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The Newberry herald. (Newberry, S.C.) 1865-1884, June 06, 1866, Image 1

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O 11 50 S 6A 0 0 EArusR I.GENK R
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VOLMEII.NEBE.1~, . ,~ FINLDAY JNE4, 80. TJMLR2A
THE HJERALJ
IS PUBLISHED EVER WEDNESDAY,
Et Newbcrry C. IL,
ay tEOS. F. & R. H. GREIEXER,
EDITORS AND PPr KTon1'S.
*ERMS, $l,5o FOR SIX MONThS, EITHER
'iN CURRENCY OR IN PROVISIONS.
jPayment required invariably in advance.)
).ertisemnentsinserted at l,5 per square, for
trst insertion -1 for each subsequent e!sen.
iarr'age notices, Funeral inviations, Obituarie
and Coinnunications of personal futerest charge'
-tadvertiseents.
Letter about Mexico.
We are able this week to gratify the wish
es of our readers, and also ourselves, in pr
senting before them an interesting cornmui
.cation from Dr. Cunningham, who has just
returned from Mexico.
Mr Ferris : Having recently re14irned from
Mexico, it has been suggested by some that I
'publish some of my ol.seivatiuns on that in
teresting Country in the columns ofyour pa
per. This, with your consent, I now verV
succinctly propose to do, premhing that I
shall not be able to communicate mah that
is not already before the -ublic.
To the American traveller fur the first time
landed on the coast of "-exico, be is struck
with the novelty of every thing he sees. The
'buildings, farms, habits, dress, marners, re
3 igion, everything he sees, are as different to
.what he has been accustcn;ed to In the Soth -
.ern States as is the language of the inhabi
tants. The -cimate and so l, too, strikes him
.as different to any he has seen. True, there
.are hills and mountains, and valleys and riv
ers, and these he has seen before b_t they
were different, and the very soil seems lfor
-ent, and the very stone in the raad and the
water--vashed vulcaric boulJers, that every
-where n:eets his eye, reminIs him he is far
from home. But I wil attempt no general
-description of this lovely lad, il which God
shas done so much and man so little.
From Yera Cruz we travelled by rail through
the Terra Caliente, as it is called, or hot-land
to thepassof the mountains, where the elimate
becomes temperate ; thence to the city of Cor
-dova, by diligence, at an average ascending
grade of thirty-Eve fQet per mile. This p6aced
-us in the altitude cf perpetual spring. -
The city of Cor lovar situated in this valey,
consisting of 12,000 15,000 inha itants, is
-uilt on the bank of the Rio Saca, a bold
Inountain torrent in the wet ; bu-t as its name
imports, without a current in the drv seascn.
Its banks are high and preCipitous, and never
balf filled by the greatest fr eshets, and with
-cut one foot of alluvial. We. did not learn ac
curately the extent of this valley, but guess
'it to average some ten or twelve riles in
breadth, and some thirty ive or forty miles
in length, and is two thousand eight hundred
4eet above tide water. Above this -alley, as
it is called, but more properly plateau of Ora
ziba, of equal or superior beauty anK fertility
Then the valev of Puebla. Hjere the inter
tropical culture ceases, and it is perhaps un
rivalled in the productions of grain especimally
wheat and general pasturage. BSut there be
ing no government lands for colonization there,
we did not extend our observations in that di
rection, but confined our ex minations prin
cipally to the Cordova valley. The Govern
mient lands here are all surveyed, consisting
of two townships, and have been taken up,
and there will probably be in the nest nine
months one hundred actual American settlers
in and around Carh>tta. You have heard of
it. A town, or quite a Blourisihing village, y ou
say. Well, I rodle upon it before I was aware
I was near it. It consists of t wo straw covered
huts, the plates supported by posts in the
ground, and the walls cf vertical poles or cane
without the interstices being daubed or stop'
ped with anything. This was iCarlotta when
Ileft.
In short excursion on foot, and longer ones
'on horseback, we tried to learn s.mething of
the habits of the na tives, their mode of agri
'culture, and the capacity of the soil. The
natives are friendly, kind and hospitable to
Americans, remarkably neat and cleanly,
.though very simple in the-ir dress, and all their
labor and culture is on the most primitive
style. I cannot imag.ine that it could have
been more so five h.unudred years ago. W here
anything like culture has been bestowed on
their little farms, they displayed .a beauty andl
fertility unknown even in our sunny South.
