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The Newberry herald. (Newberry, S.C.) 1865-1884, April 18, 1866, Image 1

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T.ii. GENEKER
TERME-$1,50 FOR STX) q 4 C4. I. GRENEKER.
MONTIIS, IN ADVANCE..
VOLUME IL NEWBERRY S. C. WEDNESDAY, APRIL 18, 1800. NUMBER 16.
6-*
THE HERALD
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kPayment required invariab?y 'En avaiee.)
Advertiseme-ts4%serted at 1 ,50 per: quare, for
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-tnd Communications of persoual interest charged
'as advertisements.
-The Repeal of all Test Oatlis a Require
ment of Peace.
The experience of mankind is againtt cither
the policy or wisdom of test oaths. They ire
inconsistent witn the existence of Republican
institutions. They are utterly opposed to ti
spirit or legislation of a free people. They
are the emblcms of vengeance. They can
scarcely be regarded as among the synWols of
liberty.
It is, therefore, with pleasure that we reco, d
the efforts of the lion. W. E. Finck, one of
the representatives from the State of Ohio, in
favor of their repeal. All honor to those
statesmen, of every section, who, amid the
clamor and fanaticism of the present, remain
firm in their adherence to the Constitution
and to the great cause of public right. Rising
supe:ior to the madness of the hour, they
would still preserve the freedom of the coun
try, in deed as well as in name. They have
nut yielded to the domination of a partizan
ship, which would, in the blindness of its fury,
sweep away every landmark ofjustice and ac
customed law. Fettered as the South now is,
her people ca-: do but little more than render
to the President and all true lovers of their
country the honest ttibute of their patriotic
judgment.
Having a few days since briefly alluded to
the unconstitutionality of these oaths, wIe
would now say a few words in reference to
their inexpediency.
Their effect certainly is neither to harmo
nize the-country or to promote kind and fra
ternal relations between the different States.
Their result is to shut out nearly the w'-)c
of the people of eleven of the Commonwenhos
from any practical participation in the affairs
of the Government.
Mr. Finck thur-clearly illustrates their log
ic : "Now what is our duty to the people of
the South? Is it to crush them, and while
we impose upon them the Lurdei;s of Govern
rnent exclude them from its benefits I It is
to seek by our legislation to degrade trem
and make them outlaws ? We have determ
ined that they shall remain with us, citizens
of the sanfe conrmon government. Shall they
'remain with us as our eqduls or not?
"I want 1hem to return to their full and
,complete allegiance to the Constitution, not
as an inferior or degraded people, bul in their
true manhood, as the equal" oijthe people of
-every otAer SAtte We must have contidence
in them, They and their children are des
tinedl to lire with us andl our chilren for gen
-erations to comne. It is best thait we shouldI
live together on terms of friendship and equal
ity."
T~he continuance of these oaths upon the
:statute books is contrary to the amnesty
which has been granted by the Executive.
The power for this prerogative is beyond
the authority or control of Congret-s. It is
-derived from the Constitution it>elf. The see
ond Section of the second Article vests in the
President the power to grant pardons and re
prieves for otfences against the United State.
The grant is without limit or qualification,
'with the single exception of cases of impeach
-ment. Not only so, but Congress itself has
recognized the wisdom of this provision of thec
organic law, and committed itself in favor of
the policy pursued by the President in refer
ence to this matter.
By its enactment of the 17th July, 1S62, it
declared that the President wvas thereby an
'thorized, at any time thereafter, by p)roclaa
-tion to extend to all persons who may have
.participated in the existing rebellion, in any
-State or part thereof, par-don and amnesty,
with such exceptions ar.d at such time and on
-such conditions as he may deem expedient for
-the publbe welfare.
In pursuance, therefore, of the Constitution
itself, and with the sanction of Congress ex
plicitly upon the record, the President, on the
29th of May last, did by proceamation an
-nounce his terms of complete amnesty, which
-have been accepted and complied with by the
people of the South.
The necessary result is that they are there
by restored to as comnplete anfd entere an era -
-Iy~ with thepeo@ple (qTeVery othecr Maite as, if
thwtar had nerer occurrd, or any czil strug
ple takeniplace. The amnesty sweeps away
every statute of disability. It destroys not
-enly every pretext. but every weapon of war,
Whethteron the field or in' legislation.
The amnesty has bee?n acceded to. It is -
-icacious and operative. Congress has, there
yore, no more legal authority to keep up the
-semblance of a war by hostile statutes than it
would by embattled hosts. The strife is over.
'4t shouldi be so -recogn ized by every depart
enent of the Government. And that this view
4s correct is apparent if we consider the effect
'of the amnesty proelhimned by' the President.
Lilly in his abridgmnent,thus states the law:
-"A pardon," says he, "discharges not only the
opunishment which was to have been inflicted
upon the person that did comnmit the offence
pardoned, but also the guilt of the offenhce it
-self. It p,ardons the fault so clea'riy that in
the eye of the la1w the offender i- as ianuocnt as
if he had never committed the orN,ee."
