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FACTORS IN ROAD BUILDING
Necessity Emphasized in Giving Great.
est Consideration to All
i Local Conditions.
(Prepared by the United States Depart
ment of Agriculture.)
Theory is simply the sign post that
points the way in road building,
.while judgment is the vehicle ou which
the journey ls dependent, says a pub
lication on "The Design of Public
Roads" by the United States depart
ment of agriculture.
The publication emphasizes the
necessity of giving the greatest con
sideration to all local factors in road
construction. In order to furnish the
kind of roads that a community wants
and to furnish them with the least
possible drain on the public treasury,
the person who designs them must be
thoroughly familiar with local condi
tions and must possess the judgment
necessary to weigh the importance of
all considerations. The publication
? makes no attempt to state detinite and
exact rules for designing roads to
suit every locality but takes up sep
arately tile important features of the
problem with a view 4o showing the
variations in current practice and the
influence of some special conditions
with regard to each feature.
In order to select the type of sur
face best adapted to the need of a
particular road, it is necessary to con
sider first, the class of traffic to
which the road will be subjected, and
second, to compare the estimated ulti
mate cost of the difrereut surface
types which would be capable of sat
isfactorily caring for that particular
class of traffic. The number of roads
for which accurate traffic and effi
ciency records have been kept is said
to be insufficient to warrant definite
conclusions as to the best type for
any particular class of traffic, but the
.following summary is said to contain
about as definite information on this
point .as can be drawn from available
(a) Earth roads, when properly
maintained, are satisfactory in dry
weather for a light volume of all
kind? of highway traffic
(b) Sand-clay roads are the same
as earth roads, except that the sur
facing material has been selected care
fully with a view to increasing the
stability of the surface In both wet
and dry weather. They are satisfac
tory for a moderate traffic of horse
drawn vehicles and a light traffic of
automobiles. They seldom are satis
factory for even a light traffic of
heavy trucks unless the roadbed ma
terial ts very stable.
(c) 'Gravel roads, when well built
are satisfactory for a heavy traffic of
Brick or Concrete Roads Are Econom
ical If There ls Considerable Heavy
horse-drawn vehicles, a light traffic
of automobiles, and a light trafile of
(d) Water-bound macadam roads
are adapted to the same general char
acter of traffic as gravel roads.
(e) Surface-treated macadam roads
are adapted especially fur a heavy
traffic of automobiles. They also are
satisfactory for a light traffic of
horse-drawn vehicles and heavy
trucks. In all cases they require con
(f) Bituminous roads are suitable
for a heavy traffic of both automobiles
and horse-drawn vehicles and a mod
erate traffic of heavy tracks.
(g) Concrete roads are adapted to
the same general class of traffic as
bituminous roads, and generally are
capable of withstanding the traffic of
somewhat heavier vehicles without in
(h) Brick roods are adapted to the
same genoral class of traffic as con
crete roads. Either brick or concrete
roads, however, may be economical
for only moderate traffic where other
road-building materials are scarce.
COSTS LITTLE TO FIX ROADS
Expense of Beautifying Highway in
Front of Farm Buildings ls Com
It costs comparatively little to fix
up, or even beautify the mad in front
of the farm buildings-and how much
it helps the looks afcd general appear?
ance nf the place! It costs but little
more to have the road so far as it bor
ders tbi farm not only free from un
sightly weeds and rubbish, but Well
EVERY RIAN HAS K?S STAB
Influence for Good Luck Comes Only
With Use of Coin, to Aid Com
munication, French Say.
A superstition the Americans have
been taught to respect is that of the
coin and the star. The French say
that every man has his star, but he
can't secure its influence for good
luck unless he uses a coin to put him
in communication with it, observes a
Paris correspondent. If the proper
coin is used the star can be called
on to exercise its protecting virtue,
and once this has been established
there is no raison for the fortunate
soldier to worry further. The ques
tion in the minds of the Americans
is whether American coin will have
any influence with the stars.
