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FACTS ABOUT THE EARTH
Atmosphere Now Believed by Seien
tists to Have Three Fairly
The earth's atmosphere is now be
lieved to have three fairly distinct
strata, the tirst extending up to about
forty-five miles, having nitrogen as the
leading constituent; the second, with
its upper limit a* about 125 miles, be
ing chiefly hydrogen, and the third,
at a still greater height, consisting of
a very thin gas which has been named
"geocoronium." Dr. Alfred Wegener
has attempted to explain the striking
differences of color in meteors or
"shooting stars," and says that mete
ors coming from outer space ure not
sufficiently heated in the exceedingly
light gas to become luminous. Their
fall through the hydrogen layer causes
them to become incandescent, and be
fore they reach the lowest stratum
most of them are completely dissi
pated. A few of the largest however
penetrate the nitrogen atmosphere, a
very small number reaching the earth's
surface. It is found that the deep-fall
ing meteors pass through three stages
of color, yellow-white, green and deep
red- and it is concluded that the green
is due to incandescence of the hydro
gen and the red to that of the nitrogen.
C>nly the first stage is seen in the
quickly dissipated meteors, the white,
yellow or sometimes reddishness be
in? evidently the glow of the meteor
WHAT CAUBER OF GUN MEANS
Term as Applied to Artillery ls Cause
of Confusion in the Popu
Confusion as to the meaning of the
term caliber arises chiefly from its
use as an adjective to indicate length,
as when we say "a 50-callber six-inch
gun." The word caliber, as applied to
artillery, signifies the diameter of t*ie
bore of a gun measured diametrically
from face to face of the bore, of course
A gun, then, of six-inch caliber is a j
gun whose bore is just six inches. For
convenience and because the power of
a gun when once its bore has been de
cided upon depends so greatly upon its
length artillerists are in the habit of
defining the length of the gun in terms
of the caliber.
Thus the 12-inch United States na
val gun, which is 40 feet in length, Is
spoken of as a 40-caliber 12-inch, the
length being just 40 times the bore.
The 0-inch rapid-fire gun is a trifle un
der 25 feet in length and Is therefore
Jinown as a 50-callber gun.
In the case of small arms the cali
ber is expressed in hundredths of an
inch, as when we say a 22-caIlber re
volver we mean one with a bore that
'Has a diameter of .22 of an Inch.
A man learned of the death of an
?uncle in a dlstunt state and employed
un attorney *o get for him his
ishare of the estute. After much de
lay the lawyer sent for his client and
"I have collected your share of your
uncle's property, and here is a state
ment of our account."
. The account rendered showed many
'items of expenses, such as "taking de
positions," "notary's fees," "court
costs," "traveling expenses," etc., a
considerable charge in favor of the at
torney for his services and only a
small balance for the nephew.
After examining and pondering over
the statement for quite a while the
client looked up and said to the law
yer: "Was that your uncle or mine
that died?"-West's Docket.
Japs Like Fresh Air.
The normal Japanese woman satis
fies the artist's ideals as well as the
surgeon's. The average woman In Ja
pan today shows a figure that is as
perfectly molded and of as true pro
portion as the woman of ancient
Greece was able to display. Consump
tion is a rare disease in Japan ; even
winter coughs are of rare occurrence.
The Japanese woman is taught from
earliest childhood that life Is impos
.sible without a sufficient supply of
-fresh air. This internal cleansing with
.fresh air is deemed of more importance
;thap .the bath that usually follows it.
<Other People's Things.
Did you ever see a girl who would
- turn down the leaf of her library book
, to mark her place, when she wouldn't
i think of - turning one of her own books
in such a fashion? Did you ever know
a boy who would leave a borrowed bi
cycle standing out in the damp, though
he was very particular about his own
things? It is a pity that little folks
or older ones should ever be less care
ful of what belongs to someone else
than of what is their own.
A Sad Reminder.
1 "fl went Into a man's office this
.morning and he had ,mottoes stuck up
ell around his desk, .like 'Do it now,'
'Be brief,' and This is my busy day.'
