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Keowee courier. (Pickens Court House, S.C.) 1849-current, June 02, 1849, Image 1

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nil inn run. Illc 2VKUWSK UOURIKB." j
' $ Twfts midnights, !ono and ghostly time,
And mnny a vision fled,
Like shadows o'er the Bleeping mind,
Mingling the living with the dead.
And light aud darkness mingled thero,
And mingled wight and Bound,
As on tho hollow midnight air
The strange forma danced around.
At length the shadows fled away,
And ceased the ghostly strife;
And then I brw an opening day
With childhood, laughing into life. 1
A boy was playing 'mong the flowom, i
A fair haired sunny child was he, I
As smiling as tho snulinjt hours. <
Ap pure as dying infancy, i
O yes, he seemed so fresh?bo bright, ,
So innocent find guy. j
Each niqmcnt brought a new delight
To his boyhoods happy day. (
A song seemed murmuring on the streams, j
And whispered on the breere,
While fairies danced on the shining beams
That streamed through green-leafed trees. (
The earth, tlio earth seemed ?ay and srrccn. 1
In lii?heart 'twas always May,
Atw ' the ccn.wlcBs songs of the birds, I ween,
V ore gladder than to-day.
Then sometimes to tho wild?wild woods '
That huiig round his childhoods home, 1
I saw him go on ventures told,
In those early days to roam.
For even then into his heart '
Strung? feeling* often htole,
And many a wild nnd restless thought j
Would rise upon hia aoul. i
Next youth, ita dreams of lovo and song,
Ita burst* of flowing soul
And bursting thought* that rush along, (
And novor know control
Ita countless visions pure and light
That strotchcd to tbc far unknown, 1
T*? > ~i? -??? 1 ? 1
ntwuoiuiu 111^11 BQU ongnx,
And love wcro all hi* own.
The blood took fire at every thought,
His leaping spirit none could tome,
For in hi* wild life there wm naught '
But love, and a dream of fame.
' 'I
And then youth quickly fled away, ,
Like meteors thwart the sky, \
And left him in his hearts decay,
' PoHorted, and alone to dio. I
Ask not the cause; enough to know
Love vanished like a Hummer'h dream,
All joy departed, and in wo,
And night, hope quenched her golden beam. .
Then like a lost ship, tempest tossed,
And driyen over unknown seas,
Without a star to guide its course,
The plaything of each varying brecic.
He drifted out on Ufc'tt dask sea, i
Forlorn and compacted*, till cart
On thy dread shores. Etemltv.
. w - w ? V ?
Ihim wreckcd, and lost Uot
! ' 1" '1
Delivered before the Young Men's Mer- (
eantile Library association of Cincinnati,
Ohio, January 16,1840. ,
w- A -
" ? luiwb now consider tne ette^t upon <
the various elements of civilization of a i
population once wealthy ana rural like <
that of the South. 1
In covjmuiitie* which have acquired 1
great wealth, It is alma V^jfercrsal thft \
such wealth is very unequally distributed. )
Extreme poverty and extrom* wealth i
characterize the population?but the Itanss
are poor. This if> porhaps inevitsbia i
where manufactures or oo^rnerceor^- i
qww are uw mean# 05 aoqujeiUon. AM 1
in England this is atrtk&gly display*}. 11
':M t/.s . . . ? .. . ?
But it is not so in an Agricultural people.
I know it is a common opinion, that,'
? much groater inequality of property ex- <
ista in the South than in the North. But |
although I do not possess exact knowljdge
on this point, there is enough known j
to prove that this cannot be the case.
The State of Virginia allows none to exarcise
the electivo franchise but white
freeholders, leaseholders of five years, I
md housekeepers who are heads of family
xr? * ?
