they last indefinitely and
give satisfactory returns.
Usc good tile.
Use an engineer's level in putting In
Use 4-inch tile or larger for ordinary
Have the sice of your mains calcu
Before you cover your tile test the
grade with a level to see that the
drain has the proper fall.
Protect your outlet? against caving
banks and burrowing animals.
Qet assistance in putting in tile If
you don't understand how it ia done.
KEEP DAIRY UTENSILS CLEAN
Vessels Ueed for Milk Should Never
Ba Ustd for Any Other Purpoaa
Keep Free From Flies.
Tba latenaila used for milk should
never be mada usa ot for aar other
purpose. They should always ba
scalded after using, and placad whare
they will ha free from filas. Unclaaa
paila naas dirty milk filled with dla*
eaaa germ?. Keep tba milk dean.
a> rauta Pram Petatees,
Potato** wbioh ara plantad bator?
sprouts form usually asad sp ona Tim
orous sprout per aya; whan sprouted
before planting thar send up a um ero ac
sprouts par eye sod aerar so bardy
an* stocky a? thor flrsfc ona.
Vegetables for Nana.
! Turnips, pejapklas, partage, atc* sra
eaten with fraatsr rollah by tba hana
whan thar aro cooked, thoroughly
mlaed with a mash ?ai fad atoamlas
Frequent Cultivation ls Recommended
by C. K. McQuarrie of Florida
Frequent cultivation for water
melons is recommended by C. K. Mc
Quarrie of the Florida experiment sta
tion. They should be plowed with
some shallow-running tool until they
cover tho ground. At the last culti
vation some hay crop should be plant
ed between the rows. A legume Ia pre
ferred. Mr. McQuarrie does not rec
ommend the planting of watermelons
in raised hills, except on flatwopds.
The hills soon dry out below the seed
and they will not germinate. On high
land it would probably be better to
plant in a furrow. The hill not only
retards germination, but it confines
the root system of the plants when
they come up.
FREAK VARIETIES OF FRUITS
Home Orchard lat Should Bs Satlafied
With Standard Classes-New
Kinda Ara Risky.
(By C. W. RAPP. Department of Horti
culture A. & M. College. Stillwater.)
New and freak varieties ot fruits
are frequently "told bricks." A new
or freak variety of fruit baa no placa
on the average farm. Tba boma or*
chard 1st should be contented with tba
standard varieties. Thea, whan bis
trees come Into bearing, ha will hara
a real orchard. If nsw or freak va
rieties ara planted they will In about
nina eases out ot ten be worthless.
Tba farmer should save hia money and
loara tba test lng ot unknown varie
ties to those who csa afford to do tt.
Leter ba caa profit by their expert*
SHIPPING THE YOUNO CHICKS
Hot Mara Than Fifty Should Be
Placed In One Las-Caver Fleer
af Box With Burlap?
When ab! pp m* day-old chicks de aol
tat more than fifty la one lot, ead al*
ways corar the floor ot the box wttb
burlap, tacked at tba edfea, so thai
tba little tallowa aaa net a foothold
when the box lo tipped and act be
thrown lato a corner and some injured,
SAVE ALL FERTILIZER
Concrete Pits Advocated for
Storage of Manure.
Enormous Amount of Waste in Fertil
ity Prevented-Clear Dimensions of
Convenient Pit and Directions
The use of concrete on the farm is
long past the experimental stage. It
is a necessity. The first cost of con
crete is higher than for structures
built of wood, but concrete is much
cheaper in the long run.
For maintaining or restoring the
fertility of the fields, there is nothing
better than barnyard manure. 3y
the ordinary methods of piling manure
on the ground or storing it in wooden
pens or boxes, 30 to 50 per cent of it3
fertility is lost. This loss is brought
about in two ways: First, by leaching
or washing due to heavy rains;, sec
ond, by fermentation or heating caused
by lack of sufficient moisture. Since
concrete pits are waterproof, manure !
may be kept in them as moist as may
be necessary and such an enormous
waste in the fertility of the manure
may thus be entirely prevented. One
load of manure from a concrete pit
is worth Vfc to 2 loads of manure as
usually stored. Moreover, with con-i
crete pits the supply of manure is in-1
creased by all the liquid manure, the!
richest part, from the barn gutters and
Shallow manure pits do very well!
where the manure can be frequently
hauled to the fields. The walls and
floor should be five inches thick. The
clear dimensions of a convenient pit
are: Depth, 3 feet; width, 6 feet;
length, 12 feet. Dig the trench 3 feet
5 inches by 6 feet 10 inches by 12 feet j
Manure Pit Forms.
ten Inches. By keeping the sides ver- j
tical only an inside form will be need
ed. Have enough w:oven-wire fencing
IV* feet long to cover the bottom of
the pit. Lay the wire with an even
division of the extra length, so that
it may project upward into the side
walls. The wire is laid after two inches
thickness of concrete has been put
in. The remaining three inches should
be tamped in after the wire has been
placed. Remove the forms after the
concrete has set four days. The pit
may be used after ten days. rflt?