?Have you anything, pf that sort in your
"No,. I;don't need, them. I have a
note framed and hung up. on my wall
that I indorsed for a man. and eventu
ally had to pay myself. Whenever I
look at lt I remember all the mottoes
I ever heard of."
What He Said.
"Has the doctor been here today?"
nsked the wife.
"Yn, he has," replied the gouty
"What did he say?"
, "Two dollars." :'i*;?
GIRAFFES EAT THE POLES
One of the Difficulties Faced by Men
Who Built Telegraph System
Every industry has its troubles.
Some of them can be foreseen and
some of them cannot be. It is doubt
ful if the men who toiled to build up
a telegraph system in equatorial Af
rica foresaw the peculiar difficulties
they were to he.ve from wild ani
In several provinces of British East
Africa the giraffe and elephant are
given special protection hy law. It
costs $n0 to get a license to kill a hull
j giraffe and .S1-10 for a license to kill a
pair of elephants. In many parts the
killing of giraffes is forbidden en
tirely. Consequently in this vnstgame
preserve elephants and giraffes take
special heed to the voice of the Crea
tor as transcribed in the first chap
ter of Genesis: "Be fruitful and mul
tiply." The lions have done likewise
and they have caused real inconveni
ence to General Smuts more than
once in his recent military opera
tions, besieging the general himself
once in his motorcar. The elephants
and giraffes, however, make a spe
cialty of telegraph poles. According
to a zoologist who writes in the Lon
don Times, the giraffes have been
irivine: trouble by pulling down the
telegraph wires and thereby inter
j rupting communications. The beauti
ful creatures, which habitually feed
on the acacia, stripping it of its leaves
as high as their long necks and pre
hensile tongues can reach, rarely re
sist such attractions and, as many
of the telegraph poles in this region of
Africa sprout with leaves each year,
their temptation is easily understood.
CONTRARY SORT OF WORLD
Most Powerful Stories of Love and
Domestic Bliss, Written by
The more popular books for chil
dren have been written by the child
less, and some of the most powerful
stories of love and domestic bliss or
misery have been written by unmar
ried women and men.
And then, as you probably know, al
most everyone thinks he knows more
about other branches of "business than
the one in which he is engaged.
The average man can recall the time
when he thought the other fellow's job
was much easier than his, and was
haunted more or less with the notion
that if he had taken up almost any
thing but what he had he would have
made a great success of it.
It is said there has never, or hardly
ever, been a great comedian who didn't
believe, or think he believed, that his
forte was tragedy ; and as if not to be
outdone, the successful tragedian never
ceases to curse the luck that prevented
bira from being a comedian.
You may not think this is a contrary
sort of world, but there are a lot of
people who do. -.Vv,
Mother Was Safe.
The minister had to leave home on
a long preaching tour. Just before
leaving he called his family around
him to say good-by. When he came to
Bobby, he said :
"Old man. I want you to be a good
boy and take care of your mother."
Bobby promised. All day long he
looked preternaturally grave under the
heavy responsibility thus suddenly as
sumed. When night came and he was
called to his prayers, the young guard
"O Lord, bless father, and Brother
Tom, and Sister Alice, and Aunt May,
and the little Jones boys, und me, but
you needn't trouble about mother, for
I am going to look after her."
An Imaginary Cabby.
A penitent-looking man was on trial
for vagrancy and olJturbance of the
peace. The judge seemed Inclined to
"What was the prisoner doing when
you arrested him?" he suid to the po
"Ke was having a very heated argu
ment with a cab driver, j-our honor."
"But that doesn't prove that he was
the worse for liquor," the judge said.
"Many sober people have argument
with cab drivers."
"So they do, your honor," said the
policeman, "but in this case there was
no cab driver."
'Talk about long playing," said the
New Yorker to Pat. "Why, your coun
trymen wouldn't get a look-In with us.
I know a fellow citizen who played
'Beautiful Stars and Stripes' on the
plano for several hours."
"Arrah, close your mouth," said Pat.
