Newspaper Page Text
CFrom the United States Department of
j The Importance of age, sex, exercise,
food, and care as influencing tender
ness and flavor ta poultry is pointed
?ut by home economics specialists of
the United States department of ag
riculture in a professional paper, Bul
letin 467, just published.
There ls much less difference, the
bulletin states, In the digestibility or
healthfulness of the meat of different
kinds of fowls than is commonly sup
posed. Nearly all the nutrients and
energy of poultry, as of other meats,
lt ls pointed out, are utilized by the
health normal body. In all kinds of
poultry table quality depends primar
ly on tenderness and flavor, and these,
i turn, are Influenced by age, sex, ex
.cise, food, and care. Freshness Is
?o an important factor, but this is
. merely a question of how long
ird has been dead, but rather of
.."V far developed are the chemical
and bacteriological changes which,
.when they are carried too far, cause
what we call spoiling or decomposition
In the meat. The microorganisms which
cause dangerous changes are likely to
be Introduced by careless and dirty
handling, and for this reason cleanll- 1
ness should be Insisted on. The 1
changes take place most ranidiv tn j
the presence or warmth and moisture.
Hence, cleanliness, cold, and dryness
?re at the bottom of all the methods
bf caring for poultry on the farm, in ,
the warehouse, at the market, and In .
. In regard to the general considera
tions to be observed in choosing pool
try, the bulletin calls attention to the
fact that while the relative cost of dif
ferent kinds of poultry depends pri
marily on the price, the proportion of
edible to inedible material and the ;
thoroughness with which the edible j
portions can be utilized should also be ?
kept In mind. Well-grown birds with |
good-sized masses of moderately fat:
flesh are more economical than either j
young or overf atted ones. At or- j
dinary retail prices, full-grown chick
en is the only poultry which compares j
in real economy with the cheaper cuts '
of beef and pork, but young chicken, ;
medium-sized turkey, goose, and guinea
fowl are often as economical as tho
more expensive grades of other meats.
In discussing the use of cold-storage
fowls, the bulletin says :
"The way In which frozen birds are |
thawed makes a great difference in tho
length of time they keep In condition.
It used to be customary to thaw them
by soaking in cold water, but this has
been proved undesirable, not only be
cause the water ls very likely not to be
clean but also because soaked birds
*go off in quality very rapidly. Soak
ing In hot water, ns is sometimes done
In market for a 'rush order,' Is even
worse. A much better way Is to keep
'the birds for 24 hours at ordinary ice
box temperature (45 degrees to 50 de
igrees Fahrenheit). As has been al
iready stated, the sooner the birds are
j used after thawing the better, and
; whenever, possible should be bought
! stiff and thawed at home. This means
Jbuying poultry a day before,It ls need?
GOOD TABLE POULTRY
i BUFF WYANDOTTE.
ed, but lt ls the surest way of having
it properly thawed. In warra weather
lt should be put In the refrigerator
to thaw, but in cold weather a moder
ately cool room will do as well. If it
ls impossible to do the thawing at
home, the marketman should not be
allowed to do it until a short time be
"Although frozen poultry is hardly
to be chosen when fresh birds are ir?
the market, It undoubtedly has the ad
vantage of furnishing chickens, tur
keys, and other birds when the natural
supply is lacking and thus increasing
the variety of the meat list."
Good Table Poultry.
The following statement of the meth
ods by which good table poultry can
be recognized by the purchaser is
made in the bulletin:
"In a freshly killed bird the feet
feel moist, soft, and limber, and if lt
was dressed with the head on, the eyes
look bright and full. As lt becomes
Btale the eyes shrink and the feet dry
and harden ; when too stale, L e., when
decomposition is well under way, the
body turns dark and greenish or be
comes slimy. The flesh should be
neither flabby nor stiff, but should give
evenly and gentle when pressed by the
finger. It ls? vtw .Aim^*- * . "
juren between good cold-storage and
"One of the commonest ways of test
ing the age of dressed poultry Is to
take the end of tue breastoune farth
est from the head between thumb and
finger and attempt to bend it to one
side. In a very young bird, say a
'broiler' chicken or a green goose, lt
will be easily bent, like the cartilage
In the human ear; In a bird a year or
so old it will be brittle, and in an old
bird, tough and hard to bend or break.
