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The Use of Service Flags
Who Is Entitled to Th
To the many questions aske(
eerning the service flags; the
gold, silver and blue, and tho?
titled to their use, informatio
been compiled, and sent out th
the courtesy of the woman's co
tee, Council of Defense, Georgi
The service flag, its origin, c
and proper display, has been
with by an official bulletin issue
cently by the government and
piled by Brigadier General Ni
"The service flag," explains
eral MacChesney, "is not an o
flag of the United States governi
but is recognized by the go
The flag was patented and de
ed by R. L. Queisser, formerly
tain of the 145th division, Ul
States infantry, retired, becaus
accident. Of the incident Ca]
Queisser himself relates:
"Shortly after April 6, 1917, \
war with Germany was declared,
thought came to me that both ol
sons would again be called out,
I wondered if I could not evolve s
sign or symbol by which it migh
known that they were away in t
country's service, and one w
would be to their mother a vis
sign of the sacrifice here sons \
making. The inspiration of the ser
flag came to me in that manner.'
The city council of Cleveland ;
sequently adopted the flag, pres
ing one to the family in that citj
every soldier and sailor entering
service. Captain Queisser pater
the flag in order that the distribu?
and quality of the flag might be pi
erly controlled and to keep it oui
the hands of irresponsible part
One-half of his royalties from
sale of the textile flags is given
the American Red Cross. '
The basic idea of the service ?
is that there shall be a star to rep
sent each person serving with the <
According to the congressio:
enactment, the terms "man" and "
listed man" means "person," whetl
male or female, whether enlisted, i
rolled or drafted into active serv
in the military or naval forces of 1
United States, and include non-co
missioned and petty officers, and rm
hers of training camps authorized
Those entitled to come under t
representation of the service flag a
described as: All officers and enlist
m?n of the regular army, the regul
army reserve, the officers' reser
corps; all officers and enlisted men
the national guard and national gua
reserve recognized by the militia b
reau of the war department; all foi
es raised under the act entitled, "J
act to authorize the president to i
crease temporarily the military e
tablishments of the United States
approved May 18, 1917 (selectr
service act) ; all officers and enlisti
men of the navy, the marine cor;
and the coast guard; all officers ar
enlisted men of the naval reser
militia, naval reserve force, marir
corps reserve and national naval vc
unteers recognized by the navy d
partment; all officers of the publ
health service detailed by the seer
tary of the treasury for duty with tl
army or navy;any of the personn
of the lighthouse service and cf tr
coast and geodetic survey transferre
by the president to the service an
jurisdiction of the war departmer
or the navy department; members c
the nurse corps, army field clerk:
field clerks quartermaster corps, ch
ilian clerks and employees on dut
with the military forces detailed fe
service abroad in accordance with th
provisions of existing law; and men
hers of any other body who have here
tofore or may hereafter become
part of the military or naval force
of the United States.
Pertaining to women and the serv
ice flags, General MacChesney's bul
letin states that a woman in activi
service in any department of milita
ry service is entitled to representa
tion under the service flag. Member
of the national guard, not federalize!
state militia or reserves, and hom<
guards, are not entitled to represen
tation under service flags.
Clearly persons in any of the re
serve forces are not entitled to rep
resentation until they are called inte
and enter upon active duty.
People rendering patriotic service
through organizations in war de
fense work are not entitled to repre
sentation under the service flag, ai
praiseworthy as such service is.
The use of the service flag is cus
tomarily limited to those who are
in the military or the naval service
of the United States, but no' objec
tion is seen to extending the honor
of representation thereon to those in
the service of our allies, at ieast
where they enlisted before our en
trance into the war or were so situ
ated that they ^ould not enter the
military service of their own coi
Non-Conibatant . Service.
