Newspaper Page Text
j EARTH, SAND-CLAY
. - ? ?
(Prepared by the United States Depar
ment of Agriculture.)
Well-balanced and experienced jud)
ment regarding the relative importanc
of the various details involved is
much more valuable asset in undertal
lng to locate a road than mere techn
cal skill In handling surveying lnstn
ments. No knowledge gained froi
books alone can give that complet
grasp of the relations existing betwee
a public road and the community :
serves which is so necessary if th
location and design of the road are t
secure the greatest possible good froi
the money expended.
In locating or relocating a publi
road the prime considerations shoul
i" be, first, the comfort and convenienc
of the traveling public which it is \t
tended to accommodate, and, seconc
the economy of public funds. The firs
consideration fixes the general locatio:
-. _ . ot the road and llmits-saeh details .
design and layout as affect the safet;
and comfort of travelers. The secom
should control the detailed workln,
ont of a location to suit the topograph;
or surface layout of the region througl
which the road passes, with due re
gard for such features of the desigi
as affect the cost of construction, o
maintenance and of hauling over th
The comfort and convenience o
travelers, requires, first, that the roa<
pass conveniently close to the dwell
lng places of those for whose particu
lar use It Is built; second, that it bi
free from dangerous curves and grade:
and sufficiently wide for safe travel
and, third, that the surface be such a?
to remain reasonably fjrm and smootl
and to become neither very dusty noi
ery muddy under any combination o:
weather and trafile conditions. Th<
extent to which any particular roat
must meet these requirements depends
of course, on the state of public senti
ment in the community which pays foi
the road. But in most communities i'
ls safe to assume that the standards ol
Iexcellence as regards the accommoda
tion demanded of public roads will b(
raised rather than lowered. Due fore
sight, therefore, should be exercised it
working out the location and desigr
of a road, so that later improvements
such as reducing grades, Increasing thc
width of the traveled way, or con
structing a better surface, can be made
H without the necessity of making expen
sive changes in the location or other
wise wasting any considerable part of
H the work already accomplished.
Location of Roads.
A few general rules regarding the lo
r'.% cation and design of public roads may
be stated briefly as follows:
1. Avoid sharp curves in the road,
I because such curves are a menace to
traffic. On light grades and level
stretches the location should be prefer
H ably such that a traveler may see at
least two or three hundred feet ahead
from any point on the road, and on
H steeper grades this distance should be
increased if automobile traffic ls to be
reasonably safe. Where the view is
H unobstructed and the grade is practi
cally level, country roads of ordinary
width may be curved to a radius of
i only about two hundred feet without
seriously inconveniencing traffic, but
to safeguard against accidents the ro
fl dius of curves located on grades should
be preferably not less than about 300
or 400 feet, even If the view is per
c! fectly open.
2. Provide ample width for vehicles
to pass each other without leaving the
'. I traveled way.
8. Bear in mind that if a road ever
becomes of any considerable Impor
: y tance, its users probably will demand
that all the steeper grades be reduced
to the lowest maximum that would
conform to the general topography of
the region which the road traverses.
4. Avoid all unnecessary distance.
Aside from the advantages to traffic
of a short route, each mlle of addi
. tionai road involves a considerable
extra yearly expense for maintenance,
and this consideration alone may war
rant considerable expense in shorten
ing the route when the road is con
structed, provided that the decrease In
distance does not materially increase
- the steepness of the grades.
( 5. Regard land lines only In so far
as this may be don0 without decreas
ing the usefulness of the roa^.o? rn-!
^^^'asirjg 4?S^imiree 'costT The ten
s''*""'' dency in most rural communities is to
locate all new roads along land lines,
regardless of the suitability of the
route, and this has been responsible
for much waste in the past. Not In
frequently roads located along land
lines have been graded at considerable
expense, and abandoned iater when the
community demanded a more highly
improved road with better grades.
6. Give reasonable consideration to
the pleasing features of the location.
A large part of the travel on most
country roads is for pleasure, and the
degree of pleasure experienced in driv
ing is 'argely dependent upon the
scenic attractiveness of the road.
Laying Out a Road.