Unfortunately there are sometimes
tricky deniers who break the end of
the breastbone before showing the bird,
and thus render the test worthless, If
the feet are left on the carcass, they
furnish a mark pf age. ?n a young
bird they are soft and smooth, becom
ing hard and rough as the bird grows
older. The claws are short and sharp
in a young bird, growing longer and
blunter with age and use. Spurs gen
erally occur on male chickens. On
male broilers and tender roasting
chickens they are small ; on older, high
er-flavored ones they are prominent
but flexible; on cocks they are long
and attached to the bones of the legs ;
on capons they seldom develop until
the second year of age.
"Turkeys up to a year old are said
to have black feet, which grow pink
up to three years old and then gradual
ly turn gray and dull.
"The age of pigeons can sometimes
be told by the color of the breast,
which becomes more and more purplish
as the bird grows older. Red feet
are also said to be a sign of age In a
"In ducks and geese the flexibility
of the windpipe Is a mark of youth.
It can be easily squeezed and moved
when the bird is young, but later
grows rigid and fixed. If the tips of
the quills at the end of the wing are
sharply pointed the bird is probably
young; the blunter they are, the older
"When caponlzlng has been properly
done, the head Is small for the size of
the body, and comb and wattles are
pale and withered, the body plumper,
rounder, and larger than In an ordinary
fowl, and the spur abortive. If the
operation was incomplete, the head
will be like that of an ordinary bird
and the body less rounded. Such birds,
known technically as 'slip capons,' are
much Inferior to true capons."
RICH CREAM IS DESIRABLE
Most Satisfactory to Farmer and Fac
tory-More Skim Milk lt Left
on the Farm.
A rich cream, testing 35 per cent
fat or more. Is the most satisfactory
for both funner and factory.
The best separators will skim a rich
cream as efficiently as a thin cream,
and more skim milk is left on the farm
when a rich cream is sold.
A MYSTERY SOLVED
Old Uckersted's apartments In the
hotel were nothing like as expensive,
as Jimson's. Jimson knew enough of
the man to be sure that he paid the
lowest price possible for them. The
meals were a Ia carte, If the guests
preferred, or there was a fair table
d'hote at a reasonable fixed price.
Jimson invariably ordered a la carte,
and expensively, being particular In
his eating. Old Uckersted took break
fast a la carte-oatmeal and milk or
some other grain preparation and
milk, and hot water. Lunch this man
of stocks and bonds and railroad
shares ate downtown, generally at the
board of trade counter. It was a light
lunch. Dinner he ate at the hotel,
table d'hote, and lt may be said that
he made up for his abstemiousness of
the day and got the worth of his
In spite of this the proprietor of the
hotel bowed to old Uckersted with ab
solute obsequiousness while he mere
ly favored Jimson with a nod of good
fellowship. Jimson drew a big salary
from a wholesale house downtown
and spent it like a prince. He patron
ized a fashionable tailor, wore as
many diamonds as good taste permit
ted, perhaps sometimes more. He
was of an eminently sociable disposi
tion and pleasant to everybody. Old
Uckersted had his millions (so It was
reputed), spent no more than was ab
solutely necessary, was almost shabby
in his attire and morose in his man
It amused Jimson to see the slavish
deference paid to Uckersted's wealth.
It was the way of the world, he said
natural enough. As for the proprie
tor of the hotel, lt was quite reason
able that he should kowtow to a man
who could buy him out with a few
strokes of his pen. Jimson did not
want any man to bend himself double
on his account. The friendly nod was
good enough for him. He found no
fault with the humbly respectful de
meanor of the clerk toward the mil
lionaire; that was natural, too. But
what puzzled him particularly was the
behavior of William, the waiter.
Very suave was William, cat-footed,
low-voiced, deferential, blandly Impas
sive, bald and neat-whiskered-the
ideal waiter. Jimson was very fond
"Look at him," said Jimson to a
friend who was breakfasting with him
one morning. "Mark the reverence in
his humbly drooped eyelids, as he
feeds old Creosus his crackers and
milk; note the anxious assiduity with
which he places the hot water at the
magnate's elbow; get on to the solid- I
tude. And here reposingjn my tmn.
KraJ!^s^tt* wiiV seen be in his. We
want more of these crawfish, but that
cuts no Ice with William."
"Give It up," said the friend. "Be
cause he'3 got the money, I suppose."
