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LIGHT DERIVED FROM STARS
Illumination Far Greater Than Superfl
, cia! Observation Would Lead
i >, " One to Believe.
Most of the light In the sky, even
'at a station far removed from all
sources of artificial Illumination, comes
from the multitude of telescopic stars,
too faint for the eye to see, but so
numerous that, taken all together, they
send us far more light than those
which we can discern individually.
There ls USU?I -perhaps always
present in addition, some light origin
ating on the earth's atmosphere which,
from the presence in Its spectrum of
the bright line characteristic of the au
rora, betrays its place of origin.
"When we are out in the open on a
clear, starry night," explains Henry
(Norris Russell, Ph. D., in Scientific
American, "we hardly realize how
strong this illumlnatioa Is-It ls
cuite enough to find one's way by
across open country. But when once
:we get a glimpse of the sky through
an opening between thick trees, we
see at once that, even on a brilliant,
moonless night, when the sky, as we
look sharp at lt, seems like black vel
vet powdered over with sparkling
points, the background is really any
thing but dark.
"Now, there can be no doubt that
the light-one might almost say the
glare-of this general illumination of
the sky drowns out the fainter stars.
"To give an illustration from com
mon experience, whenever we see a
star through a little gap In the leafage
of a tree, upon the dark background,
lt looks much brighter than ordinary
not because it has changed at all, but
on account of the greater contrast
with the blackness surrounding it.
"That the human eye can actually
detect exceedingly faint illumination
is confirmed by experiments upon the
visibility of little disks of white card
board mounted on a black background,
and observed in a dark roora by the
light of a single star (usually Sirius)
shining through a small opening in a
HAD MADE ITS ACQUAINTANCE
Old Jed Knew Whereof He Spoke
When He Warned Converts of
What Awaited Them.
He was one of the perpetual con
verts to religion, that are so common
In some country districts. Whenever
a minister wished to hold a revival
meeting in his church he was always
certain of obtaining one reliable con
vert, old Jed, who'd ''got religion" so
often his friends had lost count of the
times. His custom was to be "convert
ed" at every convenient revival meeting
in proper season, and slide backward
every summer in order to have his sys
tem thoroughly prepared for the next
so.ison of revivals.
Not long ago the pastor of a coum
try church near Jed's home was bap
tizing in the river a number of con
verts, among them Jed, who was the
first to be led into the wnter.
As Jed was dragged bodily up from
the river after the ceremony he was
seen to be almost in a state of collapse,
and was taken to the bank with some
difficulty, where he reclined limply as
the minister prepared to lead the next
convert into the river. However, a
great light dawned on the audience
gathered on shore as to what had hap
pened to Jed, when he raised up on one
elbow just as the minister reached the
water's edge with the second subject for
baptism, and shouted out, querulously :
"Hey, parson, look out! There's a
h-of a big rock down there!"-In
"Glory" of Old Sailing Days.
Looking forward to a revival of
American shipping under new condi
tions, one can cheerfully enough accept
the opinion of a veteran seamnn. talk
ing to a young reporter, that the
"glory" of the old sailing days is much
:Overrated. The billowing canvas was
impressive; but the facts of the case,
confides this mariner, are that the
sailors had to live in quarters that
were badly ventilated, If ventilated at
all, badly lighted and cramped almost
beyond endurance. A steady diet of
hardtack and "salt horse" mitigated
the glory of the sea, while chanteys,
although they helped things along,
were often compulsory, and little joy
to the sailor man who was singing to
order.-Christian Science Monitor.
In Bad Shape.
Often at Inspections it is customary
.for officers to pass by the .sergeants,
morely giving their equipment a cas
.ual glance, assuming, no doubt, that
as they are more experienced soldiers
than the privates, their equipment is
in proper condition. As a result of
this it sometimes happens that the
sergeants allow their rifles to get in
rather poor shape. That some offi
cers are alive to this is shown by a
young second lieutenant, who, after
examining a particularly dirty rifle,
handed it back to the-luckless private,
remarking disgustedly: "Your rifle
is dirty enough to be a sergeant's."