The actual procedure of laying out
a road should be controlled very large
ly by the lay of the land which the
road is to traverse. Where the coun
AND GRAVEL ROADS I
[EXAMPLE OF HOW A WADE UNE
SHOULD BE ESTABLISHED.
fi "A" shows the original grade of an old road
?3 B" shows a wrong.though greatly used method of
?fcotting the top of the hill and filling in ai the bottom
3r The result is no improvement except to shorten
a? the grade
* 'C Shows the proper method of cutting thc face of
4 the hill instead of the too. thereby reducing
H the steepness of the grade without increasing th?
jj amount of material moved.
try is comparatively level, for ex
I ample, prrctically the whole problem,
aside from proper drainage, may be to
j determine a reasonable balance be
tween the desire to avoid unnecessary
damage to farming land and the pur
pose to secure a reasonably direct
route over good ground.
1 One of the most common problems In
laying out a road In level country ls to
decide between continuing a circuitous
route around cultivated fields or along
rectangular land lines, and establish
ing a new diagonal route across the
I In mountainous regions, on the other
i hand, the problem may be to flt the
I road to the contour of the country, re
gardless of land lines, cultivated fields,
and all other considerations except
grade, drainage and line.
In general, the proper location and
design of a road involves: (1) deter
mining Its controlling points; that is,
fixing Its general route with reference
to certain points which the road must
pass through, (2) surveying a route
which passes through the controlling
points and ls otherwise adapted to the
lay of the land, (3) a study of the
drainage situation, (4) preparing such
plans and drawings as are necessary
I for proper construction and a com
Such features of the locality as gaps
through ridges, exposure to the sun,
narrow stream crossings, and suitable
I points for crossing railroads (prefera
bly by means of overhead bridges or
under passes), together with the ne
cessity for connecting up with certain
centers of population, usually will
serve to fix the location of a road with
in fairly definite limits. For impor
tant roads these controlling points are
determined by careful inspection of all
! possible routes.
The care which should be exercised
? In making a road survey necessarily
must depend upon the importance of
the road and the amount to be expend
ed In its Improvement. An ordinary
farm road, for example, usually re
quires no survey other than lining It
by the eye between the controlling
points. Some unimportant public roads
may require very little more than farm
roads in the way of a survey, but If
any considerable amount of grading or
other work is to be done, either at the
time the road ls located or later, the
survey should Include all Instrument
work necessary to insure that the work
will be done economically.
The purposes of a survey are (1) to
determine accurately the topography
or lay of the land so that the loca
tion may follow the route which pre
sents the fewest obstacles, (2) to fit
the grade line to the ground surface so
as to keep down the amount of grading
necessary, (3) to balance cuts and fills
so that whatever grading ls done will
be to the best possible advantage, (4)
to line up the road and provide stakes
for controlling the work, (5) to obtain
data from which proper plans may be
prepared and an estimate of cost made,
(6) to provide ? record that will pr?
vent subsequent contentions among
landowners regarding the original lo
cation of the road. While the impor
tance of all these purposes is apparent,
frequently it is not realized that they
cannot be accomplished except by
meuns of a careful survey, and that
such surveys can be made only by ex
perienced men who have been trained
especially for such work. Farmers j
and business men generally are In- j
dined to underestimate the amount of 1
skill required to make a road survey
properly and their influence has been
responsible in the past for much bung- j I
ling and for uneconomical road work ! i
for which they have had to pay in ! i
The accompanying figure illustrates
an error which ls mude sometimes by
Inexperienced persons in grading a
road without first having sun-eyed und
planned the work. In this figure, which
is an actual profile of an existing road,
the shaded line shows the original
ground surface, the heavy full line
shows the grade to which the road was
actually constructed, and the dotted
line shows a grade line which, If lt had
been followed, not only would have re
iiuired.. ?no additional work, hut would
have reduced the steep grade material
ly and thereby improved the road con
In fitting the grade line to the ground
surface and balancing cuts and fills It
should be borne in mind that earth,
after being thoroughly compacted, will
occupy less space iu an embankment or
fill than in its original position. The
customary allowances for shrinkage
and waste in road work are :
For heavy cuts and fills.10 to 15
For average grading.15 to 20
For light grading .20 to 30
For very light grading and consid
erable sod .30 to 40
Solid rock will expand from one
third to one-half of its original volume
when taken from a cut or excavation
and placed in an embankment. But
the spaces between the particles of
stone should be filled with earth as the
stone Is being placed in the embank
DESTROY MANY PESTS
Horned Larks Range Over Prac
tically Whole Country.
Birds Are Particularly Fond of Weed
Seeds-Insect Food Includes May
Beetles, White Grubs and
(By W. L. M'ATEE.)