Coffe~e, tobacco, corn, beans, banann.as, pian
-tains, pine-apple and rice are their principle
.oroductions, and in relative value stand, per
haps, in the order I have mnentioned(. But
-none of-these aei@ reede-kt am omn of
care or labor that we would call cultivation,
and yet the inhabitants seemn to have an abun
-dance of supplies o.f every kind to saUisfy their
wants and frugal habits. I forgot to mention
-sugar cane, which grows to a perfection be
yond anything in our country. They are
niever hurried by the seasons, an d those who
vultivate it to any extent, a.re grmnding their
-cane every day in the year. Indeed th:ere i
-there no end to the agricultural year as with
'us. And although you may be told that the
first of June, and then again, perhaps, in No
i-ember, is the best tin- to plant corn-yet I
believe they plan-t at any and ev;ery period.
The hest farruers among them wiill alternate
fheir<crops three times a year thus: First, a
corn crop, which, as they take on;, they will
follow with tobacco ; this is followed with the
-freeholder bean, a staple article of' food. But
with regard to the primitive and unimproved
-condition of everything, it is enoutgh to say
-that we saw not a plow, rncr heard of a nill
in this fertile valley. In the to-.ns and cities
they use rn corn bread, being supplied with
flour from Pueblo. wh-file the native peons
boil their corn soft in the ear, on a stone. then
bake a thin cake, and this is their far-famed
torteir, their only bread.
I did not visit 'Mexico as an idio tourist, but
but with an earnest desire, to the best of rmy
judgment, to decide on a subject pairamaount
to allo-thers in this w-orld to me, to my family
and posterity, the propriety of emigrating
there. It was and is a fearful question to de
cide. To expatriate one's self from a country
hie had loved, from all his former life-long hab
-us and associations, to take those he loved in
'to a foreign land, among a diirer:ent race of
men, among whom he could expect no social
Qrrneu affiation undJer a government
whc,1 o edcal and rejuuiee, no 1n.4
been lud to ahior, all this I say, and more
than this, rendered the qnestion a fearful one
to <icide. And v et, as I sat uler thu sadue
of the mlango tre:s at Ihe cdge (,f their Ette
!urms, I tred to comlpare the re:tive fertilit
of the soil ind salubrity of climate, as comn
pared to our own. MV dehu.rate judgment
was, that one-fourth of the labor woi2d pro
cure a mere subsistence there that would be
.eqUired here. MY next i1niry was, if we
can com1mand labor, how wilI its profits Cul
c tpare with the only labor row in the Sou th.
With cotton here and coffe-there, I tried the
comparison. Thus, a hand her can cultivate
ten acres of cotton, from its market value,
taking an averagn of past years as data, two
hun(re dollars mIi be realized, ou. of which
now mIust be paid the whole yeafr's lire of the
freedman.
Then I took ten acres of cofce, which re
gnires conpratively nf culture, and t e
gathering- of whirh can be hired at one cent
per pound, and I found the ten acres, at the
lowest estimate Cf hs yield, indeed, iat just
half the most of thern, their estimte gave
me six hundred dolhtrs nett. But there is Io
eceCCs> ity of confizing the h:md to ten acres
of cefrfee. If von have the trees once pnt
ed, ou might as easily have twenty acres to
the hand as ten. Comnrarative estimates on
other elps would perhaps show as favorable
results. These calculations were honestlyv
made and concrred in by those of our peo
Pie to whom I cunversd with there. Still
there are a thousand Ind one dliflcuhies to be
met and overcome be-for these advantages
can be quietly enjoyed-privations sufi'ered,
that many of our wives and children rever
ireame( of. Meney, to'o wll be reqired,
nwre, I fear, tla..'n mZny of us cau comnattd.
Lind, go'"od fcrtile lad, rmny be prc(ure-(d
without diilhulty: ~but ecdh emi:runt shoidd
have means to sub-s<t his family tr twelve
months, and to hire more or le-s 10or u1 ls
he has labor'rs of .is own. oegrocs mi-1t
be apprendeed here, a3d Cten wh th' I
t .. The QOVInment there U'ld eT,force
he te in:s c f t meture. But it isdut
ul if man coul h indncedw to go. It is
even doubtful if the military wVuld permit us
to take them.
There is not a great deal of stock in the
Cord"ova Vullav what there is is attended by
herdsmen, hastl-V have little or no fenc 11.
Some stone nA some hedging is all, but
many are without anything ofthe kird. io:s
are kept no or sta1ed out, fatted on fruit ard
rendered into lard to cook Cnd season their
beef and vegetables, being very little used as
food. Anozoer extraordinry feature of the
country, and one that-cannot fii to strike the
inte!ient viitor, and one, too, that points
to a most ominous page of that country's his
tory, is the massive And stu'ndous coFtlV
rains that mark the site of the abandoned ha
cie1das that are to be found on every few
thousand acres throughout Mexico. These
impoir.g riAns, that must have CothunUreds
of th uI,ands of dollars, have in most caes,
their roofs fa!!en in, and large trees growing
in their dilapidated halls and open courts.