Even the children are beginning to
talk motor jargon. "Look, motlier."
said a little fellow, pointing to a hob
in his stocking. "I've had a blowout.'
A little girl being asked how she man
aged to catch a chicken, replied: "i
just runned h'm till his gas gave -ou:
an' then I picked him up."
A third youngster who was usually
slow in obeying his mot ber's call cami
quickly enough when she called him tr
dinner. 'Cn lier pointing this fact otu
to him, ne said: "Dh. I always chang'
to high when 1 come to meals."-Bos
Treat Your Own Posts
The Farm.-Last From
15 to 20 Years.
Clemson College.-With the d<
opment of our livestock industry
the resulting increased need for
turee, fencing becomes an impor
problem. A troublesome phase
this problem is lasting fence pi
Long-lived fence posts can easilj
made from most of the common ii
ior -woods by a simple preserva
treatment on the farm. Prop
creosoted, these non-lasting w<
make posts good for 15 to 20 ye
says W. R. Mattoon. Extension 1
cialists m Forestry.
Kinds of Wood to Use.
Most of our common woods rea
take in creosote, a product of the
filiation of coal -which makes w
fiber very resistant to fungi, or rot,
to practically all forms o? animal
which injure wood. Sap pine,
or red maple, black gum, sweet g
beech, red and black oaks, cot
wood, willow, the poplars, are g
examples of non-lasting woods wt
are easily treated, the wood becom
the container for the pr?servai
fluid. Because of cross band's of
sue of the various, white oaks, t
arc unsuitable for treating. The m
lasting woods (black'locust, red ce<
mulberry, chestnut, black wall
osage orange) do not justify the
pense of treating for the slightly
creased lasting qualities.
Woods differ in checking or ST
ting when in ordinary use as fe:
posts. This is important, since si
openings allow the entrance of wo
rotting fungi to the inner portions
the untreated wood. For exam]
black gum, due to its interlock
twisted fiber, has proved an exce
ingly satisfactory wood for treatme
The bay of the southern swan
"checks" badly, giving poor rest
even in the first 5 to 8 years foll<
Method of Treating.
Posts 3 to 4 inches in diameter i
sufficiently strong for lijie pos
Small posts require less creosote, a
last practically as long as large on
Round posts are better for treati
than split posts.
It is very important to have t
wood thoroughly seasoned. The poi
should be cut, completely peeled, a
open piled in a dry situation well i
posed to sun and wind. Peeling
most easily done in the spring s<
son. always immediately after the tr
is felled, before cutting it up into pc
lengths. Patches of the thin inn
bark, if left, retard or prevent local
the desired impregnation of the wo
with the preservative liquid. A spa
forms one of the best tools for pe
ing. In late fall and early wint<
especially in dry situations, it may
1 necessary to use an ordinary dn
Tops of the posts should be bevel
to shed rain water. Posts should
cut to allow only about 3 inches abo'
the top wire. Posts with long to
.are unsightly and more costly
wood used and treatment. A Hg
crosscut saw avoids waste in cho
ping, and makes smoother ends.
A satisfactory treating equipme:
for farm use consists of one cylindi
cal galvanized steel tank 3 feet i
diameter by 4 feet high, and one hoi
zontal rectangular steel tank 3 by
feet. The treatment consists of soa'
ing the butts in hot creosote (aboi
200 to 215 degrees F.) for one to tw
hours, depending upon the density <
the wood and time required to get
deep penetration of the creosote, an
then immersing the. whole post in
"cold" bath, at a temperature of S
to 110 degrees F.
