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SYMPTOMS OF A
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SERIOUS DISEASES WILL SOON BE DEVELOPED.
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They Inerense the Appetite, and cause the
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CHINESE COUTRT'S! HP.
The festive Ai Goo
And foo Hay the fair
They met and the two
Concluded to pair.
They "spooned" in the way
That most lovers do,
And Ah Goo kisQed Too Hlay,
And Too Hay kissed Al Goo.
Said this festive Ah Goo,
As his heart swelled with pride,
"Me heap likee you;
You heap be my blide?"
And she looked down
All so modest and pretty,
'Twixt a smile and a frown,
Gently mtrnured: "You bett:. "
From The Chicago Field.
TIXE CULTURE OF
CARP AND CON
BY .RUDOLPH HESSEL.
5.-TAKING THE FISH FROM THE
The emptying out of ponds de
mands the greatest caution and
attention. The water must be
made to flow off very gradually
Lhrough the several outlets, all of
wbich are to be kept open at the
same time; it requires frequently
from ten to eighteen days to draw
Dff the water. The fishes are
riven carefully and slowly with
boats into the principal ditches.
''hey must not be chased on any
.count, or they will bury them.
selves in the mud; occasionally
many thousands will do so within
few moments, and will remain
there, pressed together closely,
and so perish through suffocation.
This is recorded as having occur
red from time to time, when, dur
ng the process of driving them
nto the ditches, the fishes were
tartled by some unknown cause,
and all sank into the mud instan
aneously. Thbrough thbe impossi
ility of extricating them speedily
eough, mr.ny hundreds and even
,bousands perished, the owner sus
aning heavy losses in conse
uence. To guard against such
n emergency, preparations should
e made for an immediate supply
f water in similar cases, in order
o save the fishes. If the fishing
oum progresses in thbe regular man
er, the fishes will by degress
raw off from the ditches into the
ollector. The collecting takes
fom five to six days in large
ponds, containing frequently 100
to 400 tons of fishes. Care should
be taken, that crowding them to
gether may be avoided. On the
evening before the fishing-out,
when the water of the pond has.
been diminished to the depth of
af a foot, those fishes which have
been cQllected are shut off from
the pond by a large net, and in
the early morning, at the dawn
of day, they are caught. As so
large a number of fishes cannot
be disposed of at once, they are
transferred to the so-called mar
ket ponds. f'rom which they are
sold by degrees to fish-dealers.
Tese market-ponds are quite
small, capable of holding from
2,000 to 3,(000 pounds of fish only,
and are supplied with running
Those' who never saw the fish
ing-out of a car-p pond can scarcely
imagine the beautiful sight of so
many thousand fine fishes, fat and
well fed, raising their high ,broad
backs and thick, puffy lips above
the water, their beads side by
side, all being nearly of the same
size, weighing from four to five
pounds, their bodies closely press
ing against each other, looking
like~ an immense herd of sheep.
i mprisonied in one largert net u>n
a circuumfernce of 3.000 to 4,000
feet. Closer and closer the circle
is drawn around them, until its
extent measurecs only about two
acres, when they are caught by
thousands, weighed in lots of 100
pounids, and then thbey ar-e placed
in the market ponds. The pikes,
wich have reached an almost equal
weight, are put into pike-ponds.
It requires often two or three
ay to wveigh the fishes, ponds of
1.000 or 2,000 acres area contain
ing on an average 200 tons of carp
and 20 tons of pike ; tench and
other fishes not included.
I assisted once at the fishing
out of one of these ponds, which
took place in the neighborhood of
the town of Guben Pleitz, pro
vince of Brandenburg, Germany.
TIiie pond was the-property of a
eonipetent culturist and valued
friend, MIr. Thomas Berger,
of Georgenhof, near Cottbus
Peitz. The ponds in which
this gentleman carries on carp
eulture exceed the extent of 6,000
Prussian acres. The pond which
was fished out at the time I speak
of was but a small one, not more
than 200 acres in size, yet to my
surprise I found that the greater
number of fishes were fine speci
mnens of about three pounds'
weight, though they were but in
their second year, having weighed
no more than one and a quarter
pounds five short mouths before
(the fishing-out took place at the
beginning of October), and they
ad attained to this great weight
in a comparatively very limited
space of time. Several establish
inents of this kind are located in
Lhat district, arid they commonly
belong to some large princely do
main (crown property). They
ire, like all large fisheries, ad
:nirably managed, and the results
re most satisfactory.