The oldest inhabitanrts will tell you that 'it
years ago these hal's we-re the h.:ocs of the
wealthy and relind ; that thee wide tracts
of j ung!e- and chapparal, now not distin
guishable from the general forest, and inhab
ited by~ tihe prowling panther and leopard,
were then extensive carne ondl cottont planlta
tons, cult.ivated by thiee hundred Afri'an
slav es, the property. of th'e owner of the ha
cenda. Slavery was abclihcd, and where
ncw are the owniers?-aye, where are the ne
roes themselves!I It is said that history re
eats itself, "Shall such be t,he ruin and deg
radation of the South ?"
grnts t btinlndin the Cordova firict,
~i fir acopany to buy a hacienda:, and di
ide itamong themselves. T'i. was being
dninsomec instances. The haciendas con
sist there of from three, four or live, to ten
or tifteen thousand acres. But there are
other government lands being surveyed of
equal or superior fertility, wvhichi, by fall, will
be ready for chumaants. Those friends who
sent their names by me as colonists, have had
their claims attended to, and I have so.m
things to sa to them that does rnot concern
the puibei in relation to the means of secour
ing the-ir prior rights thus securecd. And 1
wo uld be glad, at somne convenient time and
place, to meet them all to consult on this
ma tter. Gen. .Eadly's lctter has thrown, I
discover, some cold wvater upon the enigra
tion excitemnent ; and this, I think, was pro
ner. The. General consulted us as to the pro
.r;ety of ser.ding after he had written his
letter. Wie approved it. Formier letters had
excited too sar.guine expectation, and men
were rushi:g the; e w.ithout money or any
Maiden to work, thinki\ng, p)robably, the
govern ment would~ take care of them. This
is a mistake; for however desirous tihe gov
ernmen.t may be to encourage emigration
from this country, it is not able to support
and give them land. H1'nce., a little check
in that direction will be wolesome. Thre
General, however, as lie intimates, saw; nothi
ng of the country except in the City of Mex
ieu itself, and along the roads.
With regard to the permanency of the Fom
nre, I need say but uttie, as op;i iens anid con
jectures can be formed here as well as the: e.
I have no idh a that Maximilian can sustain
himself in Mexico unsupported by Fran ce.
Uut this support he is sure of, while ___
poleon is E:mpreror. Our people see:n .to
think that the success of the colonization
scheme depends on the success of the Em
pire. This :s a nastake. We lcar ned from
every source aece>sible to us, that the Liber
as were as friend!v to us as the Imperialists.
So, that if Maxhi ian left the EmrnIe to-day,
the dlaims of coalonsts wvoul still be secure.
It is said, that in all the chang~es cf that rev
olutionary country, vested righ ts under a pre
vious government have never been distur bed
by the successful party.
I have s-aid nothing ei her of the health of
the country. Of this we 1.ad but little nreans
of observa~tion. We sawv no diseace there,
and learned that it wvas regarded as very
healthy, except in some speciid localities.
I have said nothing of other i ndustrial p:ur
suits than that of farming ;. but the country
seems to be open to every speeies of enter
n rise. Merch'anies of every k!nd smiost, it
would seem, could soon tird emiploymuent
there if not at once.
If these obeervations, Mr. Faitor, are like
lv to b of -n iat-ie to your readers.
peame puhn tiem, as I have been reet
el.rurtdto write.Ikn.O.v they
are~(es; tory and dinconnecrl, Lut to have
el'tered noch mlore int) dttadl would have
renlCered thiS atc too ilong.r
ilespctfuuly, your o't. sv't.,
J. M. Crs:NarAM.
Cens. Steedmail adil FulleMon.
FaEs Di: ctesu:ss AnoUT THF N:-:ilCES.
tIz t u a .72!, ti I .2 m; I -I t ac s
H s Ima *d nei11 des0-t n1 stI r
io Evb b ct:cas o't .lie t1 u&nf .
The E*ra'7s creespondent with the inves
t ienting~ o:ission of Gr-ner als &rrr.MNn and
FVEIn"oN writes frmt Port Royal and Savan
ntah. A u:ore favorable condition of afFnirs is1
nicea h!c a mon g the free m en inr Pt Roy'a!