So, too, Bacon, in his abridgement, im dis
-cussirig this question, says: "It was formerly
'doubted whether a pardon could do more than
take away the punishment, leaving the crime
and its disabling consequ~ences removed. But
it is now settled that a pardon, whether uy
the King of- by Act of Parliamnt, rewa'res
not only the pu~nish?nent, it all the leg-il die
whilities conseq ent on the crime"
A test oath which excludes from ofmie, on
secount of voluntary participation in the re
cent civil contest, certainly is a "disabling
consequence" of that participation. To al
lege, there fore, that the amnesty of the Presi
dei t does not, by its force and effect,remove this
takes away the punishment it sti es tile
disabling consequece's of in'e ali"geA ofTence
Operative. But this is Co!trary to the decla
rations of the law. This annouces that the
effect of the amniretsty is f(,u('rC a ep / t/
],I4InI 7~i -*, ba it 4 ,eV
bilitic.. The statement of the propositiou is
its own (emonstration
And to the same purport are all the anuthori
ties. Bishop, in his celhrated treatise on
the criminal law, says "Tie effect of a full
pardon is to absruve the party fromn Ill the le
gal conseqluences of hiis crine an his con
viction, direct and collateral, including the
punishmnent, whe her of impiisonmient, pec
niary penaity, or whatever the law else pr:o
vides."
In fact, as Bac .n states in another part of
.i rdement, nardon so far clears a party
of all co'sequenrces of ii. chargd e: loffenlce &/
he wy ie a aMot a;&4<myone ?!i
(Adl (trav<ml cu !! him & traWr "- Ji .
And tho reason of tis primciple is thus clearly
set forth: "jr. j"naa. i.lc 1 i
(rc, f iic;r ma/n.
And vet, in vio a'ion of iis confit withh the
terms of the oath prescbid iy the nsti u
tion, in violation f tihe fact ofita being a
war mcasure, in - ichitinl of its iconsi>tener
with tihe provi:.iol.s ofthe amnimest if the Pres
ideAnt, the test owah of i 2 is stil unrepealel,
and. in) fact is eisnr Ceo withincreased averity
ard stri: gvne We trw-t that a wiser and
m14re enlightvned spi'it will prevail, and that
the full orb b i complete 1eac n ill smon
dawn upon every portion a-nd section of the
country.
HaIpton. ;o;1ds Conferenc,.
OFFICIAL ACCOUNT OF IT Fn.oM SECRLTAn-Y SEVA !D.
DE.mRT-NT or S1Arr, {
W"_AF:mTN(;ToN, Feb :nary 7, 1663.
M. SEWAO TO Mi. ADAMS.
Si:-It is a truismll that in times of peace
there are a%va!is i.ttrs of war. o S'on a
a war be-gins thea are iizens who ina
tiently demind nepoi::hins fAr Imace he
advointes fur war, %Rver an agitatir lq -
sorter, generally pin thidr fAn M Lnd,
tough the a decar is not unfrm-y
unne * Zsay ua nie So ec c itam1,wS
in timle (f wa'r, im ly b ing bont an
aba9i-nment of the Co W-Smetiines with
out scmuring the advantuges which werW or igi
nlliy exieted froml 0he n t
The agitators for arl. inl Limc of pence, anrl
fr peace in time (fwr are not nece"mai m.,r
perhaps ordina ioy, unpattintic in thwir pur
p-tes and motivks. RuiTs alone eternr
whether tiey arc wise or u we. The treaty
of peace signed at Gua:bupe Hid&o vas.
secured by an irregular 11nHtKIn under the
ban of the Gover!rmeint. Soiie of the et:t
whicb have been rmadle to bring about n Pt
tions with a view to end our civil war are
known to the whole world, because thev have
mployed fvreign as well as domietic agents:
others with whom you have had to deal conii
dentially, are known to yorslf, a ugh
they have nut publicly t ran i red ,h e Cf
forts have occurred here, v hich are known
oly to the persons actualn movi.; in thm
aNd to this Governmint. I am now- t) pv
vou fr your inforn:ation an account of an A
fair of tie same zera in chnarntr whL; re
cently' r-eceived much~l at tt h*, an
wicia dloubtless will excite imp:yl Ior a.
A fewa days ago, Fr anceis P. !EXr, 1g , of
Maryland, Cbtai ed foman thre PreVidt a sha-~iI
pe I ave to pas thrrouigh .i ur iitar ies,
without de-tinrite views ktnowrn to t he Govern- l
meat. Mr. Blair vi>ited Richnd, Cnd on
his return hre shrowed to) thle Presil en t a letter
which Jefersoni Davis had w: it ten to Mr.
Blair, in which(1 Davis wrote that Mr. Blair was
at liberty to say to President Lmeoln that
Davis was now, a:; he had always beenr, wil
lig to send Conarni.rioners, if assuredl tihey
would be received, or to receive any that
should be senrt; that he was not disposed to
find obstacles in farms. lie would send.Comn
msioers to confer wvith the Pre-ide-nt, with
a viewa to the restoration of pearce bretweecn the
two countries, if hre could1 be assucred they
would be received. The Pr'esident, therecupon,
on the 18th of Janurary-, addr'essed a note to Mr.