American soldiers have discovered,
however, that th.2 most popular cus
tom with the French is that of rub
bing wine or brandy behind the ears.
To many Americans this may seem
an uncalled-for waste of good French
drink, but the French soldiers be
lieve implicitly in the practice.
The proper time to perform this
action, according .to the French, is j
just before going into battle, when j
the wine is passed around to bracb
the nerves of the soldiers. No mat
ter how careful the dispenser of the
wine or brandy is, there are always
a few drops dripping from the con
tainer. It is these that the soldiers
are anxious to catch. They hold
thc-ir hands underneath and when
the drops of wine or brandy fall on
them they quickly rub the fluid be
hind their ears. But few of them
ever rub it on their tongues. ... .
"Are you sure it's genuine ?"
"Every girl that's had it so far has
lad it tested."
EXECUTIVE ABILITY. ~~n
Executive ability is the ne plus
altra of a foreman of paramount
ability. The embodiment of one
K'ho can assume the onus of the
management, efficiently and system
atically, of an industry or any of
its departments. Executive ability
includes three fundamental quali
fication?, viz, administrative judg
ment, system and efficiency, and sci
entific technique. All are valuable
and necessary jn any particular in
dustry.-George W. Bowie, in In
NOT ABLE TO TELL.
Jiggs-How does the new fire en
gine in your town work.
Biggs-Haven't been able to prove
its efficiency yet. Every time we
had a fire the house has burned down
before we could get there.-People's
IN THESE OUR TIMES.
He (bitterly)-So I'm rejected,
She-Yes; but you may come up
for re-examination in six months'
ALSO WHEN SHE'S ABSENT.
'Ta, when do they call a woman
an old hen?"
"When she has become hopelessly
tilt in her way, my son."
He-That man is strong enough
to quell a riot.
She-And I'll bet he's too weak to
put. down a carpet.
Snake-Old Kangaroo looks kind
of seedy-sort of down and out.
Monk-Yes; on his last legs, as
"Why do vou call that actor a mis*
.Don't you see he is playing a
prooked part in straight drama?"
USE A STRAINER FOR CREAM
Will Break Up Possible Lumps and
Remove Curd Particles and
Any Foreign Matter.
(Prepared by the United States Depart
ment of Agriculture.)
When cream is rendy for churning
tho churn should be prepared. It
should be cleaned thoroughhly, rinsed
with scalding water, then thoroughly
rinsed and chilled with Tid water.
The butter ladles, paddies, worker
and printer should be treated In the
same way, and all but the worker
placed In a pull of cold wuter until
needed. If that Is not done, the butter
will stick to them.
Cream should be poured Into the
churn through a strainer to break up
possible lumps and to remove curd
Straining Cream Into Churn.
particles and any foreign matter that
may he in it In order to have the
necessary concussion the churn should
be only about one-third full. If too
full, the churning period is prolonged
and If the cream foams it nearly fills
the churn and prevents concussion. In
that case It Is usually necessary to re
move some of the cream in order to
obtain butter in a reasonable time.
Except late In the spring and early
lo the summer, when butter has a nat
urally high color, a small quantity of
butter color is usually added. In win
ter the quantity required to produce
a shade of yellow like the desirable
June color varies from about 20 to 35
drops per gallon of cream.
The color having been added to the
cream, the churn may be started at a
speed to produce the greatest concus
sion, which may be determined largely
by the sound. About 00 revolutions a
minute is the usual speed for the com
mon barrel type of churn. After a
few revolutions the churn should be
stopped, bottom up, and the cork re
moved to permit the escape of gas.
This is repeated two or three times in
the early stages of churning. At that
period cream produces a very liquid
sound and the glass In the thurn is
evenly covered with cream.
When chumlng ls naarly completed
there ls u noticeable difference in the
sound made by the cream, while on
the glass in the chum a thick, mushy
mass will appear, which occasionally
breaks away, leaving tin? glass clear.