huh lb wppc-uin Dy tno returns of
the Presidential election of 1844, that
Virginia gave about 96,000 votes; allowing
10,000 for voters who did not attend
the polls, and it appears that there are
105,000 free white males in that State
who are either freeholders, leaseholders,
housekeepers and heads of families, and
by the census of 1840 there were only
157,089 white males in the State above
the age of 21 ; so that two thirds of them
nre either freeholders, leaseholders or
housekeepers. T do not know what proportion
of the Northern States are freeholders,
but 1 have seen a detailed statement
from one of the interior counties of
New York, from which it appears that
oniy nail ol the voters were freeholders;
and when we consider that the cities of
New York and Boston contain nearly
half the property of the States to which
they respectively belong, and that in those
cities pauperism prevails to a greater extent
than any where else in the Union, it
Is very clear that great inequality of property
The State of Ohio, a new State and
an agricultural one, nnd very prosperous,
may be presumed to enjoy a tolerable
nnnnl ? 1
uvjuui uiainuuuun oi property, xticrc
are in this State, by the last assessment,
about fifty thousand pleasure carriages,
and the possession of one of those, is an
indication of a comfortable condition of a
family.?In Virginia, there were in 1847,
over 19,000 ; and that in a white population
about one third as great as ours is
now. This proves that the degree of
Mimfnrt. on?li - ?* -
v .. invai nuuii ^nwtUlinillUUIlU) 111111'
nates, is more diffused in Virginia than in
Ohio. The proportion of dwellings built
in a year, is another indication of comfort,
md the degree of its diffusion among the
people. According to the returns of the
marshals in 1840, Massachusetts, whose
white population is nearly the same with
that of Virginia, built 324 brick houses
inthatvear. Virorinm built, am nr nan*
?o " ly
one fourth more. Massachusetts built
1,249 wooden houfies in the same year,
Virginia, 2,604, or more than double.
The cost of the houses in Massachusetts
was $2,707,134: in Virginia, only $1,367,393,
or about one half. Now if this
excess in the cost of the houses of Ma <sichusetts
.bcj-ftttributi ble to tho excess of
business, or manufacturing structures
among them, it swells the proportion of
dwellings built i;i Virginia, and thus displays
n still greater progress in comfort
among tho population of the latter. But
if the excess of cost in Massachusetts is
Dwing to the superior style of her dwellings,
it proves, pince the number is so j
much less, a still greater inequality of j
nmnori ir A ?' 'L 1 1
k.wi/vivT. wvmpai isua uk mi' nouses
built in Now York, the same year with
those of Virginia, exhibit* similar results.
And I will add that the same thini? is
true, by a comparison between Virginia
and Ohio, although one is considered the j
most declining, the other the moat advancing
State in the Union; one supposed to
be the most unequal in the distribution |
of property; the other the reverse. In
1840 Ohio built 970 brick, and <>.MAA.
wooden houses, at the cost of $3,778,820.
Thus, whilst we had twice the
white population, we built only a fourth
more of houses. Kentucky, also, aa well
as Virginia, surpassed Ohio in this re
- ' * * * *
sjjcci. xvemucicy Dimt 445 briok, and
7,757 wooden houses; thus with only
40 per cent, of Ohio's white population,
Bhe built 75 per cent, of the number of
houses Ohio did. The fact is that is that
Virginia and Kentuoky constructed in
that vear. mnr? hnlMin? ! ? ?
?...u?>Ko iii piu|mniuii
to the whole population, bl&ck and white,
than Ohio and Massachusetts. Thin re*
suit does not appear, indeed, in the cities/
or in the p-inoipal streets of cities, and
therefore has not come to the knowledge
of fugitive and superficial observers, or
newspaper iteminongers, but it is demon- j
itrated Dy labors of the officers of gov- j
srnmewt who were required to vieit the
jountry asweiiaa the towns, the bv-wys
ind the high-waya, and it b triumphant
evidence ofextraonlitwy agaref*te pre1-parity
and wide* i!*ead individual com- J
sort of the States which have been eelec*d
by thfl new school of politicians and
[joliticrtl economists as the object* of their
lympathie* and vic'ima of their theories.
The same relative condition of comfort
n the two reeneotive seetiona of the Tinon
h indicatoa in their food. Although
Virgiria is not an exporter of animal food, j
thel'i oneof the greatest producers of it, I
V,\j,. ,\4>
of all the State*. Ir? 1.340, she.'possessed
1,992,150 hogs, which is almost identically
the umo number that Ohio had,
although Ohio has twice the white population,
and as is well known, is a large
exporter of pork, whilst Virginia imports,
in addition to her own stock, a large
quantity. New York with three times
the white population, was materially behind
Virginia in this resoect. Now it. k
well known that tho great mass of provisions
oroduced in any State, arc designed
for domestic consumption, as the cost
of transporting them to the dwelling of
ah agricultural people is too great to admit
of their importation. Hence, the products
of such people afford a good criterion
of the character of thei- food. The
stock of neat cattlc in New York was 1,911,244;
in Virginia, it was 1,024,148,
the proportion of Virginia being still the
greatest. In sheep alone was New York
better off, having 5,118, 777, whilst Virginia
had 1,203,772, which, however, is
only about 150,000 less than her share.