Where manure is to bo stored for a
considerable length of time, larger pits
or basins are required. Such pits are
seldom made over five feet deep (in
the clear at the deeper end) and are
wide enough that the manure may be
loaded on a spreader in the pit and !
drawn up a roughened concrete In-j
cline or run. The slope for such a
run must not be steeper than one foot
up to four feet out.
In laying out the large pit bear in
mind that the concrete walls and floors
should be eight inches thick and make
due allowance for same when digging.
With a spade trim the sides and the
deep end vertical.
In order to form a 3ump hole from
which the liquid manure can be j
pumped, in one corner at the deep end
Manure Pit With Trough.
of the pit dig a hole 18 Inches deep by
2% feet in diameter.
Do not forget that dirt In the con
crete may make a poor wall, so if the
top of the earthen wall tends to crum
ble hold lt back with one-inch boards
braced against the forms. To keep out
flood water, the pit may be extended
Bix inches above the ground by using
the lower half of a one-foot board to
hold back the dirt, by a Ho win g tho, re
rnainder to project abore the ground
level, and by adding six Inches to tho
height of the inside form.
BEST KIND OF WIRE FENCING
Mue h Dependo on Purpose for Which
Fence lo Intended-General-Pur?
.ooo Pabrio Favored.
Tho best kind of wire fencing to
erect depende on the purpose for
which tho fence ls used. On a fara
whore mixed types of UTO stock are
kept a general-purpose woven-wlro
fabric ls needed. If only cattle and
horses aro to bo pastured, a coarser
sad leos expensive wovon fence can be
used. When fencing ls needed to In
ctoso extensivo pastures W&oro .only
cattle-.or horses aro to be''kepY the
excessive cost of a woven-wlro fence
would not make its uee desirable, for
looseo of stock by Injury on barbed
wire would not bo largo enough to
counterbalance the difference In tho
toot ot maintaining tho two different
linda ot iencoa.
GET THE LOT CLEANED UP
Sound Common Sense in Having Va
cant Property Present an At
Have you a lot or a block of lots
you wish to put on the market the
coming season? Are they rough ? Are
they weedy or brushy? Have they
been made more or less of a dumping
ground for the past years? If so, you
will have two chances to one of sell
ing them if you take the trouble to
put them into sale shape, says the
A wi3e man selling a horse would
see to it that the animal was in good
flesh and good coat before putting him
in the sale stable. , Any grocer knows
that he can sell ;more goods If his
wares are attractive to the eyes of
the prospective customer. No mer
chant will risk his sales to the imag
ination of the customer.
The average buyer of a city lot ls
not gifted with a rosy, constructive
imagination. He cannot make a men
tal painting of a beautiful home
grounds out of a rough and ragged
vacant lot. In selling anything, from
a pair of trousers to a city lot. the
salesman should have the help of good
looks in his goods in order to make a
quick or profitable sale.
It costs little to put the average
open, vacant city lot into sale form.
If but the front third of the lot were
smoothed, grassed, clipped regularly
and one door-yard tree properly plant
ed and kept the lot would have two
chances of a sale where it otherwise
would have but one.
You may add this little expense to
the sale price, if you like, and it will
not hinder the sale. If you put your
rough property into an agent's hands
you should not be disappointed if it is
left lying at the season's end, or if the
agent is obliged to shade the price to
cover the ugliness of the lot. '
Notice of Enrollment
Opening Books For Voters In
The Democratic Primary
Notice is hereby given, that the
following committees for enrollment
have been appointed to enroll the
voters of Edgefield county in the
Democratic Primary for the year
1916, and said books of enrollment
will be opened at the places desig
nated for each club Tuesday, June
Bacon: J M Wright Secretary; G
M Smith, J H Bouknight; at Bouk
Cleveland: CC Jones, Secretary,
J W Quarles, T L Talbert; at C C
Colliers: Dr J M Crafton, Secre
ary; D T Mathis E B Mathis; at
Edgefield Democratic Club No 1:
Walton Fuller, Secretary; A E Pad
gett, W E Lott; at Jones' store.
Edgefield Democratic Club No 2:
J W Kemp, Secretary; T A High
tower, J D Kera^; at the Edgefield
Lee: W L Coleman, Secretary;
W M Sawyer, John Wright; at G P
Calhoun: A M Clark, Secretary;
J A Lott, J W Hardy; at store of
Long Branch: E L Scott, Secreta
ry; Luther Yonce, L C Clark; at
Lewis Clark's store.
Meriwether: H F Cooper, Secre
tary; A A DeLaughter, J O Scott
at A A DeLaugbter'fl store.
Meeting Street: J K Allen, Sec
retary; J R Blocker, George Logue,
at J K Allen's residence.