At this point the butter granules are
just forming and tin? cream ls thick
und finely granular, like yellow corn
meal mush, with buttermilk separating
slightly from the tiny granules. The
churn should be revolved several
times, then stopped and the butter ex
amined in order to prevent overturn
ing. When the granules are the size
of grains of wheat the churning is
completed. To continue the churning
until the butter ls in large masses is
a bad practice, because lt incorporates
quantities of buttermilk which cannot
be washed out. The bad effect of too
much buttermilk in the butter has
been discussed already.
MILK IS LOST IN HANDLING
Simple Methods of Checking Bottles
and Method of Accounting Are
(Prepared by the United States Depart
ment of Agriculture.)
Much milk is lost in the process of
handling in milk plants, says the an
nual report of the bureau of animal
Industry, United States department of
agriculture. Economies effected in'
that particular by ono plant caused
a yearly saving of .$2,S30. Simple
methods of checking milk bottles, often
an important item of loss, and a
simplified system of accounting, have
been worked out and put into suc
cessful operation in a number of milk
plants by the bureau's investigators
of milk-plant management.
We invite the men and boys to
come in and see our light-weight
suits. Just what you need, to keep
See our beautiful assortment of
ECLIPSE Shirts-nothing better on
the market for the money.
Large stock of Light-Weight Un
derwear. All kinds to select from.
See our Crossett and Selz-Schwab
Oxfords for Men and Boys
Wmm & Ulitis
tual Insurance Asso
IN THE B
CoDTrirht 1909. bl C. C. Zio??crmap Co.-No. 5J
Property Insured $2,500,000.
ERE is no doubt about
money in the bank, it is
sure and positive. Maybe slow, but there
is the satisfaction that it is sure. Posi
tive in every way, both that it will grow,
and that it is safe.
BANK OF EDGEF?ELD
OFFICERS : J. C. Sheppard, President; B. E.TNicholson, vice-President
E. J. Mims, Cashier; J. H. Allen. Assistant Oashier.
DIRECTORS : J. C. Sheppard, Thos. H. Rainsford, John Rainsford, B. E
Nicholson, A.S. Tompkins. C. C. Fuller. E. J. Mims. J. H. Allen
OWEN BROS. MARBLE &
DEALERS IN EVERYTHING FOR
The largest and best equipped monu
mental mills in the Carolinas.
F. A. JOHNSON, Local Agent
WRITE OR CALL on the under
signed for any information yea may
desire about our plan of insurance.
We insure your property against
FIRE, WINDSTORM or LIGHT
and do so cheaper than any Com
pany in existence.
Remember, we are prepared to'
prove to you that ours is the safest
and cheapest plan of insurance
Our Association is now licensed
to write Insurance in the counties
of Abbeville, Greenwood, McCor
mick, Laurens and Edgefield.
The officers are: Gen. J. Fraser
Lyon, Presiden, Columbia, S. C.
J. R. Blake, Gen. Agt, Secy. &
Trea.s, Greenwood, S. C.
A. 0. Grant, Mt. Carmel, S. C.
J. M. Gambrell, Abbeville, S. C.
Jno. H. Childs, Bradley, S. C.
A. W. Youngblood, Hodges, S. C.
S. P. Morrah, Willington.S. C.
L. N. Chamberlain, McCormick S. C.
R. H. Nicholson, Edgefield, S. C.
F. L. Timmerman, Pln't Lane, S. C.
J. C. Martin, Princeton, S. C.
W. H. Wharton, Waterloo, S. C.
J. R. BIAKE,
Greenwood, S. C.
Your Patronage Solicited.
I desire to notify the public
that I have purchased Mr. J. D.
Kemp's interest in the repair
shop and grist mill and that I
will give my personal attention
to both. Send me your corn and
I will make first-class meal.
Give me a trial is all I ask.
ALBERT L. KEMP.
Edgefield, S. C. .
-F o r
J. T. HARLING
Bank of Edgefield, S. C.