"Not at all," said Jimson. "As far
as William ls personally concerned lt
is I who have the money. Moralists
give us fits as a nation for dollar wor
ship. They're mistaken. We don't
care a hang for the coin. It's only
the power that lt symbolizes that we
reverence. William knows that Ucker
sted is a power and he bows down be
fore him, it Isn't that he expects to
get any of Uckersted's money. In Eu
rope the peasant abased himself be
fore the peer. Why? Because the
peer had power. ?e or his ancestors
won lt with the sword-by murder1
and might and leadership. The result
Is that In Europe they are getting to
be more democratic than we are, In a
way. That ls, they respect the aris
tocracy less than we do the plutocracy
-see? I, therefore, acquit William of
sordid alms. Still-hi ! William I"
Until more than a year after this
conversation Jimson had been abroad
looking after his firm's interests and
when he returned William was gone
and a James-an altogether inferior
being-handed him the bill of fare
when he took his old seat. One eve
ning Jimson got Into a street car and
opposite to him he recognized William
-with some difficulty and doubt, for
the model walter had grown rather
portly and was dressed most magnifi
cently. A silk hat William wore; his
suit was of superfine black; his cravat
was fastened with an undeniable
pearl pin and he rested his gloved
hands on a gold-knobbed cane.
"Come over here and sit by me," in
vited Jimson. "I want to talk to you.
You're looking well, William. Where
are you working?"
"I'm occupying a responsible posi
tion in Mr. Uckersted's household,
slr," replied William. "I am his but
ler, In fact-major domo, you inigHt
say, slr. He married, you know, slr."
"I did hear something of It," said
Jimson. "Well, well. You seem to be
"Pretty well, slr, thank you," ad
mitted William. "mhe salary Isn't
very large. Mr. U ^ted ls a very
careful gentleman L ne respects,
but-? william allowfe ??. eyelid to
flutter down-"lhere ls -?thing lo
the commissions. Mrs. U ted en
tertains a good deal. And t *' add
ed William, "through Mr. Uc. <;d's
kind suggestions I huve been .. ^ to
make some lucrative investments.
Yes, sir. In fact, slr. If It were not for
the opportunities I have for obtaining
hints In that direction, I think I
should resign my position. I have
really no occasion to work for any
"I think I understand William and
the general attitude toward moneyed
men better now," said J.'inson to him
self as he got off the car.
HOW CROP YIEL
The Weakest Element of Plant
the Weakest Link Fixes the
By Fertilization Can the
Plants must feed
to grow. Four es
sential food ele
ments come from
the air and six
from the soil.
Only three of
those that come
from the soil fall
short of crop re
' qulrments and
have to be sup
plied by man if the
are to be obtain
J. C. PRIDMORE fd- These are Ni
ric acid and pot
ash. Every soil may be said to have a
limiting factor of production. This
may be a shortage of some plant food
element. If so, this should be sup
plied through fertilization if the larg
est possible yleld? are to be obtained.
No matter how much of other plant
tood a soil may contain, if there is a
shortage of nitrogen, for example, then
nitrogen will fix the limits of produc
tion. Likewise with phosphoric acid or
Plants differ from animals in taking
food, in that plants will take foods
only when the elements composing
them are in soluble form, that is, when
they are dissolved in water. When
one element is deficient, the plrxt
To illustrate In another way, ob
serve the picture.
Here is a vessel made of staves.
Each stave may represent a food ele
ment or other factor of crop produc
tion. Some of the staves are shorter
than others. Does not the shortest
itave then determine how much water
the vessel can hold, and does not the
Large stock of Drugs ai
on hand-fresh from the
drugs any hour of the da;
A Share of Yo
The spring sea
replenish your w
We can clothe ye
you get it here y
What about a
and color? We
Try a pair of
for the money.
Large stock oi
to select from.
See our stock
line ever shown i
ig in the South
DS ARE LIMITED
Food Fixes the Crop Yield, Just as
Strength of the Chain-Only
Weakness Be Removed.
shortest plant food element represent
ed here by a stave, limit the possible
production of a crop?
If, for instance, there is only enough
nitrogen in the soil to produce 20
bushe'.s of corn or 175 pounds of cot
ton per acre, while there is enough
plant food elements of other kinds to
produce enormously more, how then
can greater yields be obtained than the
nitrogen will permit?
The problem of plant feeding is,
therefore, no simple one. It has en
gaged long and most careful investi
gations of scientists, who have delved
deep into the mysteries of how plants
feed and what they feed upon. On the
basis of the most exact knowledge thus
obtained, modern fertilizers have been
manufactured. Soil deficiencies, or
"Hinting factors," modern fertilizers
are designed to remove, and to call
into fullest action the natural re
sources of the soil.