Edisto and the 'Iliton 1Icad S.Iands. The same
ol story of Ni thorn peculation and mriaes
ance, however, is told in relating t he eendition
of the Sea Ishmd settlers. In Georgia the
reports is to the. fefct that the Freedmen's
Bureau is an obtacle in the wny of kindly
feeling beveen the whites and blacks. The
following will be found very interestim:g:
ITu: SEA I-L.AS '
Are ifteen or twenty in number, and range
in extent fron two thousand acres to one
hundred thousand. A large proportion of this
area, thonh it inc"udes som.e of the Onest cot
ton growing land in the world, is still undevel
ne. ne Imn I heaId of on the ma in lan,
Iv as rcetLv sold, for a (ollar an acre, to
a kiert C coMPny, fifty thousand seres of
n e-i~ t ti:nier land which he had held
idle fLr forty years.
C0ND oN Ct" AFFA!P.S.
G eerals Steednpuj and I'uerton, in pur
Ing the invevtigati, with the oflIcrs of
the F1 Imen's 1Ureau, which they are con
o u10tIn, with so much impartiality, industry,
and~ aiity, have visited Wu~dmnalaw, Edisto,
Jeho*-,c Port Royal, and Hiltton hcad Islands;
have personally ins-pectcd tle condition ot the
fre n,I,( and discovered abundant evidences
that in the past tieN had been grossly robbed
and i'!-treated, and that rome men must have
m.,ade a larg amount of hioney in this 'cruel
d dihonest maner ; but und(er the presenti
(jii.-,trati:n of Brevet Major-G0enoral Scott,
As" sit Coimissioner of the Freedmek '
Sureau f'U: the State, matters are progressmg
as satisfactorily as could be expected in a
comnmunity recently in a state appr:.:chin
etnos-t to chaos.
- CNEALSIMI:"AN'S o-znE.
T1Che exceptional condition C' the -ca Islands
is attributable to the orders which General
Sherman issued after. his occupation of Savan
nab, in January, 1865, setting apart the iskands
from Chreston outh for thi ty miles back
fim the sea, for the settlft of r.egroeS
made free by acts of war and by emancipation
proclamnatiun. This was done for a doublc
purpose, miinly to get id of the grc.et incubus
of contrabands who were following his army
adt eating up his commissary, part also to
punish the people -of the State wvhere the re
bellion was conceived and cred:ied. The
measurement of the allotments also was never
properly carried out. As I mentioned ina
previous letter, sonme of the 'foirty acres" were
lound to be only three and a half and some
four hiundred and fifty acres in extent. Thus
eay in the history of the sebeme frauds and
r asc~alitiesof every de scriptionm were perpetra
ted ; andu were continued down to the end of
General Saxton's loose and inefficient admin
STRAIGHITENING MATTERs UP'.
For sonme time past the Bureau and rmilitary
authorities have been engaged in setting mat
ters straight. All the planitations on which
there aire no valid certilicates have been re
turned to their former owners, and those on
which there are only a few have been returin
ed, subject to the certilicates. Of the original
settlers, few .exzcept these two hundred remain
on the islands ; the rest have moved back into
Georgia, whcnce they came.
NLdUER oF FRlEEDMEN.
It is estimnated tha.t there are now about
u-,0 credmen on the sea islands, namely;
fr om three to four thousand on Edisto, fifteen
h undred. on WVadmtaiaw, two thousand on
John0 t-o thousand oii James, four thousand
on Port Ro::al, five thousanvd on St. 11elena,
and the balance ont the smaller islands.
iTHEia coNi/IT1N.
.The experiment of matking the negro a
pantte-r on his own accoun, t has failed as sig
nul sa hun: d red other ex perimen ts w ith~
th ngo have failed. Those who had land
orders last year, and were in a position to
gro twntyor hity acres of cotton for
theseles,have ti-is year not a cent to bless
tems-elves with, and have been living on
ci'ty ' all the winter. A plan ter on iisto
Isn asired mec th:at every mo rninig from a
hunded to a huna dred and tityl former own ers
of these certificates ("tiitities"' the negroes
gener:ally call thlem, but one dlarkey called
themfl "sti:Tenes," cetn: to him beggmg~ for
fod or -ork. In the first plaoce, theyv raised
miserabl crops ; in the next, they were rob
bed by2 Northern sr.eenlators, working uinder
the sauow of the iueau, of what little theyv
NonTurINs crrnMSSIoN.
We met witht a mna kedl case of this kind on
nadlaw Islanud. Driving over a plan tauen,t:
we alt ed at a store, round which a group of
forty or lifty squalidl negroes were gatinerca,
reciv ing thei day's wage's. There were no
contrcts otn this farm. The~ hands were en -
gaged ftom (lay to day at fifty cents a "task.