The butts should be treated for
height of one foot above the groun
line. The tops thus get only a sha
low treatment but sufficient t
make them last as long as the butt:
Cost of Treatment
A gallon of creosote will treat :
posts, 3 to 4 inches across the top, o;
2 posts 4 to 5 inches. In ordin?r:
times a high grade of creosote cai
be purchased for 15 to 20 cents pe:
gallon in barrel lots delivered. Wai
time made it cost from 30 to 35 cents
Depending upon the size of the post
and price of creosote, this is a cos?
for creosote of from 5 to 15 cents per
post, or average of 10 cents. Othei
items of cost for the peel'1'! post
should not be over 5 cents apiece,
and for overhead charge on equip
ment about 2 cents, or rf* labor foi
treating the post is included about 3
cents, bringing the total cost to an
average of about 20 cents. This
would fall to about 15 cents under or
dinary pre-war prices for material and
But the true cost of fence posts on,
the farm should be reckoned in terms
of cost of the post plus cost of labor
in replacement. If treated posts ara
good for 15 years, at least two sets
of ordinary untreated posts and two
renewal operations are eliminated.
Three complete settings of untreated
posts would certainly brc very consid
erably more expensive than one oper
ation with treated posts.
The treating of fence posts jointly
by several farmers in a community af
fords one of the best forms of cr:
operative work possible.
tual Insurance Asso
(..??hKft?~, ?~!~^ . ..***'*
Property Insured $4,268,300.
WRITE OR CALL on the under
signed for any information yon maj
desire about our plan of insurance.
We insure your property against
FIRE, WINDSTORM or LIGHT
and do so cheaper than any Com
pany in existence.
Remember, we are prepared te
prove to you that ours is the safest
and cheapest plan of insurance
Our Association is now licensed
to write Insurance in the counties
of Abbeville, Greenwood, McCor
mick, Edgefield, Laurens, Saluda,
Richland, Lexington, Calhoun and
The officers are: Gen. J. Frasei
Lyon, President, Columbia S. C.,
J. R. Blake, Gen. Agent, Secty. and
Treas., Greenwood,. S. C.
Ai O. Grant, Mt. Carmel, S. C.
J. M. Gambrell, Abbeville, S. C.
J. R. Blake, Greenwood, S. C.
A. W. Youngblood, Hodges, S. C.
R. H. Nicholson, Edgefield, S. C.
J. Fraser Lyon, Columbia, S. C..
W. C. Bates, Batesburg, S .C.
W. H. Wharton, Waterloo, S. C.
J. R. BLAKE,
Greenwood, S. C.
February 1st, 1919.
State of South Carolina,
County of Edgefield,
Ri Court of Common Pleas.
J. W. Stewart and L. S. Kernaghan,
partners in trade under the style
of Stewart and Kernaghan-Plain
tiffs-against A. C. Mayson-De
(To the Defendant Above Named.)
You are hereby summoned and re
quired to answer the Complaint in
this action, of which a copy is here
with served upon you and to serve a
copy of your answer to the said com
plaint on the subscriber at his office,
Edgefield, S. C. within twenty days af
ter the service hereof exclusive of the
day of service, and if you fail to ans
wer the complaint within the time a
foresaid, the Plaintiffs in this action
will apply to the court for the relief
demanded in the complaint.
N. G. EVANS,
March 26, 1919.
?To A. C. Mayson, non-resident De
You Will Please Take Notice That
the Summons and Complaint in this
action was filed in the office of Clerk
of Court of Edgefield County, S. C.,
on the 27th day of March, 1919.
N. G. EVANS,
April 23, 19}9.
?vV?enever Voa Need a General Tonic
Take G rc ve's
The Old Standard Grove's Tasteless
Chill Tonic is equally valuable as a
General Tonic because it contains the
well known tonic properties of QUININE
and IRON. It acts on the Liver, Drives
out Malaria, Enriches the Blood and
Builds up the Whole System. SO cents.
FROM THE Al
Where we will be pleased to see our M
TOM HARRIS, E. M. HEA
h Her Mother's Home, Says This
Georgia Lady, Regarding Black
Draught Relief From Head
ache, Malaria, Chills, Etc
Rlnggold, Ga,- Mrs. Chas Gaston,
bf this place, -writes: "I am a user
of Thedford's Black-Draught; In fact,
lt was one of our family medicines.
Also in my mother's home, when I
was a child. When any of ns child
ren complained of headache, usually
caused by constipation, she gave ns
a dose of Black-Draught, which would
rectify the trouble. Often In the
Spring, we would have malaria and
chills, or troubles of this kind, we
would take Black-Draught pretty reg
ular until the liver acted well, and
we would soon be np and around
again. "We would not be without it,
for lt certainly has saved us lots of
doctor bills. Just a dose of Black
Draught when not so well saves a
lot of days In bed."
