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" TO TIIINB OWN SELF UE TKUE, AND IT MUST FOLLOW, A8 TUB NIG1IT TUB DAY, T1I0U CANVr NOT THEN EE FALSE TO ANY MAN "
VOL. 1. PICKENS COURT HOUSE, S. C. FRIDAY, MAY 18, 1849. NO. 1.
?? - J?
KFOV KK COURIEIC,
vrix.lo and fl'dmhukil wjekkl.y by
W. II. TETMMIER.
NORMS <t KEITH, Editor*.
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Written for the Kkowek Courier.
A FllA 1MENT.
"There is a Ood,n tlio flowers smile,
Ilia name is whispered on tho winil;
Tho gathering clouda?tho mountains wild,
And rolling rivors speak "of him.
IDeop?docp beneath tho ocean's wave,
The gentle spirits breathing tell
His praises, in their coral cave,
And wake with joy tho wild sea-shelL
The dewy morn and evening gray,
The still night with its thousand stars;
And every voice and'every lay ?
Of earth and heaven, his nuitid declare*.
Thun thus, in* nil her count loss tonoa,
Great nature sings in lofty (strains,
And something i' the heart that mourns,
Echoes with joy "Jehova reigns!"
Ho reigns within the poriceful brenst
As deep seas sleep beneath their foam,
And they who sink in faith, to rest,
Aro wUh Him in thqir, ffoldo^|ieqiQ.
EXTHACT niOM A LECTURE ON
THE INmt'l'ii "AIS 1J THE BUUTIi,
Delivered before tho Young Men's Mercantile
Library Association of Cincin
nati, Obio, January 10, 1849.
BV ELWOOD FIFHKR
Tbe progress and prospects of tbo
Northern and Southern sect ions of this Union
involves some of the greatest and
gravest questions of the age. Each has
u form of civilization peculiar to itself,
and to modem times. Tbe confederacy
which has been formed by their union
has astonished the world bv its Micro**
but tlio world, as well as the two sections
themselves, differ very widely as to
the causes of this success, and the agency
of the two respective systems of society
in producing it.
This controversy has long been advancing
on the country, and now, in consequence
of recent events, it has become
goneral. In this part of the country,
however, we have had but one side: nr?d
as tho subject is one of the ft'rst magnitude,
I have thought it highly important
that it should be well examined.?
In a Commercial Institution like this, it
is peculiarly proper that tho causes* of
tho wealth Ki d the sources of the commerce
of the country should be well understood.
When the Constitution of tho United
States was adopted, the population of
the two sections of the United States
was nearly equal?uuch being r.ct quite
two millions of inhabitants, the South
including more than half a million of
slaves. The territory then occupied by
the two was, perhaps, also nearly equal
in extent and fertility. Their commerce
W<ik als6 about the some; the North exp6rting
about $0,800,540 in 1790, and
the South $9,200,500.* Even the property
held by the two sections was almost
exactly the same in amount, being ab'out
400,000 millions in value each, according
to an assessment for direct taxes in
1790.* For the first quarter of a centurv
of thft nrAnAlif mivpinmoni. nr* tn
j? IE 16, the South took the lend of the
i, North ii. Commerce: as at the end of
' ' that period tho*exports of trie Southern
States amounted to about thirty millioai
of dollars, which was five millions more
than tho Northern. At this ,itime,* in
1810, Hfllth Carolina and New York
were thJi two greatest exporting . States
of t?ho Union, South Carolina exporting
moro than $10,000,000, and New York
According^ the asBessmcnto made by
authority of tflfc-Fe^orfil Oo/eminent in
1815"fov direct taxes, the va^uo of propty
in the Southerrf States risen to
$850>5.'74,0d7i the white population be- j
ing then, according to*n avefrHge bf the I
of J $10 and that of 1020, about j
'*< >, *
SBImmitei?? rtHif-.. id- ninJri'rtfot^ i
2,749,705, or about $312 per head,
whilst the property of the Northern
States amounted to $1,042,782,204, for
4,020,550 population, or only $240 per
Even in Manufactures the South, at
that period, excelled the North in proportion
to the numbers of their population.