"You ought to be ashamed of yourself
to be talking about nothing. Sure, I
know an Irishman that played 'Ireland
Forever' on a flute."-New York Morn
And Endless Affair.
Homer-Old Tightwad invited me to
take lunch with him yesterday.
-Helny-I suppose there was no end
to the good things you had to eat.
Homer-Right you are. There was
neither a beginning nor an end to
Heiny-Why, how was thnt?
Homer-Ail we had was pretzels.
She Fell for lt.
Patlence-^Ile proposed marriage
while he was skating with her.
Patrice-With what result?
"She became very much confused
and fell for it."
HER LITTLE WAY
Sarventor settled back comfortably
in his chair and lit the after-dinner
cigar to which he had limited himself
in deference to his wife's fears that
he was injuring his health by exces
sive smoking. Mrs. Sarventor smiled
sweetly at him over her workbasket.
"Oh!" he exclaimed suddenly.
"What do you think? Willington has
backed out of that little stag party at
Renford's. His wife wouldn't let him
go. Wouldn't" that give you a nerv
ous chill? Adeline, if I had a wife
like that I'd be tempted to take a
club to her. I don't suppose he dares
open up his mouth around the house
wMiout raising his hand to ask per
mission. He says he's got another en
gagement, but, of course, that's all
humbug. I bet Tom Hinckly $5 that
he*d find some excuse to crawl out."
"I don t like you to bet, dear," said
Mrs. Sarventor, gently.
"I know,", returned Sarventor,
slightly confused. "But-er-well,
anyway, he didn't take me up."
"Do you mean that Mr. Hinckly isnt
going to pay you the money you won?"
"(Jf course uot. Ile didn't bet."
"Well, I think he ought to pay, any
way, if you bet him. But I'm glad
you had the $0 you could afford to
lose, because it's just the amount I
want. Hand lt over. Edward, please."
Sarventor ruefully extracted a $5
bill from his pocketbook and threw
it into the workbasket with the re
mark that that just left him carfare.
"How would you like to have lt said
that your husband stood in terror of
you, little woman?" he asked jocularly.
"I wouldn't like it at all," replied
Mrs. Sarventor. promptly. "I believe
in a man doing what he pleases as i
long as he doesn't misconduct himself.
I'm not an advanced woman like Mrs.
I Willington, you know."
"No, you're not. by George!" said
her husband, admiringly.
"Besides, I know you wouldn't
stand dictation," laughed the lady.
"Well, I guess not," said Sarventor.
"What kind of a party is this, Ed
ward?" asked Mrs. Sarventor pres
ently, as she threaded a needle.
"Oh. just men, you know."
"Are they nice?" . j.?"*".
"It depends on what you call nice.
It isn't like a pink tea."
"1 suppose you will all smoke like
chimneys and play cards. Well, of
course, you will go if you want to."
"You needn't be cross about It, Ed
ward. I'm not cross."
"I don't see any reason why r,/j
"I might not like lt, though. I
wouldn't wonder a bit if tney played
cards for money-and that's gam
"Why, Adeline! Suppose It was a
penny ante-enough just to give an
interest to the game?"
"The principle Is the same. But of j
course my narrow views needn't stand !
in the way of your having a good
"Now, you are losing your temper.
Well, we won't say anything more
about lt. You've made up your mind I
that you'll go whether I like it or not
or whether it's right or wrong. . I
wouldn't say a word for the world to
displease you. You know I wouldn't,
Edward. I don't like to have you
"But my dear!"
"No. we won't say anything more
about it. And then you'll be tempted
to smoke more than ls good for you.
I know you won't break your promise
to me. but-"
"About smoking more than one
cigar in an evening."
"Nonsense! You aren't talking rea
sonably, my dear. You just don't want
me to go."
"No. I want you to go. If you pre
fer the society of a set of horrid card
playing men to your wife's I ought
not to complain. I ought to be
"Why, Adeline, my dear!"
"No, I'm not. You know Tm not
You dud-dud-don't love me."
"Of course, I do. You know per
fectly well I do."