Of those in non-combatant se
General MacChesney justly de<
The army and navy are vast o
izations and competent men ii
ministrative, supply, medical
other non-combatant services aj
less essential than in the comb;
service, the efficiency of whic
large measure depends upon the
quacy and efficiency of the forme
draw invidious distinctions bet
them in most cases is unjust. J
appreciate this more fully than
man in noncombatant service,
understands how others in the
tary service regard it as a hare
and misfortune not to have the oj
tunity of distinguishing thems<
at the front. It is believed thi
would be unjust, even if practica
determine who will protect from
ger throughout the war, to disre]
the sacrifice they are making
their willingness for any service,
to penalize them by such visible ?
ma as omission from the service
All those who serve in the zon<
the advance in the war will rec
the war-service chevrons as the
cial distinction for undergoing ?
hazards, and those not called u
to perform service there should
would seem, at least receive such
ognition as is given by represe]
tion on the service flag.
When flown from a home a 1
band, son, father, or brother r
properly be represented on the st
ice flag, even though he did not
tually leave the household directlj
go into service, but in case of ?
more distant relatives they should
tually be members of the househ
where the flag is displayed and h?
left for the service directly from si
household. Domestic employees, ro
ers or boarders should not be rep
When flown from a house of a cl
or society only those who are actu
ly members, active or honorary,
such club or society should be rep
sented. Stars should not be pla(
thereon for husbands, sons, fathi
or brothers, or other relatives
members merely because of such :
When flown by a business conce
it should represent only members
the firm and employees going diree
to the service from such place of bi
iness, with some continuous relati
existing and where there is an exp<
tation of return to the employmei
Since the stars should represent or
those who are an integral part of t
business or organization which fli
the flag, the service flag of the buil
ing should not contain stars to re
resent tenants who have gone in
the service from such building ai
more than the service flag of a rn?
cantile concern should represent i
customers, or a professional conce:
its clients, or of a hotel its guests.
Schools and Colleges.
Schools and colleges may prope
ly represent trustees, members <
the faculty, graduates and unde
The Stars-Blue, Gold and Silvei
A blue star is used to represe;
each person, man or woman, in tl
military or naval service of the Uni
Several methods have been suges
ed for representation of those inva
ided wounded or killed in servie
The following is believed to state tl
consensus of opinion and accepte
For those killed in action a gol
star will be substituted for the bk
star or superimposed on it in such
manner as to entirely cover it. Tl
idea of the gold star is that of tr.
honor and glory accorded the perso
for his supreme sacrifice in oiferin
up for his country his "last full mea:
ure of devotion," and the pride of th
family in it, rather than the sens
of personal loss, which would be re]
resented by a mourning symbol, eve
though white were to be used instea
For those wounded in action a si
ver star will be substituted for th
blue star or superimposed on it i
such manner as to entirely cover ii
Use of the star in this manner woul
be limited to those entitled to th
official wound chevron, which i
awarded to those receiving wound
in action with the enemy or disable^
by a gas attack, necessitating treat
ment by a medical officer.
Asked by a member of the coun
eil of Defense of the Minneapolis div
ision about the custom governing thi
silver star in its relation to woundei
and retired men. General MacChes
ney has answered:
"We understand that it has beei
customary to represent with a silve]
star men who have been wounded oi
invalided home but are still in the
service, but do not know whether 01
not such has been practiced with ref
erence to men who have been dis
charged from the service. However
it seems to me that your suggestior
is a good one and I see no reasor
why the silver star should not be usec
for all those who have been in active
Service and have been discharged be
cause of disability acquired in the
service of their country."
Gift of the Red Cross.