Tn 1810, according to the returns of the
Marshals of the U. Slatca, the fabrics of
..wi, wwii iinu linen, mnnuiacturca in
the Northern States, amounted to 40,341,274
yards, valued at $21,001,.'525,
whilst the South fabricated 34,786,407
yards, estimated at $10,771,724. Thus,
after the lapse of the first quarter of u
century, under our present form of Government,
the South had surpassed the
North, in Commerce, in Manufactures,
and in the accumulation of wealth, in
proportion to the number of citizens of
the respective sections.
Since that period a great change has
occurred. The harbors of Norfolk, of
Richmond, of Charleston, and Savannah,
have been deserted for those of Philaddt?
phia, New York and Boston; and New
Orleans is the only Southern city that
pretends to rival its Northern competitors.
The grass is jjrow'n? in the stre 8 of I
those cltics of the South, which originally
monopolized our colonial commerce
and maintained their ascendancy in the
earlier years of the Union. Manufac
turcs nnd the arts have also gone to take
up their abode in tho North. Cities
have been expanded and multiplied in
the same favored region ' nnd
canals have been constructed, nnd education
has delighted there to build her
colleges and seminaries.
These phenomena have made a profound
impression on reflecting minds
throughout the Union, and particularly
in the South. By her leading statesmen,
these result have been ascribed to
the policy pursued by the Federal Government
since 181G. It'was at this pcthat
the system of direct taxation
was fiitalK' abandoned, and the whole
interest of the public debt, then so much
; augmented by the war, as well as the increased
expenditures of the Government,
were made, chargeable on the foreign
commerce of the country, except the
slight income from the public lands.?
And uti tit the close of the war, the principal
articles of export, in exchange for
winch, we obtained our foreign goods,
consisted of cotton, tobacco, and rice, it
, was held that the new policy was a peculiar
burden on tho States that r?ro
duced those staples. In addition to fh;j,
the establishment of a Bank of the United
States located at the North, with
large deposites of Government money,
and enabled by the confidence of the
i Government to maintain a large circulation,
which would naturally be devoted
to the promotion of Northern commerce,
it was thought also adverse to
Southern oflmmnroinl rivnlrv I'lioon
' measures were the work of a Republican
' Administration of the Government, but
, they were strenously opposed by the
State Rights party. On their passage
in Congress, it was declared by John
Randolph, one of the most profound and
sagacious statesmen, Virginia, or any
other country ever produced, that a revolution
in our Government had occurred,
whose consequences no man could calculate.
The result verified this prcdic
uon. uur population is now twenty
millions, unci yet it is thought by nil parties
that twenty-five millions of dollars
per annum is enough for the support of
Government in time of peace. Yet sixteen
years ago, when our population
was hut little more than half of what it
is now, this Government exacted $32,000,000
as duties on our foreign imports,
1 itJi i- *
tmu Limt u>o, wnomj, in consequence of
this heavey hurdeiFon our foreign trade,
we only jjbpoHed 04,$00,000. The Government
took half the value of the imports,
as a tax on foreign trade. This
41. -< ? ' ?
uuKiago nna uiu uuusc OI OOUU1 UttrOllllfl
Now the power of the Federal Governor
\ over foreign commerce, is, by
the Constitution, precisely the spme as
that among the States. It is a power to
regulate only. And the South contended
that inasmuch ar. the imoorts from
abroad were the proceeds chiefly of her
staple exports, and wore therefore, to all
intents and purposes, the product of hor
industry ana capital, that thore was no
moro constitutional right to tax them on arriving
in our ports, than to tax the
products of tho North, when shipped to
When, therefore, the sta'esnfSn of the
South reflect on the great <x>mmercial
nntt manufacturing prosperity of their
country in the days af direct taxation,
and behold now her dilapidated cities
and deserted harbors under the chango
of syst em, ia it wonderful that t hey have
majir *W lL-n_ -?
uniw ui congress eloquent |
' Till". rM'
with the ruin and wrong (hat they have
suffered? Or it is wonderful that the
North whilot it cannot believe that what
litis been so conducive to its own prosperity,
should be detrimental to others,
should yet toko the South at its word as
to its decline, and seek for other causes
of such a result. This has been done,
and negro slavery law with extraordinary
unanimity been fixed upon as the
greaUand efficient of Southern decline.