Mrs. Sarventor put aside her hus
band's caressing hand and dried her
eyes. Then she said: "This Is very
foolish of me, Edward. I ought to be
ashamed of myself, and I ara, too. Of
course, you must go, dear. You know,
I would never oppose you in anything.
We've been married over a year now
and, of course, I ought not to expect
that you wouldn't get Just a little
tired of a silly girl In all that time."
"Dearest," said Sarventor, "how can
you say such absurd things? Tired of
"I suppose if I had made our little
home more attractive-"
"You've made it a little paradise."
"And of course you miss all your old
"Miss nothing. I know when Tm
"Then why," demanded Mrs. Sar
ventor, "are you so crazy to go to this
horrid stag party?"
"I'm not crazy about It I don't
know that I'd go if I hadn't promised
-at least I half promised"
"Then you won't go? Oh, good!"
"Not if you don't want me to, dear
"Oh, but I don't want you to stay at
home just because you know Td be
hurt if you went. I want you to do
exactly as you please. You'd better
go, perhaps, dear."
"Well, ? don't want to." said Sarven
tor. "I want to stay and spend the !
evening with you, and that settles It" I
SOUTHERN FARMER'S F
South's Deposits of Phosphatic Mate
C. A. WH
Recently a Southern fertilizer con
cern obtained a large order for acid
phosphate from Holland at $55 per ton.
Contrast this $55.00 per ton with $20'.00
per ton paid by the Southern farmer.
If the Dutch farmer can afford to
pay $55 per ton for acid phosphate
and make it pay, how much more can
a Southern farmer obtain when he
can buy about three times as much
phosphate with the same money?
Dutch farmers are shrewd and thrif
ty. They have developed agriculture
to a very high state of efficiency, and
they know quite well what can be
done with acid phosphate at $55 per
ton. Their land is not poor. To the
contrary il is highly developed and
fertile. Ev?ry rod that can possibly
be used for agriculture is cultivated
like a garden. They have found that
no matter how rich their soil, fertiliz
ing it pays. Out of their experience
they find that it pays them now to
invest as much as $55 per ton in acid
Aids In Combatting Boll Weevil
Under boll weevil conditions, early
maturing of cotton is essential. Acid
phosphate, of course, promotes the fru
ition and maturing of cotton. All ag
ricultural authorities are now recom
mending liberal use of acid phosphate
in fertilizers as an important measure
in combatting the boll weevil.
If the Southern farmer had to pay
$55 per ton for acid phosphate, what
a disadvantage he would face! Since
he only pays about one-third this price,
how fortunately situated he is! Na
ture has placed here in the South
great deposits of rock phosphate
which, when treated with sulphuric
acid, becomes acid phosphate, an ingre
dient of fertilizer.
Not only is the Southern farmer fa
vored by reason of the natural de
posits of phosphatic materials, but, in
recent years, the South has become
a great manufacturer of sulphuric
acid. Sulphuric acid has an import
ant place in many forms of manufac
turing, and is one of the essentials
in making munitions of war, hence
large quantities of it have been drawn
to the munition plants at enhanced
prices. The high market for sulphuric
acid has lifted the price of acid phos
phate over that of foimer years, but
not enough to prevent, its still being a
most economical plant food.
The Quickly Available Form
Acid phosphate Is that form of phos
Large stock of Drugs ai
on hand-fresh from the
drugs any hour of the da
A Share of Yo
The spring sea
replenish your w
We can clothe ye
you get it here y
What about a
and color? We
Try a pair of
for the money.
Large stock o?
to select from.
See our stock
line ever shown i
g in the South
?rials an Aid in Boll Weevil Fight
phatic fertilizers most readily availa
ble as plant food. Hence this is why
agricultural authorities are stressing
its use in fertilizers for boll weevil
territory, where the purpose is to has
ten maturity of the plants and to get
a3 much cotton set as possible before
the weevil has developed in sufficient
number to get all the new squares and
the bolls that form, as it will do later
on in the season.
PUSH COTTON IN
J. C. Pridmore, Agronomist.
Inquiry-"How would you fertilize
to beat the boll weevil to the cotton?"