We have so far spoken of carp
3ulture, according to the different
Lge of these fish, in special ponds
iatching, breeding, and carp
)onds), termed 'class-culture' in
Dentral Europe. W1e must
ow speak of another method,
>ursued in so-enlled 'mixed ponds,'
a which there are fish of all ages,
rom one year to eigbt to ten
Not much can be said regard
ng this method, as there are no
atching or breeding-ponds, but
nly one pond, which, however,
iust combine all the char-acteris
:ies of the class-ponds. It must
therefore have sballowv places,
>vergrown with grass or aquatic
plants (Festuca fluitans and phel
~andrium), for the spawners and
the young fish, and also places,
eight to ten feet deep, for the lar
ger fish. If such a pond is to
yield some profit, it must also be
particularly rich in food. A nat
aral pond may be used, or, if such
i one is not found, it may be arti
ficially constructed. It is indis
pensable, however, that such a
pond should have the same depth
of water all the year round, and
it should be so arranged that even
the last drop of water can be let
off, as occasionally even the small
est fish, measuring only two to
three inches in length, must be
taken out. Such 'mixed ponds'
must like wise have 'collectors' and
'collector-ditches.' It, will also be
found very useful to construct a
sort of hatching- place, on some
fat and sunny place, near the
bank, viz.: a so-called cut in the
bank, measuring 40 to 100 feet in
length, and 30 to 50 feet in
breadth, and having a depth of
five inches to one and a half feet.
This cut should be thickly planted
with the above mentioned aquatic
plants, and ought, so to speak, to
be the only place in the pond
where carp can ascend from the
depth in order to deposit their
eggs conveniently and engage iu
the spawning process.
As soon as this has taken place,
the entrance to this cut is closed
with a net, so the eggs cannot be
eaten by the fish. This n et may
be removed when the young6fsb
have come out of the eg.gs, but it
is [prefer-able to leave it in its
place for some days that the young
fish may be able to fecd for some
Explanation of Diagram - A is
the pond, B the cut, which, thougl
directly connected witn the pond
is in reality nothing but a batching
pond, such as has been describec
above. In order to have a corn
plete system of ponds, notbine
would be required but a 'breeding
In Eu rope this method wa
glberally adopted by beginners it
carp culture, commencing niith
eceling to the small -natching
pondl,' and finally to the breeding
pond,' as the great advantage of
separate ponds for the different.
ages of fish over the 'mixed pond'
system soon became evident.
In such a 'mixed pond' no pike
must be kept for regulating stock,
as may be done in a class-pond.
for all the small fish- would then
soon be devoured. It must be
made a strict rule that, with the
exception of the tench (Cypvinus
tincia,) no other kind of fish, how
ever harmless, is allowed in the
pond. The tench is related to
the carp, but it spawns four to
five weeks later, so there can be
no danger of cross breeds.
Great care should be taken that
no gold-fish (Cyprinus carpio aura
tus) or bream (brana) get in the
pond, for these fish would soon
mix with the carp and tentd to
degenerate the breed. Such fish
should therefore be removed or
killed at once. The gold-fish es
pecially the milter, swims in
spawniug schools like the carp,
and at tbe very same season. It
thus spoils the eggs of the carp,
as all eggs which it impregnates
will produce spotted fish, having
at least a silvery streak - to ' inch
long and k inch broad, between
the caudal and the dorsal fins.
Such bastards (the cross-breeds of
gold fish and Garassius also re
semble them) do not grow larger
than gold-fish, and have as many
bones. They are unfit for table
use and entirely unsuited for or
nament, as they are neither gen
uine carp nor gold-fish, and are
disagreeable objects in the eyes of
the scientist or connoisseur. If
such fish are not removed imme
diately the consequence will be
another cross-breed during the
next spawning-season, for such
a iybrid sp7wrns like the gold-fish,
when it is a year old, and the
breed of carps would degenerate
still more. It is best to kill such
worthless cross-breeds at once, as
they are apt to give great trouble.
I would embrace this oppor
tunity to impress upon every
car-culturist whbo intends to make
breeding-experiments with any
car-p procured through the United
States Fish Commission, the im
portance of having if possible only
one of three above-mentioned
kinds of carp, unless he can have
every kind in a separate pond.
Trhus, the common carp (C!yprinus
carpio communlis) should never be
placed in the same pond with tbe
'mirror-carp' or the 'leather or
naked carp' Cyprinus carpio ale
pidoi us, coriaceus vel nudus,) nor
should the two last-mentioned
varieties ever be in the same
pond. Cross breeds would in
variably be produced, and in
such a manner that one would
have neither genuine common
carps nor genuine mirror or
leather carps, but a cross-lzreed of
all the three varieties. Not even
when|quite young and not yet
capable of spawning should these
varieties be put together, because,
even if they are kept strictly sep
arate during the spawning prio
cess, th)e young fish would never
have the sharply-marked charac
tristics of their variety as re
gards form and color, but would
approach nearer to the 'mirror
carp' and the 'common carp.' The
carp has a striking tendency,
when living with other varieties,
to approach the-primitive form of
the common carp, and finally to
be merged in it. These beautiful
varieties should therefore be kept
strictly separate ; lack of ponds or
any other reason should never in
duce people to mix them.