And ibis now assumed that tho South,
particularly the older States, is undergo
mg me process ot impoverishment, depopulation,
and decay. At the North
she is continually spoken of by almost
all classes. ir\ terms of mingled condemnation
and pify, and pride. She is advised
to emancipate-her slaves, and emulate
the North, in enterprise, industry,
Tho first object of civilised life is to
accumulate wealth, as on that depends
improvement in science and the arts, and
the supplv of the multipied wants of society
in that state.
A.wi :* 41?* t\.~ ci?.ii. J
iiviiw lb in billtb UlU lOUUlll IN U?clared
to be falling behind the civilization
of the aire, and is advised to abandon
her peculiar institution in order to
avoid the. disastrous condition of ignorance
and barbarism that awaits her.
Now in an age like this, of pre-emin
nil, intelligence, wnn tne schoolmasters
all abroad?with (be universal diffusion
of the press, and the. post, and om a question
like this, of the first magnitude, and
tho k-??t complexity, and vvnu&t tT?e people
of the two sections aro continually
travelling amongst each other, and engag
cu in uiscussions "wiin one another 111
stages and steamboats, in cam, in hotels,
on the Stump, and in Congress?it is
scarcely credible that a universal mistake
prevails as to the facts. Yet in opposition
to the existing opinion on the
subject, I maintain that the South is
greatly the superior of the North in
wealth, in proportion to the number of
iL - ?V* < - "* * * *
meir citizens respectively; nrui tins will
appear by n comparison and progress of
tlie white, people of the respective sections.
The North, and even ninny In the
South, have assumed a decline in manufactures
and commerce, to be a decline
of general prosperity. This ia an error.
The p licy of the Federal Government,
and the domestic institutions of the South
ern states, nave indeed been unfavorable
<o the latter in those pursuits, but the
agriculture of the South has maintained
and advanced in prosperity beyond that
"f onother people.
[to he continued next week.]
EMANCIPATION IN KENTUCKY.
The Kentucky papers inform us that
the late :Convention of the Friends of
Emancipation in that State, which assembled
at Frankfort on the 25th ultimo,
\v;lS im\'sirlr>d niwliv <~V1 TInnm ru.,..
of Bourbon county, assisted by Henry
Wingntc as Vicc President, and Frank
Ballinger as Secretary.
Tlie Lexington Observer gives the following
as the plan of action resolved on
by the Convention.
" This Convention, composed of citizens
of the Commonwealth of Kentucky,
and representing the opinions and wishes
of a large number of their fellow citizens
throughout the Commonwealth, met in
the cnpitol on the 25th A pril, 1849, to
qonsider wh.H course it becomes those
who are opposed to the increase and to tho
perpetuity of slavery in this Stnte fo pursue,
in the approaching canvass for members
of the Convention called to amend
the constitution, adopts the propositions
which follow, as expressing its judgment
in the promises:
"1. Believing that involuntary hereditary
slavery, as it exists by law in this
State, is adverse to the prosperity of the
Commonwealth, inconsistent with the
fundamental piinciples of free government,
contrary to tho natural rights of
mankind, and injurious to a pure state of
morals, we wo of opinion thnt it ought not
to be increased, and that it ought not to
be perpetuated in this Commonwealth.
1 " 2. That no attempt ought to be made j(
now, or at any time, tp set slaves free by
compulsory emancipation, without just
compensation, after rights of property
have been allotted i-6test in them; but 1
that ev^ry soltfSie for the compulsory ex tinction
of slavery in Kentucky ought14 to
begin with those bofn after the com- 1
mencement of the scheme, and^that tho '
removal of the liberated slavedJ ought to 1
form a part of every such plan.
" 3., JThat we recommend tho following
points as those to bo insisted on in tho
new constitution, ajj^l tbat candidates be
run in every county m the State favorable
to thes6 or similar constitutional pro- 1
visions: 1. The absolute prohibition of 1
>t * A . ~
uie impoixation of any more slaves into 1
Kentucky; 2. The complete power in
the people of Kentucky to enforce and 1
. - '$ *
M - :^WN!
perfect, in or under the new constitution,
a system of gradual prospective emancipation
"4. This Convention confines its recommendation
to the question of negro
slavery, and makes no expression of opinion
on any other topic."