Horned larks are small but hardy
birds which frequent the open country
and never live In forests. They range
over practically the whole United
States, and are easily recognized by
the conspicuous black mark across the
breast and the small pointed tufts of
dark-colored feathers behind the eyes.
These are often erected and cause the
appearance referred to In the common
name. These birds nest early, often be
fore all the snow has disappeared, and
they have a joyous flight song in the
The food of horned larks consists of
20.0 per cent of animal and 79.4 per
cent of vegetable matter. Not quite a
sixth of the vegetable food ls grain,
mostly waste, though some sprouting
grain ls pulled. This ls the most seri
ous charge against the birds and is sus
tained, but lt must be admitted that
practically all the complaints were
made years ago, when broadcast sow
ing was the rule. Becent correspond
ence shows that drilled grain ls practi
cally safe from Injury.
Weed seeds are by far the largest
single component (03.9 per cent) of
the food of horned larks, and over 10
per cent of the 1,154 birds examined
had eaten them, no fewer than 200 In
dividuals having fed on them, exclu
sively. Conspicuous among the weed
seeds eaten are those of the foxtail
grasses, smartweeds, bindweeds, ama
ranth, pigweeds, purslane, ragweed
and crab and barn grasses. Horned
larks are among the most efficient
The insect food of these birds in
cludes such pests as May beetles and
their larvae, the white grubs, leaf
beetles Injurious to strawberries, cab
bage, melons and sugar beets, clover
leaf and clover-root weevils, potato
stalk borers, nut weevils, bill bugs and
the chinch bug. Grasshoppers are a
favorite food; cutworms are eaten
PLOW IN PROPER CONDITION
Something Wrong When Farmer Must
Bear Down or Lift Up Handles
Study ls Necessary.
A plow in proper condition runs
smoothly and at an even depth, with
very little effort on the part of the
plowman. When a plow does not run
sm tf>chly, when the plowman must
bear down or lift up on the handles, or
must constantly hold the plow either
one way or the other to keep lt from
tipping over, something is wrong with 1
lt. The point tips down or up too 1
much, or the cutting edge of the share
is dull or slants down or up too much.
A. good plowman must know how a
iood plow should work and when it i
loes not go right should know what
Ls wrong with it. To know these things
requires as much thought and study .
ind mental and mechanical ability as ,
:o understand a telephone or a tele- ,
ENCOURAGE GRASS TO GROW ]
Where Pasture Lands Cannot Readily ;
Be Plowed Application of Lime
In pasture lands that cannot readily
5e plowed the best procedure ls to ap
ply lime, If needed, and to encourage
the grass to grow vigorously by a year- 4
ly top dressing of well-rotted barn-yard .
manure and occasional light appllca- j
tions of commercial fertilizer that is
rich in phosphates and nitrogen. In
addition, ull thin spots in the sod
should be reseeded each year with a
liberal quantity of good grnss seed.
FUNGUS ON CURRANT BUSHES I1
Declared to Be' Bad Neighbors for ,
White Pine Trees-Cause of In- \
jurious Blister Rust. I
Currant bushes are very bad neigh- ;
hors for white pine trees, ns the cur- ,
rant bush may act as host for the fun
gus which causes white pine blister j
This disenso cnn ne spread by nur
sery stock of white pine, and those who
wish to protect their pine trees should
not plant curruuts near them.
Winthrop College ?j Scholarship
and Entrance Examination.
Thu examination for the award
Df vacant scholarships in Winthrop
College for the admission or new
?tudenls will be held at the County
Court House on Friday, July G, at
9 a. m. Applicant? must not be
less than 1(5 years of age. When
scholarships are vacant after July
6 they will be awarded to those
making the highest average at this
examination, provided they meet
the conditions governing the
award. Applicants for scholarships
should write to President Johnson
for scholarship examination blanks.
These blanks properly filled out by
tue applicant should be filed with
President Johnson by July I.
Scholarships are worth ?100 and
free tuition. The next session will
open September 19, 1917. For
furthei information and catalogue,
address President D. B. Johnson,
Rock Hill, S. C.
There can be no doubt
as to the merit of Cardui,
the woman's tonic, in
the treatment of many
troubles peculiar to
women. The thousands
of women who have been
helped by Cardui in the
past 40 years, is conclu
sive proof that it is a
good medicine for women
who suffer. It should
help you, too.