Blanr, in which the Preside-nt, after rck nowlI
edgng that hre had read tihe note of Mr. I )vis,
sad he was, iS, and ahvways should be, wil!ing
to receive any agent that Mr. Davis, or any
other irnfluerntiai person, now actually resist
ig the authority of thne 'Governmrent, nugnft
send to confer informally with the President
with a view to the restoration of p~-ect to theo
people four -corm in aCounrt ry. Mr. Ei viie
Richmond with iris lctte-r, and thren cam b ck;
again to Washington. Un the 29th in tnt
we were advise I fron: the Camp ofL Liuterat
General Grant that A lexanrrrc H.~ ' Stepens,
R. M. TI. H unter and dohn A. Campbell were
appyir;g or leave to pass thrna th linaes
to Washington as P'e:.-e Coimm .nr to
confer with the Pt esident. Thney were per
mitted by te L"Ieu.teniant-Gieneri'l to Ccno to
is hreadquarters, to wait tInere thre c tmn of
the President ljorhti E';k.rt was se-nt dowv n
to meet tire prt from Rich~mm.nd at (Gene-"al
Gran's hcaiqu rteirs The una-r was~ nir-vt
d to deliver tn themv a1 copy of the P re idt's
!ter to Mr. lar. with a note to be aIrs
to thnem tani nigned by' the h- j:r, Iinxwhich
thevy n'ere di'-ctlyv irrn med that if threy
should be allowedU to) pss'r lines they would
be unrderst.ood as coing for arn informal) e-n
ference upon thre basis of rhe afir>-namred ister
of the 18thc of donuairy to Mr'. Blair. If tin-y
should express thleir asenOt to tis condition
in writing, then Major Eckert was directed to
give themt safe conduct to Fortress Monroe,
whe-p a person corning from tire President
would mueet them., It beCing thotughit proha
be, front a report of their conversation mitni
Lieuteant-Geuneral GIrant, thant tire Ric hmond
party w ould in the mranner pr-escribed accept
the -condition mentiorred, the Secretary of
State wvas chrarged by the Presideirt with tihe
duty of repr-esenting this Goverrnent at th-n
expectedl informal conrferencre.
Thre Secretary arrivedl at F'ortress Monroe
on the nigh t of the 1st day of Februrary-.
Major Ecker t met hn rthtie morning of tire
2d of February with the infrmration thrat thne
per'sons who had come fromr Rich Iand Ihad
rot accepted in writing tire conurron up
on which he was5 allowed to give them Con11
dnet to Fo'rtress. Monroe. Th .iO jor had
given the same information bry te'negraphI to
the Presidenrt at \VMshmgton. On receiv
in' thris infoirmationl, the Pr-esidlenit pnrepme CI a
t'legramn liecting the Secretary to) return to
w asrgnnt Teecerwas preparimg.
at u.C Same mlomnent, t oo So, ;ithout %Vnilm"
for i-tructiions from the Prie tnt. It at
atlhed to the Srtary of WV-Ir. as v:cIl as to
the Secrta'y of Stote that the rarty ft om
Rihmond hltad recon-idered1 ando acce.pteu tne
oididIs tendered them through Mijor Eck
e: t, aid General Grant urgently ndvikd the
Preident to confer in per:on ith the Rich
L~Wer the circum.tances the Secretary,
by the. Presi(entts irtion, remained at
1 urtrcss Monr> aN t President joined
hi C tr on the !iKht of Ite 1d of Flruary
The Richiond pa Q was brought down the
jan:vs Nie in I a MYite tates Steam trans
)poIt durn1g te day, and thu trainsport was
an chore tat amtonl11 Ros.
On temoringof, J thePrto et
tt c rccived Messrs.
attephens u r aId!( phe!!, on boild the
Uite t1atesL e:u inmsport River Que
in laimpton Zo:aIs. Thii conference was ailto
gether inUforima. There was no attenuance of
ecrtaries, elikS. er other witnnkS.e. Noth
i was viitten or hra e. The conversation,
1t mh ern':.and I) ve, was calm, and court
couu, nid kind kon Wtir sides. The Hichnond
pant 'pr'ached the discu.,ion raitier ndi
c ti d, a a t 1no iiC 6id tIL CithCr ma1-1ke
t Avgo:i demnds er rtdur rmial stipla
tns, or aboluts refs. N vertheless; du'
ring the cnk'rece, which lafed four hours,
the several points vt !ue betwe on the Govern
imnt oi the isurgWs wveze d Yis-tictly raised
and din.ed fily, Citeig(e.nt 1v and in an
aniable spr What the insurpgent party
seomd chielAy to fvor was a postponement
of the qUi' of siaction opn whSich.I the
war is wagd, and a mt directio in of the
el01rts 01 (ACrnmlit ;s we ULl as those of tlhe'
;uvin gent.s to somne (Ntliisic policy Or Sche
fir a s i, during which passion unight be
exzpected to subid, :nd the arnies to be re
diiced, id trade :,nd inteutse between the
1Wp1 ' ith sO OCt 'itns resum'e1d. It was 1' SU
. 'odvb theml thla"t thfrene'h FluChT piostpone-0(
ment w miipht nowx l have inunediate peace,
u Il' An t very crtati pro'p'ct of an ul
ii :justment of p liticalre
't bI twIeL this overnmehit and the
Statt , sections or pevople now engaged in con
Wint with it.