If the breeding-experiments are
to be accompanied by good re
suts, a pure variety should be
selected, and the finest and best
miters and spawners, showing
stron gly all the characteristics of
their variety should be procur-ed,
and the experiments will be
cowned with success.
I must return to the so-called
'mixed culture,' by mentioning that
it is not to be recommended. I.n
Central Europe it is never prac
ticed by scientific pisciculturists
but only by small operators most
ly in so-called 'peasants' ponds.'
This method does never yield a
Scerain nnd truly profitable result.
(.-FEED IN; TllE CARP.
In conclusion I will make some
remarks on the feeding of c.rp
in close ponds. It is not every
natural pond which is a good
pond, having the essentials of a
good soil at the bottom and capa
ble of producing sufficient food for
the fish. If these conditions are
wanting, the fish must be fed. This
is as a general rule only necessary
in ponds with sandy bottom with
out any clay. As .1 have said
before, I am not in favor of feeding
fish, as my standpoint is that of
the rational culturist sharing the
opinion with most of the promi
nent, piscicuiturists of the OLd
World, that the carp should find
its own food in*the ponds.
If; however, the nature of the
bottom demands artificial feeding,
or if suitable food can be had al. a
remierkably cheap price,the feeding
should be done with great cauticn.
Never f ed in one and t-he same
place ; even if the pond be very
large, distribute the food in differ
out places near the banks. If
the food is always put in one
place, or even if it is distributed
over two places, the carp will stay
in the neighborhood of these
places, will become languid, and
instead of scouring the other ,arts
of the pond in search of food, will
remain at the bottom. It will
even if surrounded by the richest
food, grow fat, but never have
any firm flesh ; nor will it ever
grow much in length, as the some
what phlegmatic fish does not get
the exercise which favors its
Never give thom much food at
one time, but by degrees. in small
quantities, never during the day,
but either early in the morning or
in the evening. During the hot
season only feed them late at
night, because the carp, if it has
eaten sufficient in the morning,
will remain at.the bottom all day,
while during the higher tempera
ture of the water it is necessary
for its health that it should swim
round and get a change of water.
It is therefore useful to place in
ponds containing large carps a lim
ited number of pikes whieb how
ever, must be smaller than the
carp. The carp fears the pike
and flies from it. If there arec
pikes in the pond, the car-p will
get more exercise and will seek
natural feeding-places, whither on
account of its innate sluggishtness
it would never have gone.
Pond-carp are accustomed to
other food than the river-carp.
The former confine themselves to
woms, larve, and plants, while
those living in streams find all
sorts ~of animal and vegetable re
fuse ; these latter can also stand a
greater amount of food, as the
current naturally makes them
take more exercise, thus increas
ing their appetite. It is differ-ent
with the pond-carp ;if you give
it too much food, it will not take
any more than is necessary to
satisfy its hunger ; the remnants
will remain at the bottom, and if
their quantity bc considerable,
they will spoil the water. If these
remnants are chiefly animal re
fuse, as flesh or blood, fungi will
grow on them, and will then pro
duce, as with the salmon and
trout, disease of tho skin, the gille.
and in the case of the car-p, sonmc
times internal diseases.
The writer once had the follow
ing experience: During his ab
sence a number of large eat-p were
fed on coagulated blood which had
begun to putr-efy; the fish devoured
it eagerly, got sick, and most ot
Ithem died in a few days from an
inflammatiou of the intestines.
Spoilt food should never be given
to fish. If slaughter-house or
kitchen refuse c-an be had ,give
these, cbopped up small about the
size of peas. Never give so much
that r-emnants remain for- any
length of time in the water anid
begin to putrefy. Let no one be
induced by the circumstance that
the car-ps like to eat the dung of
hops, sheep and cows, to feed
them on any putrefyinig matter-.
Thcre arc instances on r-eord
that ther-eby epidemics, par-ticular
ly diseases of the scales, have
The cat-p likes above everything
- e.seveetbl matter such as cab
ba e, lettl1eC. ouilcd potatoes, cr .11
turips, pumpl kills. m1elols, etC.
The r.use .f malt fron breweries
and distiileies is also very good
food for carp ; and w her.ver suci.
refuse can be had. it t-houltl be
given to the fish. -
The small pisciculturists, hav
ing a pond of perhaps one tO two
acres real his housc. tt ill often Le
able to feed his fish on1 refuse, as
lie will always have it fresh from
the kitchen and stable.