After a conference on the subjeet
between the woman's committee,
Council of National Defense, and the
American Red Cross, indorsed by the
president of the United States, it has
been recommended to the people of
the United States that the wearing of
black brazzard with a gold star, on
the arm, be substituted for mourning
by the relatives of those soldiers and
sailors who have lost their lives in
Accordingly, there has been pub
lished and widely circulated a state
ment signed by Dr. Anna Shaw, of
the Woman'? committee, Council of
National Defense, and Henry P. Dav
ison, of the American Red Cross, as
"In order to facilitate the adop
tion of the brassard, it has seemed
to the Woman's committee that the
chapters of the Red Cross are espec
ially well equipped to prepare them,
and the committee has, therefore, re
quested these chapters, through the
the chairman of the war council of
the American Red Cross to furnish
the brassards to those who have the
right to wear them, either of black
broadcloth or of thin silk elastic, ac
cording to the texture of the garment
with which it will be worn. To this
band, the regulation military star,
fifteen-sixteenths of an inch, em
broidered in gold thread, shall be ap
plied by hand. It is the understand
ing that the brassard and star will be
furnished without charge to the wid
ow and the parents cf the soldier or
sailor. To other members of the fam
ily, the brassard will be furnished at
"This would not imply any exclu
sive right to prepare the brassard,
but would merely be such a sympa
thetic service as the members of the
Red Cross delight to render and it
would be understood by the local
units of the Woman's committee that
this action is a joint one between
their organization and the American
Lumber for Sale
We have lumber of all kinds on
hand at our mill. Bills cut to or
der from a Rood grade of yellow
W. M. RANSON,
JNO. R. BRYAN,
Johnston, S. C.,
I take this?means of letting the
people know that I have re-opened
my pressing club, and will appre
ciate their patronage. I am better
prepared than ever to clean and
press all kinds of garments, both
for ladies and gentlemen. All work
guaranteed. Let me know when
you have work and I will send for
I it and make prompt delivery.
Sheppard Building Down Stairs
FOR SALE-A 309 Acre
well improved, farm near
Trenton, on the Augusta Road.
Well watered, well improved,
Splendid dwelling, barns,
Fine crops of cotton, corn,
wheat, oats this year. Let me
drive you over the very best
farm available. Hurry!
E. J. NORRIS, *
Real Estate and Ins.
Edgefield, S. C.
Invigorating to the Pale and Sickly
The Old Standard general strengthening tonic.
GROVE'S TASTELESS chill TONIC, drives out
Mnlarin.enriches the blood ,nnd builds up the sys
1 t<"n. A true tonic. Fnr nriults antj, childi en. Sf*'
Every Department Well
We placed large orders early for the several departments on our second floor and
invite our friends, the ladies especially, to inspect these attractive goods.
We are showing some good values in bed-room suits. Also see our sideboards,
hat-racks, sofas, dining tables and china closets. A beautiful assortment of rockers to
select from. .
We have a large stock of iron and enameled beds and the best bed springs on the
market. A large stock of cotton and felt mattresses.
We extend a special invitation to the ladies to come and see our beautiful assort
ment of rugs and art squares. Many attractive designs at very reasonable prices.
We have bought a large stock of stoves, ranges and heaters. Now is the time to
discard your old one and purchase a new one.
We were never better supplied than now to fill the needs of our customers in har
ness, bridles and saddles. Large assortment to select from.
Our undertaker's department is well supplied with coffins and caskets of all sizes
and prices. A share of your patronage is solicited. Our hearse responds to all calls
On our first floor will be found a large stock of heavy
groceries and plantation supplies. We buy in large
quantities and can make very satisfactory prices.
Large shipment of Texas oats for seed-no better quality on the market. Let us
fill your orders.
Edgefield Mercantile Company
My War . Saving
you can't see.
Then see me.
Geo. F. Minis,
Edgefield, S. C.
B. B. BUSSELL, JR.
R. E. ALLEN
RUSSELL & ALLEN
857, 859 and 861 Reynolds Street
Bonded Warehouse. Liberal advances on cotton in
storage. Correspondence invited^and consignments
We desire to announce to our Edgefield friends that we are well supplied in every
department to supply their needs.
Have a Large Stoek of Plows and Harrows
Just what you need for turning your land in the fall.
Our Stock of Harness, Saddles and Bridles is Complete
Anything you want in harness, wagon or buggy harnfess. single or double, we have
it-WITH PRICES RIGHT. I
Large stock of NAILS and all kinds of Builders' Supplies. If you need shop tools of
all kinds come to us. Poultry and pasture fence wire all widths.
Large stock of carriage and wagon material. The best roofing on the market.
Shotguns, loaded shells and cartrides of all kinds. If we have not in stock what you
need we will order it for you at once.
Come in to see us when in town. Mr. J. H. P. Roper is with us and will give his
friends a cordial greecing.
Whittle & Plunkett
1289 Broad street