Tiigge.stion, tOugh, In iertl con
si was, niverthelss, rem5rd'e by the
Pre 't n s one of arn.stice or truce, and So
annIuced that we ,a agree to (; ;cati
Sri su 1Sonl of hosi ilities except on the bais
(1f th'e di'lban!dmn.".t c-f the insur1gc-t forces and
tho r"stera!n er tue i.aLoy! .-.a i
thruth, all the Status in the m0.
q:. ad in su'ordlnat.on to the pooi
tO.Is u%hich wCrc t hl's announeco, t e anti
--!-(Ve'y I'olicy of !ho United States was re'i' "w
ed ill its ears, ad the Pr('stident an
IOuntCed that i emst n t be Cxpectd to do
ptrt from the pe,itios hc had heretofore as
sumc,d in hi,s provl,,,mation of (mncwipation
a o othr d ementl S, these pciF*'.t: ,ns were
cia tedI ill hi Inst %nnual mese. It wvas
uther dec1aret1 by the Prusidient that the
1m11 te resteration of the natio,nal authorty
In ndispnbl ond('01ition of any assent
anu u'"par to whate'er f'rm of per'ace 1uight
be prapoose1. To President assured the other
p:i ty that while he ust aren : to the.Cse posi
tifn., heo wo. he prepared, as far as power
istltdged with the Executive, to execise libe
ralitv.
I II5 power is limiit''d by the Constittution.
Andi when peace shon!d be0 made, Congress
mos necesi3Sly act in r'egariid to appriioprTia
t'ons (f manOIer and to admissioni of' Repre
'-en tatives from the irsurr'ection'ury States'.
Th Richmoitnd party' were then i:formled that
C on'gre'ss had on thb 31st ultimto adoptevd, byI
a. cons-ti tutio'nal mrjol i ty, a Joint Reslu5)ttion,
subit~) ig to the SOeerai States the propomitionl
to' ali'h slavery itroughou t the Union, arnd
iht there is ev'ery reason to expect that, it
wtill soon be acceplted by three-four ths of the
Sfttes so as to be-come a part of the natmonal
or ganie lawi. The contfercnce camne to an end
by mu'tual ::cquiescence, n ithout procuring an
a'cce'inent of views upon the sev'eral matters
d'-cuMd or ' any of them. Nevertheless, it is
pe'rha"ps of sonic im1'ortancre that we have been
able to submijt ouri opinons and views direet
17 to [ promiienlt i':surgnt', andu to hear themu
answer' in a coturteouts and not unfriedfly man
ncr. I amt, Sir, 'ouir obe'Iilt servant,
WVILLIAM1 Ii. SEWAR~D.
C I Es Fn.LNcis AnAMs, Esq., etc.
\ Nr. Cto;ANIZATIoN.-rlThe Mlacon (ie.
of MBrc-b sth, rnakes known the exi.stence of
ci-ored mna in Georcia, n'uderr the title (of the
"Equann!BlRihts A'senition," the memiibers of
which are~re'4nestedt to meet "'to attend to
businie's C-f gr'eat impIortance.
""Vnew'i'er of theitr ow1n. which they caill
t'I' (l ii 'rgin". The 0 oet of tihe
coloreC ~perle 'ris" set forth in the "Loy:I
Ge 'ot gian," i to iitiate a no-:e:nent by
which~ a1 Lcolrd m- ii ll b sent from ea th
"so'' irn "tate to i" formi theo Presadnt fily
in reid to the condJition of the raic'. Th 'e
"An0ition "::0I' proose to send.ila delegL%
to 'onIrs:s s on as sufw-cient money can
be ::u. for t he puirpose. In commttlenttig on
the I'I .egin sttemnttLt, the Citizen says thte
wi ist and omst in'ohier'ent views are enter
t intd hU ith aea lred musis w ithi re f''ence
( to 1n antiiated Ldawnl of h!iis, and cal's iupon
te "''ate II :cainye to) ask assistance from
thtinN Sttuets authori'ties to avert 11m
!EmaA.-The f!oing'lt. is ant extract from
a letter from IIenry W. Johnson, Esq., of
Monrovia, Ldated .January 6. 1.fiG. Johnson
is ain eloquent and talen t'd colored lawyer
from Ctanandnigna, New York, wthere he wias
admicd to practi*e in the Supreme Court.