The Convention (the Ofcw.rver remarks)
was not very numerously attended, but
twenty-three out of the one hundred and
three counties in the State being represented
and by about one hundred and I
fifty delegates. There was, nevertheless, |
miu n vespecianiuty ana talent in the Convention,
and three-fourths of .the body
are reported to have been slave-holders.
The principal speakers in the Convention
were Judge Nicholas, Rev. Dr. William
L. Breckinridge, lion. Wm. P. Thomasson,
Rev. Dr. 11. J. Breckinridge, Samuel
Shy, Esq., Rev. John C. Young, C. M.
Clay, Esq., and Rev. S. Robinson.
The Editor of the^ Observer protests
against the platform adopted by the
Convention ns indicating that the emancipation
question is to he made a prominent
issue in the election c.i Delegates to
the Convention to revise the Constitution,
and, professing to know something o*the
public feeling on the subject of slavery,
asserts that "no body of men, however
lofty their names or dear to the hearts of
the people they may be, will be able to
change the settled Convictions of the
people in regard to it."
From tlio. JY. Y. Sun, May 4.
Yntovr.HtiimfC from Cllili.
Wo have received Via Panama, our
regular packages of Chilian newspapers,
to the 5th of March, from which we
make the following extracts :
The meat tide of
vwi&iuviuu TVAliVsU 13
setting towards California from all parts
of the Pacific coasts and the States has
aroused a fear among tbe Chilians, that
unless active measures are taken, that
country will be left in the lurch.
A new vein of silver lias been struck
among the mines of Copiapo, which
proves to he of astonishing richness. The
last steamer brought into Valparaiso over
a million of dollars in silver from these
mines, besides five hundred thousand
dollars in gold from California. At Co- j
piapo me miners arc excavating in pure
silver. Tlicy advance hardly a yard per
month, in consequence.
The recent explorations at Copiapo
have given rise to the opinion that the
Chilian mines will yet rival, if not.surpas3
those of California.
By Telegraph to the Jour, of Commerce.
LATER FROM MONTREAL,
Address to Lord Elgin?The Governor
still absent, (6c., d'c.,
Montreal, May 3d, noon.
Since the issuing of the address of the
British party calling upon tho people to
prcscve the peace no more riots have occurred.
The organization of the various wards
for ulterior purposes, if the n-ws from
England should render them necessary,
is rapidly going on. The military guard
still continues in the place where parliament
meets, and in tne Government office.
Several French addresses, expressive
of confidence in the Ministry, have been
presented to Lord Elfin.
It was reported this morning that the j
Governor would come in from his country
seat, but he did not. Groups of persons
were waiting about all tho morning in
expectation of his coming, but it is not
believed that any further violence will be
shown to him.
The Ministry have sustained a quasi
defeat in the Legislative Council. For
three days the Ministerial partisans have
been trying to get up an afldrcss to the
Governor, similar in tone to that of the
Assembly, but it would not do.
Tfl.Hav htr n ?1 ~
- J > "J " U1 ViUJ UIIU VUIC,
the debate on the matter was postponed
for ft fortnight, in order to get a full
It is said that the Upper Canada radices
have refused to allow the sittings of
^hnt House to be transferred to Quebcc. '
From the Montreal Herald of Tuesday.
Aftev the release of the prisoners on
Saturday afterday afternoon, overy thing
On Mondav raominty thn wr>r/>
4 # o #M V,*V I
[us muefc as usual, till towards the middle J
of the day. Tho House? met in the Bonsecours
Market at 10 o clock, though it
transacted no business, in consequence of
tho determination arrived at on Saturday
to present the address voted on that day.
The only topic of public consequence
which was mooted in tho streets, was the
appointment of Jfthn Young, Esq., to tho i
? ->?QIUV1UVU \Jl HIQ Vlljfi illAllll IIIIU !
clay it became generally well known, that
the Governor vjjftteral was to coma to
town to receiyt ttie address at half past
?, 4 . I
two o'clock; apd the people gradually
passed round the Government I louse, as
on Fridayend Saturday. In the meantime
numerous bodies of t? x>ps were stationed
in places near the Government
House. But the people continued to assemble
and the streets presented an appearance
much more thronged than on
the preceding days.