ITe stek ceeger wns paingi theum w hen w~e
came up, a-nd --sus givin thm, rnot money, but'
tcts tor provisions. He .'pai ned that h
ofte had~( nio money whetrui'th to pay them,
so( be" gavei themII tC tir eringos in goodzs. We
inlquired the pileets at whi1 the stores were
si. W& \e found that corn, wh fich sells im
9harleston market at a dolhtr and thirtyv cen ts a
bushel, anld is worth in Wadrmalaw Island,
with transportation added, certainily less than
a doilar and fifty cents, was being doled out
to thema at three dlollars a bushe!. Twe~nty-fi.e
cents was charged for a package containing
twnty-twa o biscuits, such as might be bought
inNewv York three for a cent, and everything
els wa in nr~onertion. Should there be
Invt1un still due to the negroes, after tey
Id purchased the necessary meal and bacon,
here were beads and cheap jewelry-sure to
.,tract the negro s eve-displayed in the
to absorb the balance of his carnings.
Whus, wnile they were appalently paid fair
snes for their w.rk, more than half teir
varnigs were evCry day Lk.en back foni
hem in the shane of prol1t on the goods in
which they were paid in lieu cf money. Gen.
Ztcediai aked who leased the plantation.
[Je was told Mr. Underwood, of Boston. This
Nlr. Underwood does not reside on the plant
YK2TINC. OF CITIZENS TS SAVANNAlL
On rid'y evening a large number of the
-ndi:t citizens cf >avanrr1 in;.t at the Pulaski
loule, whei e General Steedman is stay ing (and
shieii, w i th the Mhlls Ilouse at Carlestun, is
)m!e of the tow hotels in the South conducted
iih something like Northern enterprise and
uccess), to confer with the Government Coi
u1isssoers. The f-euling expressed by the
Ieeting was that the Freedmen's Bureau,
owever well administ cred, was an unnecssary
ad an unmitigatcd evil, and a number of in
tances were mentioned of counties where no
3ure:u exists, in which the freedine.n are
vorking better, receiving better wages, and
re more happI and contented than in diAtricts
outrolled by the Bureau.
- - - -. - --:
SoUTTT CAROLINA RAIL ROAD CAR WOPK
uors.-On Saturday afternoon last the arti
:ans, mechanics and other workmen of the
'outh Carolina Rail Road car workshops, with
number of invited guests, made a trial trip
s far as the Seven mile Pump of two new,
andsome, first-class passenger cars built and
nished at the South Carolina Rail Road car
1ops on Line-street. These cars make seven
f the same character that have been turned
>ut by these woikshops sin.c.e the road was
eturned by the miitary to the Company.
several more are completed and ready to ie
:eire the 11nishing stocks of the painter's
Te cars in which the p1easant excursion
d trip was madle Saturday are beautiful
peciniel"s of exquisite and substantial work
nIanship. relecting the highest credit on all
marties concerned in thelr construction. They
ave been fitted up in the most elegant style
or the comfort and accommodation of passen
:ers. The commodious se.ats are provided
ith sunprb crimson cushions, and over each
hndsme hat-rack for the reception of hats
md small packages. The ladies' saloon has i
>en beautifully fitted up with superior ac
ciinod tGins. The painting is in the mas
riy style of that well-known artist, Mr. Al
'r'd Wise, and the triD--ning very tastefully
,xecutcd by Mr. M. R. Nugent. The general
i 1 and plan of the cars was furnished by
Srl..n Re.d, Supe iitendent of the work
ho, nr.d thc whole work done under his
ersonarl stipervision, assisted by Mr. W.
Pweedr, foreman of the work.
Another great. improvement are the patent
:priTg.: upon whih the cars rest. Even when
n rapid motion it is scarcely perceptible, so
hat passengers can sit and read and write at
The building of these cars exclusively by
>ur own mechanics is one of.zhe most encour
iging prospects of the magnificent future
>penng before us. The South Carolina Rail
~oad Workshops employ from one hundred
md seventy-five to two hundred mechanics,
il of whom\ are ide-ntifiedJ with our city by
irth or long residenc e among us, and this,
w1ith othiersimnihtr establishments now in ope
ation, must, ere long, have the most important
nluence in developing the energy, skill and
~mechanical genius of our people.
We learn that a number of very substantial
rieight cars are also in course of construction.
lhe repairing workshops are under the sul-ers
ntedence of that skillful mechanic, Mr.
Jore Strong. To Mr. Meyers and Mr.
Jmes McDuf, we tender our warm thanks
or their courtesies in showing us over the ex
tensive workshops of the Company
(Charleston Courier.
IoNons To Tm.: P1.AsAN~T NOBLE WHo SA-VED
HiE CZ.U t' RusslA--The Russian Gazette of
S Petersburg says that on the 6th inst. thet
Marshals and Deputies of the St. Petersburg
nobles resolved unanimously to present Ossio
[vanovitch Komissaroff, the peasant who foi!