Hec emigtratedI to liberia in .June, 1865, withi
his f:nni!y, and rejoices in the country of his
adt(1option:
"1 ant -:'er much pleased with Liberia. I
have unboutLded admfi irtiont for the country.
It has a "lorious future before it. It mfust,
sooni0ier or later, he the future home of the
blac main of America. fy famr.ily are now
in g lthiorough th1e aecclim at ing f. ever. Prof.
Freeman, of Libeoria College, and faninly are
nw ti'o(roug hlyi acel imate'd, ad are enjoying
th m'elves vecry rneh. I think, with the
01in of~ Io and ordinary prudence, my
own faily wiil be ennally1 fotunatitte."
A-pin hats as umnel head as a good many au
.b'rs, nita n a. dcn1 more noinit.
Te I;cstructicn of commma.
It will be rlemenberoed that the letter we
recently pulishcd from Gen-ral Srman
conicerning the destruction of Collmbia was
addressed to Mr. Benj. Rawls, of Colunia.
BeloW is a letter from M R1awI, taken from
the Colnmb1)ia !?':oownix of yesterday, throwingp
the whole responsibility of the desrucn of
that city upon General Sherman ; this, too,
from a Uiinm man :
CoA.MMAm S. C., %fircli 2, 1S16.
Tu 1jrGnrlW T. 1,2rnin,
Sm Your letter of the 8th March instant
is betfore me, in which you, in positive term1L,
deny giving orders for the d-estruction, Iy
tire, of the city of Colunbin. I have in m1V
land an aflidavit made helore rn of the As
sociate Judges of Superior Provost Court, 1st
Sub-Pitrict, Wester-n D)partment, South
Cairolin. in the words following: "On the
evening of the 17th day of February, a sol
(ier at my gate said to me, did you ever see
hel ? I told him no. Well, said he, you wait
Uptil night and you w-ill sen heil, for we in
ten,d to bin every damned house that there
s in the town. Accordingly, about 7 o'clock,
or a little after, I saw the fire commence c
the noxt square from where I live." "On
the 18th day of February, 1865, a soPier of
Gen. Sherman's amy met me at my gate ;
le said that Gen. Sherman had given them a
f,irlou-zh for thirty-six hours to come into
Columbia and do as they pleased in regard to
firing and the destruction of the citv."
But, sir, as regards the liability of the Gov
ment to indemnify their loyal subjects for the
loss of their property. Ycu were in command;
and if the loss occurred through eit'hor nev
Iect or incompetency, it is immaterial to the
sufferer ; lie does not lose his right of red,-ess
by either.
And it is not to )e prestumed that the Gov
ernment would entrust a man with the com
mand of fifty or sixtv thousand troops, and
that he could not make them obey his orders;
and there is the greatest abundance of proof
to be obtined here, that the soltlers uner
your com1manid, on the 17th Februiry, 1K5,
hrew fire-balls, ilambeau and other fireworks
into the houses, the bed-rooms, and on the
of', and prevented the fire-engines from
slacking the fires, by cutting holes in the
cather hose to keep the water from flowing
to the engines. You know the old l.w adage
"What you do by your agent you do by your
sel." As for the order of Gen. Hampton
causing the destruction of this city, it is in
onsittent with nature and with reason, to
S i L im: 'd vI to destrov his own
home and property. is oraer -wns to jru
vent property falling into the hands of the
T0:, sir, T presume, believe with me, that
our faiters, who framed our Government,
wer, % ise and good men. But, as all men
are b.I-rn in ignorance, and have to get wisdom
by experienc,V.
byc exin c,teha not arrived at per
f"etion ; nor did they see the absurdity of the
State rights doctrine, and the doctrine of the
Constitution being the supreme law of all the
tates, at the same time.' This doctrine of
State sovereignty was maintained with great
tenacity by a large portion of our leading poli
ticiaos'to the close of the late war. In 18
t ran so high as to cause South Carolina to
pass an ordinance nullifying an Act of Con
ress. But as God would have it, we had in
he chair of the Federal Govern~mert, a', that
ime, a master spirit, in the person of Andrew
ackson, who, by issn ing to the State a spirit
ed and friendly'proclamation, declared that
dil the forces and power at his c'ommand, in
the United States, would be put in requisition
to enforce obedience to the law. Wonld to
God a similar proclamation haO been issued
by Buchanan or Lincoln ; for, without that
oedience, the wheels .of Government must
top. Btut as there is only a very slight dif
ference between Jackson aind Johnson, I hope
there may be no more (difference in their sue
ess in restoring the reign of law and( order
throughout the United States, by doing jus
tice to both parties according according to
ieri t.
"Syve to the righteous, it sbhll he well
im, for he shall eat the fruit of his dio
ng; say ve to the wicked, it shall he ill with
iu, for the rewardl of his hands shall be giv
en him." This is God's eternal, irrev-er.ible
ecree ; and a person may as well say, I can
put miy handi into fire and it shall not be
burnedl, as to do evil and escape punishment.