Moss: P W Cheatham, Secretary;
T A Williams, W A Reel; at Reel's
Pleasant Lane: J T McDowell,
Secretary; S T Williams, F L Tim
merraan, at F L Ti m merman's
Red Hill: H E Quarles, Secreta
ry; H W Quartes, R M Johnson, at
H E Quarles' store.
Ropers: J E Doboy Secretary;
B T Lanham, R A Timmerman; at
Shaw: W W Wise, Secretary;
G F Long, J R Moss; at J R Moss*
Talbert: J D Hughey, Secretary;
A Gilchrist, E P Winn; at E P
The qualifications for member
ship in any ol nb of the party and
for voting at a primary are a? fol
lows: The applicant for member
ship, or voter, ?hall be 21years of
ag*?, or fihall bp oom s so before the
iiuouewiint ? ?. orul ^election and be
a white Democrat. He shall be a
citizen of the United States and of
this State. No person shall belong to
any club or vote in any primary un
lesa hu baa resided ia the State two
Om So HAPPY
To nave A
Coiwriaht 1909. by C. E. Zimmeiman Co-No. 44
F all the unhappy homes,
not one in a hundred has a bank
account and not one home in a hundred who has a
bank account is unhappy. It seems almost foolish to
put it off any longer, when it is such a simple, easy
matter to start a bank account.
BANK OF ED GE FI ELD
OFFICERS : J. C. Sheppard. President: B. E. Nicholson, vice-President
E. J. Mims, Cashier; J. H. Allen. Assistant Oashier.
DIRECTORS : J. C. Sheppard, Thos. H. Rainfford, John Rainsford, B. E.
Nicholson, A. S. Tompkins. C. C. Fuller. E. J. Mims. J. H. Allen.
COLLEGE OF CHARLESTON
South Carolina's Oldest College
One Hundred and Thirty-second Year Begins September 29
Entrance examinations at all the county seats Fridav, July 14. at 9:00
Four-year courses lead to the B. A. and B. S. degrees. A two-year
pre-mtdical course is given.
A free tuition scholarship is assigned to each county of the State.
Spacious buildings and athletic grounds, well equipped laboratories,
unexcelled library facilities.
Expense moderate. For terms and catalogue, address
HARRISON RANDOLPH, President.
y?ars and in the county six months
prior to the succeeding general elec
tion and in the dab district. 60 days
prior to the first primary following
his offer to enroll; provided that
public school teachers and ministers
of the gospel in charge of a regular
organized church shall be exempt
from the provisions of this section
as to residence, or otherwise quali
fied. Under the rules of a new en
rollment i? required.
B. E. NICHOLSOX, ,
May -29, 1916.
wi should be "nipped in the
fl bud", for if allowed to run
Vj unchecked, serious results
[^may follow. Numerous
cases of consumption, pneu
monia, and other fatal dis
eases, can be traced back to
a cold. At the first sign of a
cold, protect yourself by
thoroughly cleansing your
system with a few doses of
the old reliable, vegetable
Mr. Chas. A. Ragland, o<
Madison Heights, Va., says:
"I have been using Thed
ford's Black-Draught for
stomach troubles, indiges
tion, and colds, and find it to
be the very best medicine 1
ever used. It makes aa old
nun fed like a young one."
Insist oa Thedford's, the
original and genuine. E-67
Light Saw, Lathe and Shin
gle Mills, Engines. Boilers,
Supplies and Repairs, Porta
ble, Steam and Gasoline En
gines, Saw Teeth, Files. Belts
and Pipes, WOOD SAWS
GINS and PRESS REPAIRS
See me before insuring else
where. I represent the Epuita
ble Fire Insurance Company of
Charleston and the Southern
Stock Fire Insurance Company
of Greensboro,. N. C. I also rep-'?
resent the Life Insurance Com
pany of Virginia.
J. T. Harling
At tho Farmers Bank, Edgefield
Not only your barn
bat every building OB the
farm ema be lighted with floe,
brimant electric lights. No more g
danger from fire.
la the Ideal plant for your pla??. It
will fnraUh current for lights,
churning, pumping, aewlag machine
and many other thing?.
Complete plants ready to taatall aa
low aa 3175.00, Inda dinar tho engine.
One of onr planta on year fara
wm BOTO yon time, labor, worry,
money. It. will, moke .-oar fa?tUy
contented and happy. Xaf] cont af
ford to do without M.
CaU and eoe na or aond for oar
Tal nable book oa Secarlo IJghta for
tho Farm. It la free ?ad win ba In
teresting to yea.
tri Tba borten Beete Ital ?Bf. Ccasaany Tgffi
?f layton, tb*. O.S. A,
R. H. Middleton
Clark's Hil!, S. C., Dealer in Light
ing Planta and Water Works.
- GEO. F. MIMS -
Eyes examined and glasses fitted
only when necessary. Optical
work of all kindo.
SDGEFIELD, S. C.