The Woman's Tonic
Mis. N. E. Varner, of
Hixson, Tenn., writes;
"I was passing through
the .. . My back and
sides were terrible, and
my suffering indescriba
ble. I can't tell just how
and where I hurt, about
all over. I think ... I
began Cardui, and my
pams grew less and less,
until I was cured. I am
remarkably strong for a
woman 64 years of age.
I do all my housework."
Try Cardui, today. E-76
tual Insurance Associ
Property Insured $2,500,000.
WRITE OR CALL on the un
dersigned for any information you
may desire about our plan of insur
We insure your property against
FIRE, WINDSTORM or LIGHT
and do so cheaper than any Com
pany in existence.
Remember, we are prepared to
prove to you that ours is the safest
and cheapest plan of insurance
Our Association is now licensed
lo write Insurance in the counties
of Abbeville, Greenwood, McCor
mick, Laurens and Edgefield.
The officers are: Gen. J. Frasei
Lyon, President, Columbia, S. C.
J. R. Blake, Gen. Agt., ?Secy. &
Treas., Greenwood, S. C.
A. 0. Grant, Mt. Carmel, S. C.
I. M. Gambrell, Abbeville, S. C.
Ino. H. Childs, Bradley, S. C.
A. W. Youngblood, Hodges, S. C.
3. P. Morrah, Willington, S. C.
L.N. Chamberlain, McCormick. S.C.
R. H. Nicholson, Edgefield, S. C.
F.L.'Tiinmerman, Pln't. Lane, S. C.
?. C. Martin, Princeton, S. C.
W. H. Wharton, Waterloo, S. C.
J. R. BLAKE, Gen. Agt.
Greenwood, S. C.
Jan. 1st, 1917.
Folks Who Know
For malarial headache, Granger
Liver Regulator entirely relieved my
rouble.-J. Height, Wetumpka, Ala.
Had heavy headache. Vomited
twice to six times a day. Four doses
jf Grander Liver Regulator made me
tvell-Loundas P. Brindley, Somer
Mother had sick headache. Granger
Liver Regulator did her more good
than all the medicine she had taken
before.-Pearley Davis, Pacio, Ala.
I never expect to be without it in
my home.-Jenie Usey, Gadsden, Ala.
Tt is a great saver of doctors bills.
-Louis N. Kent, Honoraville, Ala.
There is none better.-Dr. T. E.
Cothram. Alexis, Ala,
All druggists sell Granger Liver
Regulator-25c, Try it.
SOME STRIKE IT RICH
BUTA SURE WAYS
IN THE BAN
Comrriflht 1909. by C. F. 2iai?o:rman Co.-No. 51
THERE is no doubt about
money in the bank, it is
sure and positive. Maybe slow, but there
is the satisfaction that it is sure. Posi
tive in every way, both that it will grow,
and that it is safe.
BANK OF EDGEFIELD
OFFICERS : J. C. Sheppard, President; B. E. Nicholson, vice-President
E. J. Miras, Cashier; J. H. Allen. Assistant Oashier.
DIRECTORS : J. C. Sheppard, Thos. H. Rainsford, John Rainsford, B. E.
Nicholson, A. S. Tompkins. C. C. Fuller. E. J. Mima. J. H. Allen.
Every Housewife or
Mother is ever under
that Nervous Strain
which so often results
in Headaches, Dizzy ?
Sensations, Faintness, I?
Depression and other jf^
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in Such Cases.
IF FIRST BOTTLE FAILS TO
BENEFIT, YOUR MONEY WILL
BADLY RUN DOWN.
"I had become greatly run down
and my nerves were In terrible
condition. I had frequent head
aches and became very weak and
was unable to do anything. I
bought a bottle of Dr. Miles' Nerv
ine. I soon began to feel better,
my nerves were quieted. I re
covered my strength, and have since
rc-commended Dr. Miles' Nervine
ta many of my friends who have
used it with satisfactory results."
MRS. FRANCES WHITLOCK,
179 Broadway, Schenectady, N. Y.
i BARRETT & COMPANY
ARRINGTON BROS. & CO.
Wholesale Grocers and Dealers in
Corn, Oats, Hay and all
Kinds of Seeds
Corner Cumming and Fenwick Streets
On Georgia R. R. Tracks
YOUR PATRONAGE SOLICITED
?jiS" See our representative, C. E. May.