:d the assassin's aim, with a holy image, and
to open for him a subscription, to which all
the nobility of the distiict are invited to sub
cribe. The permiamen.t deputations of the
nobles waited upon him to obtain his consent
to be enrolled in the book of nobles.
Komissaroil gratefully acceptedl the offer,and
in doi:g ,3, gave the following account of what
took place: "I do not know myself what
trange feeling possessed me when I saw that
main pressing through the crowd. I was
watching him, but w~hen the Emperor came
up he went out of my mind. All at once I
saw him d:iw apjistoi and aim at the Emperor
Sbethough my~self that if I rushed upon him
be would kill seine one else, or perhaps myself,
rd without muuchi ado, I struck up his arm.
Tie pistol went off, and after that I do not
recolhet anything. I was as it were, in the
midst of a fcg, an~d when 1 camne to myself I
niw a general, who embraced mae. I was taken
to the palace, but I we.s stunned, and it was
an hour and a half before I could speak."
Apartments have been hired for him in the
lonat:e house. His family r.ame will he
banged into that of Kemissarcf Kostrcoskoi,
iinmemory of the province which has twice
rnishd saviors to thie Imperial House in a
momet of danger, Hie was obliged to show
imself on the stOte of the Rus-ian theatre,
d to relate wh-it happened. He was invited
o a grand bar.quet at the English Club. It
s said that six hundred thousand francs have
been subscribed for him in St. Petersburg,
done, and that a proprietor of Kostromna has
ffred himi a consi'derable quantity of land for
the purp)e .o.f enabling him to support his
aew dignity.
fh Emn Teror himself, says a correspondent
>f the Nord, asked General Todiehen as aj
personal favor to' dir-ect the education of!
Kossimarof.
Politeness is the r-eligion of the heart, as
piety is that of the soul. It is good-nature i.
action. It renders whoever may be its object
:ententc<l and happy under its influence. It:
onsists in acts which show their source-the
Eg. ar selling iu TLarne at lucs per do-'
Uur Future.
The facility with which the people of these
Southern States have adopted themselves to
the extraordinary circu:nstances in which they
they have been placed by the results of the
late war, we think is unparaleled in the history
of any country. That war has desolated their
most f6rtile sections ; it laid waste their finest
plantations; it took from them their means
and appliances fur procuring their subsistence,
and, to a superficial observer, has rendered
this garden spot of the United States a barren
wilderness.
An!:d yet, notwithstanding all this frightful
desolation, spoihation and robbery, there are
abundant'evidences around us, that if it were
not for the pernicious legislation at Washing
ton-were these States represented, enjoying
equal rights, liberty and protection to their
pr-operty, and not overburdened with uncon
stitutional and unjut taxes-they would give
an example of recuperation that the world
has never witnessed.
The futdre of the Southern States'is just
row involved in mystery, and if we could get
"millenium" Dr. Cummins to predict how the
problem of their destiny is to he solved,. we
would be under everlasting obligations. But,
seriously, the instantaneous change in our
labor system presents difficulties that the
wisest and most experienced cannot get rid of.
We might plant corn and other cereals amply
sufficient to sustain our population, and toex
port; but we cainot believe, nor never will
believe, that the great cotton growing b6lt on
the zones will be diverted from its natural
production. the effort has been made in India,
Ezpt, and elsewhere, to produce with any
profit our great staple, and the effort has
failed. The kingdom of the monarch cotton
(we hold he is still a king) is in the Southern
States of North America.
As we have before remarked in this paper,
the South, in the future, must not . only look
to the prodrcfion of this great stap!c, but
should apply herself to its 3Inufature. .- In
s02iand clinate, she may be said to hae the
monopoly of producing this universally-used
staple, and her resources for manufacturing her
peculiar product are unsurpassed. She has.
an unlimited snpply of water power r
even in the absence of this, her mines of
coal, as yet undeveloped, her vast forests of
timber, and other means aid facilities of man
ufacturing are not surpassed by any country
in the world.
The abolition of slavery changes the whole
direction of investment of capital, and, on the
% hole, we believe it to be one of the greatest
benefits that has been -conferred on the white
people of the South-to the freedman himself,
we believe it to he a material injury. Capital
now is seeking other channels of remunera
tion. Heretofore the planter invested hissur
plus profits in more land and more negroes
now the whole thing is changed ; he has got
more lands than he can cultivate, and there
are no more negroes to buy.