Sir, I rejoice that this bloody, unnatural,
ucalled-for war has end(edl, and settled the
uestion of State Rights and State sovereign
ty, I hope forever ; for I know it has been a
ource of discord ever since the formation of
the Government, and even before and at the
tme of its for mation, between the Fedcral
and D)rematic parties. Myv father, brothers
and uncles fought ,suffered and bled to achieve
the independence of the United States. I re
member the angr-y discussion between the
Wig and Toryj p'rtir-s (as they were then
called), and, afterwards, they were the Fede
rais anid D)emocrats.
When South Carolina passed the ordinance
of secession in 1801l, my poor heart trembled
in my breast with the apprehension of a war;
ut a great many of our preople did firmly be
Hve that the United States Government
v onld not make war, but would jet theO seced
ing States go in peace. I did have a hope
that we would in that way armdl war ;for,
althotgh I was only a child in the Revolution,
had sniered enoneh to know some of the
evil of a war, besides the destruction of life.
The thousands of innocent ar.d helpless wo
men, c:hildiren, aged and unoffending farmers.
tradesmen, and, in fact, all dasses of people,
it is enough to sicken the heart of any human
who has sensibility. And the horrid harhari
t, such as that brought to view in the atiid
VIt quoted above, is too bad for the contem
plation of any human, much less of any C riu
tan people. To give afurlough to lifty or
sixty thotusand soldiers, to go into a city
among females, children and ol mn, without
ar-s or any protection, to do as they -please
for thirty-six hours; it is not any wonder
that a man would feel ashamed to let the
world know that he had done so, w ithiout he
intended to either quit the country, or mnake
the country quit him ; far better would it be,
and miore Christiaulike, to go with and keep
them under command, and see that they did
ony what was right, and not inflict pain and
punishment on the innoccnt :"lest, in destroy
ing the tcres~ ye root out the wheat also.''
"Sir, I h ope and believe there are in Con
gre. .mcne of roofeelin annod sense
enougi to doJ t:e, and h . nonov tat 6 en.
Shiernn was the a ,It of the GovrnenIII t
and if he (id wro:ng t any loyal subject, the
6overninent is r'sponi le for it. I say, as I
said last A ngust in a letter to his ExcelleIIcy
Andw Johns.or, MV own Government has
toy i v b buruing with fire
myv propcrty 1whih had acquired anrd laid
up f'r my Support in old age, and left ine
with,out he nece ries of life, an(i all that for
no fault of mine; a ld I now implore itdem
nity for imy loss flcm that Government who
las taken my1V livinqg from me.
YUurs, respectfully.
BENJ. RAWLS.
Tmr T:-Wi:nY Corm:.-We resume to
dayV the puh:ati' r of the T-.;- Y -
rir, wich was suspended on ackunt ofthe
interruption of maii facilities after the terai
namon ofi the war.
Now t1hat we are aain placed in communi
cation w.ith our old patrons in the interior, by
tC cxten;,;on of the various railhoad', lies, we
redeem a p romi e mad. some time sinee, aid
Se,d the Ti- TUNy (uurir to those vhlo
hmve forxnrdeld their subzeriptions in advance
'lits publ1i'Cation1.
It is unnecessary for us to make pldEs as
to w;-hat the Co,a;r will be in) the future.
We, however, confl'etdy refer to its record
of the rast, which is too we[T known throu
out th1- ien.gti an rearlth of the Southiern
and Si ihwetern itates to require to be re
Cour-.tLd in the Pret--rt Way.
The ri- U "rir will hereafter be
pulished eve ry ThurL:day, Saturday and Tue
day u rings, and will contain the latest and
meo t relable Te'legraphie, 1omesto anfl For
Uign Ne-s, a well as tie latest Con:Ierciall
a..d Mai ne Intelignce-the whole forngii
a desirablc and instruct:ve sheet either for
the rlace of business or thc family circle.
We again return our thanks to the many
kind friends who have already sent in their
subscriptions, and trust the day is not far di.
tant when we will be in direct communication
with all sections (f the country formerly v;.Jt
ed by our paper, when we feel nasured tiht
we will have the pleasure of recordingi on our
subscription books the names of' many of our
cld patrons who have been spared through
the long years of war from which our beloved
country has so recently cnergd, czippled in
rcsources but undaunted in spirit.
With thisre -emarks we close, hoping that
through the blessings of Divine Pi ovidence,
I and by the aid of the wise counsels of our pa
triotic President, our divided country may
soon be re-united on a n honorable basis, and t
for which the Southern States are yearnin t
may be vouch nfed us, r.d that all our citi
Zels may speedily repair their shattered for
tunes, and again occupy the proud position,
both socially and politically, fur which tiey
and their ancestors have been noted through
out the world.- C/w r7m (mir,
Two Arosm:t.-Two remarkable sermons
were preached Sunday in this city-one from
the pulpit of a cathedral, breathing peace and
good-will ; one in a Puritan temple, howlin i
strife and hatred. BiAhop Lynch, plea 'ing
for the miser of the stricken and sufferiug.