Prose uV the carriage appeared, and
its appeavunce was the signal for a pro
jvu uiiu groan irom the assembled
multitude. As his Excellency passed,
the Guard House, some persons standing
in the gateway, which goes to the Campde
Mars, continued, during tho whole
time he was passing, to throw eggs into
The members deputed to convey tho
sense of the House to his Excellency,
presented the addrest of the majority of
what are called the representative of tho
Ilis Excellency replied as follows:
* * * *
My confidence in the good sense, moderation,
and loyalty of the body of the
people is however, in no dcgrco shaken
by what has occured.
It is satisfactory to me to receive tho
assurance that the course of justice and
impartiality which I have followed, in tho
\.e ii. - c-?.?! " -
uicjviuu^.C Ui I luiClIvIiS 01 !*!y
office meets your approval. That coureo
is prescribed to me by my duty to my
Sovereign and to the inhabitants of tho
Province. A free people ca*> hardly fail
to discover in the faithful observance of
n\\ constitutional guarantees, the best security
for the preservation of their rights
No efforts will be wanting on my part
to secure tho preservation of tlie peace of
the city, and I sincerely trust that by tho
exertions of the Legislature and Executive
authorities, nr.'! the co-operation of
all the friends of order, this object may
The people wait the egress of the Governor
General. Instead of returning
+ TA . .... ?
impugn i^iiinu street to the IJlaco
d'Armes, the carriage proceeded in tho
other direction, and was travelling at tho
most rapid paco towords Sherbrooko
Some of the persons who had been
standing about Gosford street, were of
course aware of what whs going on, and
these followed the carriage as speedily aa
possible. Others took cabs, calecbes^
every thing that would run?It was a
chase. At length His Lordship was overtaken
at Mr. Molson'3 <Jbrner, between
Sherbrooke street and the Main street of
the St. Lawrence subums.
At tins point a lurious attack was mado
with stones on the carriage; the back of
it was completely smashed in; and ita
course, which appeared , at first, to bo
directed by way of Sherbrooke street,
was changed to the road which goea
round the bach of the mountain. In this
sad manner did his Lordship depart yesterday,
from the capital of ller RrifcnVmiA
Majesty's possessions in North America.
In addition to the foregoing qarticulftrs,
we learn that the Governor General, in
coming to town, was pelted from the end
of Great St. James Street, and that on
entering the Government House, ho carried
in his hand a largo stone taken from
the bottom of the carriage, and that Colonel
Bruce received a contusion in the
Knpl/ nnv+ r\f ' *" 1 *
p..? u wid uoau vy owjius inrown
into the carriage.
FURTHER FOREIGN EXTRACTS.
PER, AMERICA AT NEW YORK.
[From Wilbur <fr Smith's European Tinea,
Much sensation was excited in Pflris ort
Sunday, and continued the whole of tile
day, in conm/uence of some person of
persons haviher the niirht nrfivirnm
down tho tree of liberty 5n tho Place da
la Croix Rouge, where six streets meet.
The tf&e^as completely sawn through at
the root, and lay on the ground. Tho
police made the most active exertions to
discover the nerson whr? tTiA
. . - J ..1W V4IW. WUV ?Ul, UUb
in vain. The only reparation that could
bo rtmdrt under the circumstances was
made, namely, tho planting of another
tree, by o^der of tho mayor, on the same
spot, and decorating it With immortelles
and tri-colored ribands information was
received that nn bn/i
-..-t ---- mvvii VfUUUlU"
tod on in conKoquence; but bodies of polico
had been from fin early hour stationed
in every part of the quarter to suppress
the first attempt that might be made, and
A hostile meeting took place on the
i4th, at 5 in the evening, between M.
Tj(?dru flrtrJ \f T1?ir?rvt? ?>?? ?
~ ; "VT *** vqo
Post de Ncuilly. The parties were placed
at twenty paces distance. M. Ledm
Rollin fired, but the pistol of M. Dettjoy
burtg five. 'Ilio second^ then intefpoMv.
1 he National aniioirafes that the GaH#