Another feature of the radical change effect
ed in the labor and productive energies of the
South we find so well presented in the Louis
ville Courier, we reproduce it:
"Instead of being an importer, the South
can, and we have no doubt wili, become an
exporter of every species of cotton fabric.
fler facilities for ~so doing being superior, and
exempt as she will be from the cost of trans
porting the raw material, she will be able to
manufactnde cheaper, and ere many years she
will control and monopolize the markets of the
world. When that day comes, the revenues
of the cotton lords of New England, who com
menced the crusade upon Southern rights.
will decline, their manufacturing system will
wither and perish, and they will have ample
cause to repent of the fanaticism and injustice
which prompted them to disregard the rights
of sister States arnd trample their most valued
instiutions under foot. New England n ill
then be as famous for her political insignifi
cance and poverty as she is now for the vile
ness of her principles and the bigotry and in
tolerance of her people. Then her sons will
struggle in vain for a subsi.itence upon those
barren rocks and the unth ankful soil upon
which they were born a-,d reared; arid, to es
cape starvation, they will be comnpelled to em
igrate to more favorable climes. They will
then feel, and, oh ! how deeply, that righteous
retribution has over!aken them for their gi
gantic and multiplied wrongs'upon the unof
fending South."
We like this sort of writing, because, he
sides its truthfulness, it is calculated to rouse
up thme energies of our people. If they are
true to themselves, they have got a glonouos
and prosperoug future before them. Arnd we
are inspired nith faith and hope that the
severe lcsson recentiy taught them will con.
tribute to leading them in the right direct on.
We think- if they avail themselves of their
prscnt advantages, they will realize that the
war and its resuls were "blessings in dis
guise"-Phoenix.
"Then hear Thou in Heaven, Thy dwelling place,
and do arid judge Thy servant, justifying the
righteous."
The noble captive, wvho, for so many months,
has lingered in his prison, is soon to be brought
to trial. We are powerless to help him, how
ever much we may yearn to do so. But though
we may not stand beside him in his dark and
trying hour, we can I:zar him on our hearts to
that TI -one, upon which sitteth the Judge of
all men-that loving Father, whose ear is al
wa-s open to the cry of the suppliant. From
every church, from every home,. from every
closet, from every heart, shouald ascend the
daily prayer for him who suffers for us. Our
hearts ha've agonized through so much woe,
that we must all have learned the blessed
poer of prayer, the glorious pr-ivilege of in
tereding with the Father of mercies and God
of ali conmfort. Let us, with one heart and
with one voice, plead with Jehovah, that Hie
would listen to the sorrowful sighing of the
prisoner, that lie would raise up His mighty
power, arid satve him fromahis enemies, and
fr-om the hand of all that hate him. Let our
faith be strot g, our prayers earnest and our
God, even our own God shall give him His
blessing. -.
MARRIAG!- OF BnsHOP Pon.K's DAEcfrn'.-The
following appearsin the Coloirka (Tenn.) IHemd J:
"Mar ied, en Tuesday, the ist day of May, at ine
residence of Gen. Lucius J. Polk, in tis county,
by the Rev. D. Pise, D. D., Capt. F. D. Blake, of
Charleston, S. C., and Miss Sallie H. P'olk, datughn
ter of the late Rt. Rev. Leonidas Polk, BiThop of
T.nu~anc
[From dic Paris (Tvimessee) Intelligevirem.
Cotton.
Ve venture a prediction that there will 'b
still greater reduction in the price of cotton
thwn the present market rates. We will brief
lv state some-a few of our reasons for the
r . .
1st. There is a great breadth planted'in-the
United States than was anticipated a few
months ago.
2. There is a better prospect that the lif
bor can be relied on than existed -t the be --
ginning of the year.
3d. The late exorbitant prices were the re
sult of the cotton famine in this county
brought on by the war.
4th. The change in the machinerv in Etr
rope to work the Surat Cotton will diminish
the demand for our cotton. -
5th. During the blocbAqc of the Soutbe'rft
ports, whilc the war was going on, the cotton
producing countries were stiinuated to io
crease this production for export to thetuir'o
pean markets.
6th. Within the lastfive.years a very lare
arca in other countries has been reduced to
cultivation for the production of the, staple -
and that area is still widening.
7th. The cotton of the Southern Statev-coo
stitute a very small part of the gross amount,
produced annually throughout the world.
The annual yield of the-whole world ig,eti
mated at the enormous sum of three hundred
millions of bales.