In conclusion, I. earnestly re
COn. :id the eiltuire of the carl
to all pisciculturists. If the value
of the carp for table use has once
been recognized, it will become a
highly esteemed fish, especially in
the neighborhood of large popu.
lous cities, and its culture will
yield a larger and more certain
profit than the expensive trout.
S.-EXTENT OF CARP-CULTURE IN
In Europe many thousand acres
of artificial waters are to be
found. In these enormous quanti
ties of carp are bred. Some of
these ponds, or rather lakes, have
an extent of about 1,000 to 2,000
acres. They are provided with
gigantic darns, many of them six
ty feet high. By these the water
is closed in, into broad valley, con
taining no other fishes than carps
from four to five pounds in weight.
If we consider the size ofthese
lake-like ponds surrounded by
enormous dams which are over
o grown with oak-trees 100 to 300
years old. series of three and more
of these lakes being not uncom
mon, then we can form some idea
as to the remunerativeness of
these establishments, particularly
The standard establishment
with regard to the most extin
sive business transactions is found
in Austria. The Prince of
lSchwarzen berg, of whom I have
spoken previously, possesses more
than 250 ponds of large size, the
smallest having about ten acres,
the largest 2,000 acres' water ex
We find many villages wbere
ponds of fity to two hundred and
more acres are maintained at the
expense of'the community.
9.-THE TABLE QUALITIES.
If the carp were a fish of in
ferior quality, like the buffalo-fish,
for instance, its sale would doubt
less be limited to the sea-port
towns of Northern G'ermany and
the principal Cities of Central
Eui'ope, as Vienna, Berlin, and
Paris. In the latter city, in spite
of' an abundant supply of salt
water and different kinds of fresh
water fish, the carp is ever pre
ferred to these, anrd, with the ex
ception of trout and salmon, it
frequently commands a price three
times as high as that of all the
I maintain my assertion that
the carp, whether it be scale, mir
r ior, or leather carp), is one of' the
most excellent f'resb water fishes,
and its introduction will be of
great value in point of' national
economy. especially on account of
the facility of its culture and the
enormous extent to which this
may be carried on.
'T be carp and its value as a fish
of culture will before long be fully
appreciated so that we may be
enabled favorably to compare the
results of its culture in America.
as also the extent attained to,
with any other country, to our
STEUI-POWER BY HORSE
A few days ago as we passed a
door in G'old street. away down in
the dense wholesale quarter,
Maryantha said :'Billy is a turn
ing that crank ?' 'Who's Billy ?'
sai 1. 'B3WIly is Patrick's pard
ner,! say's 3Maryantha. 'Let's go
up and see him !' We wen t un
dcr a turning wheel and belt in
adirty alley way, and( up b sev
ral more wheels and belts and
bits of' shafting, winding up irreg
ular stairs till my knees began to
ache, and I said :'Is it a shot
tower?' 'Take it slow,' says
3aryantha, never altering her
gait ; 'I comec up here every
month.' As we proceeded up
wa a noise -a of a grist nAILl
a;1"e rti,enients in%-ert ci at the rate (.
1 ; prr s.quare (one inch) for first insert:Ot
7u: .? cc'nts for E":-,h S~ubsequ~ent inisert,n
NoJic& o1 m ~enniig , oIitwo,ie anitriI,i:/j~
r(.i1 ;", 1 c i*11C ner -o racas 01-d i
>' ! . ia \(mices in Local c( '!uinn I.) e'nt
Advertiis(-;unts nrot marked \\ ~ii the nunT
',"r!J :t rtriI1 \Viil b, ,,cpr itn il IOrl,i,.
DONE WITH NEATNES. ANDI) 1)tPATt-:1
.rraidirg iticrea:;;d in power, and
also the -ourid o:' the cracking of
4L Whip. The roofs of the s u r
rounding blocks fell far' beneath
UiS, the jlaiior':1ina of both rivers
exten5dedI to the neirlhorini' green
of Battery l ,l and !he white
ligrht of hca: en itt afternoon filled
every' window and aperture.
lere's Billy.: exclaimed MMary
antha, pusoiig cpeCi a door. We
eniter'ed a little shanty built like a
c:uj)ola on the dizzy summit of a
decrepit aiid ai"tiquated tenement
roof, and there all alone fulfy 200
feet from the ground, was a gray,
lean, starveling horse. hauling at
lever or bar behird hinm in a cir
cle. le stopped bolt still when
he saw _laryantha, and this
brougbt from sonmc other spot of~
sbolter, a Ittle down the stairway,
an aged Irishman with a wbip
lash w ll tcorn, which he cracked
smartly and shouted : 'Billy, git
up, ye lazy crature! Why, Molly,
how is the times wid ye, dar'lint?"
Jrary antha took an apple from her
porket. and gaveP it. to t he ho'rse,