counselled "c.almness, love and good feeling ;"
Presbyter Cheever, beivymg the national tri
amph, reviled, in priestly billingsgate, the;a
chiefs of the people, who shmrink fr-om oppres-<
sion and are rehnihlding thdri rinl!s.t
WAhi Ih bears the D)ivine C'rmisson-he <
w-ho urges submission, "to the lawful pow er
w ~hich hias asserted its righuts by force, or .e
who flings dirt upon rulers whose mo(derationa
is wiser than his farv- ? Wic. is the Cis
tian pastor, the Southerner, v:hose voice i
rais d in per uaision of fr a trnal love insteati
of comrpinnt over inres, or the Northern 0r
who dern.mnnees the powers that ho as "'hy.o
crites and robbers," because faey are nott
w i'd with his own madness ?-J. T.I Urld,
1st Sat.
Fha An M.OimI- Lossos roi -rt P. S
Two MoN:us.-Ti.e heavy fire and marine
loSOss11 duig theC months of Jan uary and 1Keb
ruary (of the present year have borne hardi
upon weak insurance companies. In January
there were seventy-three idres, where the loss
of each amiounted to $20, 0?0 andl upwirds,
and the total valne of the property destroy: :4
was within a trifle of $7,0ii0,000. There]
were forty-six of the same class of fire.s in.
Februarv, attended with a loss of nearly
$5,000,uJra, making about $1 2,0(0.00 for the
two mon ths. To this must ho ad led at least
$3,000,000 wore l of propertyr destroycd where
the loss was less than $2u,0t(0 at each lue.
The min ie losses for the same time aggre
gate $9,000, 000, and the losses by steamboat
di ssers (on our rivers anri lakes to a million
morAe. Here is a total of $25,000),000 for two
months !Strong companies will, of course,
wethe r these periodic seaisonts of disaster, hilt
wea ones1 0 mtst intevitab)ly go undecr.-2Sm
j~'1~If -~J. March :3,
It arpears, from a communilntVion o thec
War Department, dated March 28, that the
number of vdthmteer troops in tee aLrmy, on
the 9thd of January, was, w hi to 57500;i cior
ed, (3,70:3; or an aggreznte of 12326.
Thecre were inu ihe servic e, Mareb 10, whites,
2.71 ; clId 3t.814; or an aggrte of.
(;r; , liii t sh- owinxg there ha:ve been imister
e<i ont of, th 'rice, since Jaay-wts
'.W coloed,' 5,!5x; an nzeregate if 50,
371. Ordere t o b e miustered out sincee March
10, whit es, 10,10 ;O colored, l),597 ; total, 19B,
7 r3]Ttal reduction made and ordered, snee
Jainuary 9, whites, 40,525; colored, ;35,41
aggregate, 70,(74.
Theo mtis out0" ord:ercd wsill be completed 1
by May 1. Thle w.ork will be well adlvanced
by Ap p~il 10, and there will then be left' in ser
vliee 1,'65 wh~ ite vohmteers, and :30,21 ' col
ored ; tot al, 47,2'1. is proper to adll tha't
the SeveurIte-en RLeg tent, United States In
fantry, ha'- been cordered to Texas. and upon
its artrival, Mai:jor Generald Sheridan htas been
ins-tructed to muster out all additional white
vounteers in that department. Tihere are
nowx in service there, :3.081 that he can sparc.
Thius con temiplated reduction will be addi tion
al to that referred to in the above summary. ]
The Wa- hinigton National b;1-diln, of t
ona,asserts that the resident hsli
up for prosecution 500) of the most prominent
Cofederates, whom he holds for the purpjo5S
(otton Growing in lciiczia.
The su! j,ined very interesting report from
Jr. Lin den, Director of the Zoological Gardens
>f Bru-:seis, and also Director of the botanical
:ectitio Of he JArdin d' Aclijiiiation, at Par
t) the Dircetors of the Enzgib-h Cotton
mnym;m-!, su pis the best prool of the caps
e (f Venezuelcn soil fur the productic
)f Cotton
TotwDrr ft T-enr,zvMa Cul"On
GrNLMtEN :--You have done me the honor
o ask me my opinion onan nlidertaking, the.
>icJlt ;f which is to extend the cultivation of
:otton in 1(enezuela, and particularly in that
Ofrt of the BDivar State burdering the fivers -
iulvo, in the province of Ct,ro.
l:,%i:I been entru.sted u ith a scientitic
Ui:on1 b)y the Government of His Majesty
le King of the Belgi,ns, du-inga period of
welve consecutive year ii tie various rarts
xtra and intratropical of Anc ioa, such a
he Brazil, the Island of Cuba, Jamaica, Mex
co, 'natemlna, New Granada, Veriezuela and
hle Unifted St ates of America, I htve had op
)ortnities of fortrirg a sonId orinion of th -
espectIve aiv:ntages whiTh they several
,trtes ffer fir the cultivation of cottoi, ard
[do not he(itate to declae that of all these
:ountries, not even escepting the anul centro
f Ameeican cotton producti-;4 Venezuel
,o sesses within itself the mort completely
hvorable element tor the cultivatron of the
nportant article of cotton which at this ~mo
rent is of such absorbing interest, not. Only
:o England, but to the continent of Europe
;enerally.