Since there is a limiting factor In
all soils, it is worth while for each
farmer to undertake to remove that
limitation. Intelligent use of fertiliz
ers will accomplish (ft, if food elements
be this limiting factor. In no other
way can it be done than by the help
of man. He must bring to the plant
the food it needs and cannot find when
this is the factor limiting producion.
The plant, of course, must be given
the best of surroundings. It must not
only have plenty of plant food, but
the soil must be properly drained of
excess water. It must be well supplied
with lime, and organic matter; ita
moisture must be conserved, and
weeds killed through proper cultural
methods. These things man can pro
vide. Therefore, if man is not the
"limiting factor" and he looks after
the plant food requirements, the greatr
est possible yields will occur.
PASTURE VELVET BEANS.
Inquiry-"What is the most profit
able use of the Velvet Bean?"
Plant the velvet bean in the corn
and get a double crop. They do well
together. Plant an early variety and
fertilize for a good growth.
The most economical use of velvet
heans ls to let cattle feed on them
in the field and then to turn under
the vegetable matter remaining. If
there are not sufficient cattle on the
place, get them and feed them. Why
go to the expense of gathering beans,
grinding and shipping the meal off to
some one else to feed and get the
benefits?-J. N. HARPER.
id Drug Sundries always
3ly compounded from
y or night.
Bar for Men
son is upon us. No
ardrope with light
m from head to foe
ight early from th(
hers. We buy only
ou know the qualit;
new spring suit of
have a large asso:
We also sell the Sel
c Underwear, Hosiei
of New Spring Ha
rjRN & MD
tual Insurance Associ
Organized jl 892.
Property Insured $2,500,000.
WRITE OR CALL on the un
dersigned for any information you
may desire about our plan of insur
We insure your property against
FIRE, WINDSTORM or LIGHT
and do so cheaper than any Com
pany in existence.
Remember, we are prepared to
prove to you that ours is the safest
and cheapest plan of insurance
Our Association is now licensed
to write Insurance in the counties
of Abbeville, Greenwood, McCor
mick, Laurens and Edgefield.
The officers are: Gen. J. Fraser
Lyon, President, Columbia, S. C.
J. R. Blake, Gen. Agt., Secy. &
Treas., Greenwood, S. C.
A. 0. Grant,' Mt. Carmel, S. C.
J. M. Gambrell, Abbeville, S. C.
Jno. H. Childs, Bradley, S. C.
A. W. Youngblood, Hodges, S. C.
S. P. Morrah, Willington, S. C.
L.N. Chamberlain, McCormick, S.C.
R. H. Nicholson, Edgefield, S. C.
F.L.Timmerman, Pin't. Lane, S. C.
J. C. Martin, Princeton, S. C.
W. H. Wharton, Waterloo, S. C.
J. R. BLAKE, Gen. Agt.
Greenwood, S. C.
Jan. 1st, 191V.
AXD POINTS THE WAY FOB PRE
PAREDXESS IN THE WAB ON THE
Naturally Phosphated Agricultur
al Lime. Each ton contains 97 eta
to S 1.10 worth Bone Phosphate of
Lime and 68% Lime Carbonate.
Sold only by State Department of
Agriculture under authority of Gen
eral Assembly. Gives farmers an
opoortunity to obtain cheap lime
carbonate. Shipments in bulk only,
carloads not less than 30 nor more
than 33 tons, at $1.50 per ton, cash
igency stations must be fully pre
Freight rates on Phospho-Marl
:o stations in Edgefield county are
Edgefield, Parkshill, Trenton,
Johnston, 81,00; Modoc. Clarks
Hill, Meriwether, Woodlawn, $1.05
Plum Branch, Parksville, $1.10
Cut out this ad and save it. It
ar. ses ordering easy.
For further information, apply to
E. J. WATSr", Commissioner,
S. C. State Dep't Agriculture,
Columbia, S. ?,
ro Drive Out Malaria
And Build Up The System
Take the Old Standard GROVE'S
TASTELESS chill TONIC. You know
What you are taking, as the formula is
printed on every label, showing it is
Quinine and Iron in a tasteless form.
The Quinine drives out malaria, the
Iron builds uo the system. 50 cents
w is the time to
)t in dependable
3 leading manu
the best, so when
y is dependable,
the latest style
rtment to select
y and Neckwear