In growing cotton under boll weevil
conditions, several factors must be
given consideration. The land should
be well drained and well supplied with
vegetable matter. Good seed ci a va
riety adapted to the locality should
be chosen, and, of course, a variety
that will mature its fruit quickly and
resist wilt should be planted. Fer
tilize liberally, and properly cultivate.
On the heavier soils, such as the red
clays and clay loams, the use of a fer
tilizer carrying 10 per cent to 12 per
cent phosphoric acid, 3 to 4 per cent
nitrogen and a small per cent of pot
ash, if it can be had, should be used.
Apply at the rate of 250 to 400 pounds
per acre. On lighter soils in which
nitrogen, phosphorus and potash are
all usually deficient, a fertilizer carry
ing all three elements is desirable.
Use 10 to 12 per cent phosphoric acid,
3 or 4 per cent nitrogen and 1 or 2
per cent potash, at the rate of 300 to
400 pounds to the acre.
SOY BEANS IN THE ROTATION.
Inquiry-"Will you recommend a
rotation in which soy beans, cotton
and some other crop will be used?"
Soy beans are highly recommended.
They are a legume and, therefore, do
not require much nitrogen. The hay
is abundant and the feeding value
high. The oil mills afford a ready
market for the bean, and the cake
which is produced by the mills has
splendid feeding values.
A good rotation to follow is cotton
followed by corn with soy beans, fol
lowed by oats and cowpeas. For
southern conditions Hollybrook and
Mammouth Yellow are recommended.
-J. N. HARPER, Agronomist
id Drug Sundries always
ely compounded from
y or night.
ear for Men
son is upon us. Nc
ardrope with light
m from head to fo<
ight early from th
bers. We buy only
ou know the qualit
new spring suit of
have a large asso
We also sell the Se]
- Underwear, Hosie]
of New Spring Bi
3EM & III
tual Insurance Associ
Property Insured $2,500,000.
WRITE OR CALL on the un
designed for any information you
may desire about our plan of insur
We insure your property against
FIRE, WINDSTORM or LIGHT-.
and do so cheaper than any Com
pany in existence.
Remember, we are prepared to
prove to you that ours is the .-afest
and cheapest pian of insurance
Our Association is now licensed
to write Insurance in the counties
of Abbeville, Greenwood, McCor
mick, Laurens and Edgetield.
The officers are: Gen. J. Frasei
Lyon, President, Columbia, S. C.
J. R. Biak-, Gen. A ?rt., Secy. &
Treas., Greenwood, S. C.
A. O. Grant, ML Carmel, S. C.
J. M. Gambrell, Abbeville, S. C.
.Ino. H. Childs, Bradley, S. C.
A. V7. Youngblood, Hodges, S. C.
S. P. Morrah, Willington, S. C.
L.N. Chamberlain, McCormick, S.C.
R. H. Nicholson, Edgetield, S. C.
F.L.Timmerman, Pln't. Lane, S. C.
J. C. Martin, Princeton, S. C.
VV. H. Wharton, Waterloo, S. C.
J. R. BLAKE, Gen. Agt.
Greenwood, S. C.
Jan. 1st, 1917.
GEO. F. MIMS
Eyes examined and g.assea fitted
only when necessary. Optical
work of all kinds.
EDGEFIELB, S. C.
DR J.?. BYRD,
OFFICE OVER POSTOFFICE
Residence 'Phone 17-R. Office 3.
AND LIVE STOCK
Your business will be given
careful, attention and appreciated
J. T. Harling
At the Farmers Bank, Edgefield
I -Whenever Yon Need a General Tonic
The Old Standard Grove's Tasteless
chill Tonic is equally valuable as 3
General Tonic because it contains ?he
well known tonic properties of QUININE
and IRON. It acts on the Liver, Drives
ont Malaria, Enriches the Blood and
Builds up the Whole System. 50 cents.
)w is the time to
3t in dependable
e leading manu
thebest, so when
y is dependable,
the latest style
rtment to select
ry and Neckwear