East India. and China- together produc
abeut 1S,000,000 of bales every year. A 'wr
ter in Debow's Review says: "It is grown,
as will be seen by. reference to the. map, in -
Chiina, J.pan,a part of Australia, Bdrwa,- -
East India, Persia, Aarabia, Syria, Turke-,
Turkey, Greece, Italy, Spain, in nearly all 4hb
explored paets of Africa, in Madagascar, the
West Indies, North and South Anierica, be
tween the 40Lh dcgree of North and a corres
ponding parallel of South latitude, aid ja
mpst of the islands of the worid, whicp. -lieiz
tfie temperate and tortid zones." -
It is thus evident that the Southern -States
grow but a small quantity of the cotton -worn
by the twelve hundred millions of human" be
ings who inhabit the earth. Nevefthe!6ss,-.
our -fibre is larger and every way -superior tb
that grown alnost anywhere else. - Hence it
is worth more. Our planters 'shold not I
discouraged for the staple will stiH conimind
very remunerative prices. But we should
gently suggest that they should nbt run inad
abodt cotton, and neglect the cereals and Ohit
er subst-atials ,asit nay 'take the probfis of
the cotton crop to supply the necessariWof
existene,.
Corn, wheat and'pork will tommand go9 -
prices.. Mark- it.
1"DmE."-An imaginary place somewt-jis
in the Southern States of America, celebrated
in a popular-negro melody as a perfict para
disc of luxurious case and enjoydient. The
term is often used as a collective designation
of the Southern States. A correspondent "of
the Yc-c Orleans Delta, hag give the fullow
ingaccount of the original and eay applica
tion of the same:
"I do not wih to spoil a pretty illusion
but the real truth is that Dixie is an indigen
ous Northern negro refrain, as common to thb
writer as Thamp postsin New 'York dity, - iv
en ty or severrty-five years ago. It was one '
the every-day allusions of boysat that time,
in all their out door sports. And no one ever
heard of Dixie's Land being other than Man
hattan Island until recently, when it has beent
erroneously supiposed to refer to the South,
from its.c'nnection ith pathetic negro allego
ry. When slavery existed in New York, one
'iiy' owned a large tract of land on Manhat
tan Island, and -a arge nutnher-ofsla.ve.s.- h
increare of the slaves and the:inceens oY
Abolition sentiment caused an emigration o'
the slaves to a more thorough and~secure slav~e
section ; anId the negroes who wecre thus sent
ofT (many beivg born there) naturally ided
bacik fo their old homes, where they had Nied
in clover, with feelings of regret, as they coul4
not imagine any place like Disy's. Hence it
became synor4:nous with an ideal locality come
bfiing ease, coinfort and material happiness of
every descript ion. ~In those days..negrosing-,
ing and minstrelsy were in their iriny,-and
av subject thrat could be wrouight into a bal
lad was eagerly picked up.- This.wasthe case
with. 'Dixie.' It originated in New -York-, ar
assumed the proportions of a song --here. ~in
its travels it has been enTnrged and has 'gath
ered moss.' It has piicked up a note here and
there. A ch~orus hias been added to it; and.
from an indistmect chant of t wo.or three notes
it has become an elaborated melody. . Bt'ie
fact that it is not a Southern song canifot be -
rubbed out. The fallacy is so popniar to the
contrary that I have thus~ been at pains to
state the real origin of it."
FROM Sann -rO NOSEI.E.-Sa ys a Io reign~ lefter :
Of all the romranti.e stories in the Arabian Nights',
there is none omre extraordinary than the little
episode that has just occurred at St Petersburg.
You will have noticed that an attempt was made
to shoot the Emrperer, which was frustrated by
thre promrpt action .of a young man who stcCN
near the would-be assassin. That yeung marr,
acting from a mome:.tary imnpulse i st.riking
down the arm he s.nw raised a-gainrst his sovereigrr,
ws afterwards so frightened at his own rashness
that hre ran away as fast as his legs could carry
im. lie was p~ursued and brought back to the
peence of the Emperer, at whose feet he threw
himself in a state of abject terror, as if he hte
been the assassin himself. Thre Emperer raigea
im, embraced and kissed him, and proclaimed
him a Ru.wian noble from that hour. The ro
mance of tihe st -.rv is tis: Tire nrew Russian
noble, onily five mrinrutes before was a poor illiter
te drude~ein a small barttesshop in St. Petersburg.
A week ago his hrabits and daily o ccupation were
of tire most vulgar and menial character. To-day
he ranks with the most ancient nobility of the
empire. A subseription was at once set.on f.ber,
to provide him with means to sustain his neW
dignity, and( preseIds are flowing in upon him
from every direction. His photograph'is displayed
in every s~hrop window, prayers are said for him
in all the eh urche.s, an d a retinue of de- na's
own servants are in ecastant attendance upon
Em.~
The down train Tuesday night. from Petersburg
to Norfolk Lad two cars thrown from the track,
about twelve miles from Norfolk, by an obstinate
bull that tried to butt the engine out of the way.
Tie bull was knocked into a thousand pieceS. No
body was hurt.
A ma~n is on trial in Paris for murderiv;; sir

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