Thedford's Black-Draught has been
In nae for many years In the treat
ment of stomach, liver and bowel
troubles, and the popularity which it
now enjoys Is proof of its merit
If your liver Is not doing Its duty,
you will suffer from such disagree
able symptoms as headache, bilious?
ness, constipation, indigestion, etc,
and unless something ls done, serious
trouble may result
Thedford's Black-Draught has been
found a valuable remedy for these
troubles. It Is purely vegetable, and
acts in a prompt and natural way,
regr. ?ting the liver to its proper
fun riions and cleansing the bowels of
impurities. Try it Insita on Thed
ford's, the original and genuine. E 78
I take this'meana of letting the
people know that I have re-opened
my pressing club, and will appre
ciate their patronage. I am better
prepared than ever to* clean and
press all kinds'?of garments, both
for ladies and gentlemen. All work
guaranteed. Let me know when
you have work and I will send for
it and make prompt delivery.
Sheppard Building Down Stairs
FOR SALE: Sows and gilts ready
bred. Apply to
J. E. MIMS.
FOR SALE: Plants have been in
spected. Ready to ship. Porto Rico,
Jerusalem, Triumph, and Pumpkin
Yams at $2.00 per thousand.
E. A. Williams,
FOR SALE: Nineteen thorough
bred 0. I. C. pigs, now r?ady for de
livery. Apply to
J. E. MIMS.
Cow Peas Wanted.
Paying highest prices of season.
Will buy one sack to carload. Write,
wire or 'phone us what you have.
WALTON & CO.,
FOR SALE: One Sterling Thrash
er mounted on trucks for $300.00.
Guaranteed to be in first class condi
tion. Suitable for six-horse power en
STEWART & KERNAGHAN.
LBION HOTEL 4
G STAG .
[ANY FRIENDS and CUSTOMERS
THCOCK, R. DUERRELL
Market and Grocery
WHAT I BUY:
Cows, Hogs, Hides and Country Produce.
WHAT I SELL:
Fresh Meats, Hams, Sausage, Groceries,
Canned Goods and everything carried
in Fancy Groceries.
I buy and butcher my own cattle and want to keep a lot on feed
BRING ME YOUR COWS
Edmund's Market and Grocery
Buy Flour IMow
AND SAVE MONEY
To the People of Edgefield County :
Unless you want to pay $15 per
barrel for flour in less than 30
days,- you had better come and
buy. If you don't want to buy
from me, you had better buy
from somebody else. Flour will
be higher and higher until the
new wheat crow is on the market
? ?) W? L n ?j ?
SOME STRIKE IT RICH
BUTA SURE WAY IS
TO PUTA UT
IN THE BAN
Cooiilf ht 1909. b? C. E. Zi?n??in?P Co.-No. 51
THERE is no doubt about
money in the bank, it is
sure and positive. Maybe slow,*but there
is the satisfaction that it is sure. Posi
tive in every way, both that it will grow,
and that it is safe.
BANK OF EDGEFIELD
OFFICERS : J. C. Sheppard, President; A. S. Tompkins, vice-President;
E. J. Mims, Cashier; J. H. Allen. Assistant Oashier.
DIRECTORS : J. C. Sheppard, Thos. H. Rainsford, John Ransford, M. C.
Parker, A.S. Tompkins. C. C. Fuller. E. J. Mims. J. H. Allen
United States Administration
Schedule of trains arriving and departing from
6:55 a. m....Trenton and Columbia..._;_9:10 a. m.
8:15 a. ra_Trenton and Augusta_7:50 a. m.
10:40 a. m.Trenton, Aiken, Augusta, Columbia,
Washington and New York_.2:00?p. m.
7:30 p. m._.Trenton, Columbia and Augusta.9:00 p. m.
For additional information communicate with
J. A. TOWNSEND, Agent, /
Edgefield, S. C.