At a distance, by sailing vessels, of seven
:een days navigation from England and France,
enezuela is, of all the southern contineRt- of
:merica, the nearest country to Euiope. ft
as a great extent of coast, and possesses
everal ports in uhich ships of fhe largest
onnage can anchor. Although wholly situa
ed bucath the torrid zone, ard in immediatM
roximity of the line, the northern parts 6F
his vast country, comprised between -the
in.:h and clever th degrees north latitude, and
ro mn the sixtv-first to the seventy-fifth di
rees of longitude (meridian of Paris), enjoy,
vith the exception of soie points on the coast
Lhealthy climate, moderate temp,rature and
:xemption from those excessive heats epe.
ienced on the low plains of the southern
)arts, known under the name of "Llanos."
The regions suitable for the cultivation- ot
olton are situated on plateaus several hun
red feet above the level of the sea. The cat
on plant grows wildly in several parts, and I
he staple is Q1n^, it IIUL ' t I qy
on grown in the South of the Unitd States.
shall be happy to prove this tssertion by
ending you a sanple picked upon the spot.
I traveled over and explored Vcnezela in
very direction during a period of three years,
nd th-s you w.. conceive the Bolivar State
shich yoi, possess for your enterprise wAts
ot exempted from my in.vestignticn. I p
rove of a great part of the land which you
ave selected, and I particularly wish to calt
our attention to that part of the coitry
mnown out there by the name oF
rhch is comprincl between the river ToctjYo
mdfl the Mountain chain of -Aron. Watcrei
>y the Tocuyo on the one side, and by man.
tream's desending from the mountamrs on the
>tr side, these lands have upon them a sys
em of irrigation par ticulary suIted to-the
ultivation of cotton. .
The soil is of nrodigious fertility, and- The
limatc leaves- nothin to be wished for in re- -
~pect of salubrit v. Te sides of the mountains.
tre covere-l wit ul mnifScent forests, with
bun.damnCe of drewC~OOtis, and timber suitable
or l buildin~g, nav~al and cabi net- ma king
>rposes. It' is te chri%n spot of the cele
iated imik-tree or (Palo de vac'n) "'Glacto
. 'Iron utile," from n hich the natives, by -
nakHz incisions ini the trunk, ohtain a nmilk
s n':ritive as~ areeable. The neighboring
>r insuka of Parognarna, being thickly piopxj
ated, arri several other points on the coast tf .
I'oro, uill supply you with suf!ihient free Ia
-ori for theo conunenement of your cuiltiva
ion. The wages are about 0:ne shi!!ing- a
lay.
The river Tocuyo, ravizable far beyond.thie
imits of your property, will faciitate the -di
ct carrirse of your products to the port of
?urto Cabello,'which is only forty mHles die
ant.
Puerto Cabello is efi'ectuallyv sheltered from
ho8 zdes and hu rricanes w hih ravage the
Wst Indies. Ships of the largest tonage can
-eceive their cargo there.
The T1ocuyo~ District consequently offers all
lesiable~ guaratess fhr the su!cess of y.our
anterprise-fecundity of soil, natu:al irngae
:on, healtay climiate, neighbot ing populatdOn
. supply ycu with labor, and finally, re
a: kable fcilities for the shipmecnt of your
T 10m e- madel-, even if the war hv.i not
broken int in tihe United Statis, and thus
rou. l-1 h.nrd to develope the growth of
e~ irotton T -ant in) other p:,rt, than sooner' or
ater,ad i . th prce of things, Venezuclh
1a LO.tie t bec e the most productive
outry, in co tton, of the two continerts of
meirica.
It r' quir-es but the presiding genius of Eu
ope to stim-u'ate it, and to disclose the inex
asi'.-i iesunrces of its soil.
I shall feel happy if this inforniation con
iiutes to sneh a re.,nit, and if it induocesynt
o persever. in your. great and p,raiseworthy'
nter pri~e, which has all my syriupathy', and
hI'ich 1 look upon as the be-ginning of a new
na for the' "exteniion" of cotton prodcCtion,
hile at the Saime tinie it will tend1 to the fu
:nre prosperity of Venezuela.
Your enterprise is worthy of all the support
4 the Vene-zuelean G overnnment, who, it can -
*ot be doubted, will favor it every possible
i terminate by offering you rmy further ser
1ces in anything in which I can be useful,
md beg of you to believe rme to he, gentie
nen, &c., J- LINDEN.
PRis, 21st Septembecr, 18G1.
Info1mnatiun received from tile land office at
ittle Rock, Arkansas, is to the effect tha't
ales in1dica te a much more extended resumnp
ion of business than was aaticipatedl a fewv
noths ago. Money is from some sourco
orthcoming in considerable sums for the
.nrc-e or lsandi aicultural nrosnecem

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