The proportion of poultry in Virginia is
double that of New York. And in all
viicau articles v lrgirua is n?;!! more the
superior of Ohio than of New York.?
So also is Kentucky. So that if 'it be
said that New York is an importer of
such provisions, and thcrofore consumes
more than her production indicates, what
is to be said of Ohio, which exports them
all. Now in determining the I'elative
comfort of two civilized communities in
the same climate, the quantity of animal
food they respectively consume, is a well
established criterion. .Yet, here is i
State in the warmer climate consuming
the greater Dronoriion. For whon it io I
considered that the hog is killed for food |
nt the age of eighteen months or 2 years,
and neat cattle at five or six years, it will
appear that the excess of animal food in
Virginia or Kentucky over New York or
! Ohio is quite large?is quite large, indeed,
even if we include the slaves as well as
' the free population of the former States.
A reference to the quality of brendstuffs
and other vegetable food, leads to the
i same conclusion. Virginia is the largest
producer of wheat, the finest and costliest
material of of anv tfther fltntn. nr.
cording to her population. Hor crop of
1840, was 10,109,716 bushels ; that of !
New York was only 12,280,418, of Ohio
10,571,061. All these arc wheat exporting,
as well as wheat consuming States,
h\it still the great mass of the article ipust
be consumed in the respective States of
its nrrvlllHinn In r>rnnnrti<? 1
j ? ^w.vo Alt piU|A/l IIU1I iV* UV/I
white population, Virginia produces twenty-five
per cent, of wceat * ore than Ohio,
and txo hundred per cent, more than
New York! Not by importation, but by
the substitution of potatoes, that cheapest
article of vegetable food, to which the
misfortunes or improvidence of Irclnnd
have driven her. New York, instead of
HV1 paupillllUII ui niicnv Willi
Virginia, which would be thirty-five millions
of bushels, instead of twelve, produces
annually thirty millions of bushels
of potatoes, and it is remarkable that
Virginia, with nearly a hnlf million of
slaves, instead of resorting to this cheap
food for them, produces only about, three
millions of bushels of po'atoe*, and proj
vides her negroes with co *n, of which her
I annual mm 5b #Kaht ??<i -
_ J. ^ ..WMW Villi VJ TJUI CIJ1U a
half millions of bushels, and which in a
I much more costly and substantial article
of food. The tendency manifested by
New York to prefer the cultivation of the
cheapest, but the more precarious and
less nourishing article of vegetable food is
also distinctly visible in all the Northern
8tates, and is a fact which always deserves
to be wnsidered in any estimate of
their present and future comfort. In
Massachusetts, agriculture is rapidly declining,
particularly the production of the
finer sorts of breadstuff's?& fact ;?
admitted And lamented by one of her
leading papers?the Boston Atlas.?The
following statements are from the official
returns of the State;
Btlfth. wheat, Indian Cora Barlcv.
1840. 210,000 4. 2,203,000 158,000
1848. 48,000 1,288,000 121,231
&6cre?M 182,000 216.000 34,083
Bye. Buckwheat. Potatoes.
1840. 883,000 102,000 4.880.000
1845. 447.000 82,060 4,187,000
TV--...- lll/k/>A "??"
Of course it it no'/ pretended that States
of a commercial and manufacturing char*
acter chiefly, should produce as much
from the soil, in proportion to population,
aa the agricultural. But the aitioles they
do produce, and their proportions to each
other, indicate the quality of food at least
of the agricultural portion of the population.?Hence
it annears that the farmer*
tf Maaaachusotta consume but little wheal
bread, and use rye, imtian corn, an} potatoes,
at subatitutes.
I think bow that if anything can be
shown by facta* I have dwjjpostrafccd the*
superior wealth of the people of the South 1
over those of the North in proportion to I
their respective numbers; and this, by 1
comparing the loss prosperous of the I
South with the most flourishing pf the '
North. And I think I have shown the t
South to be most fortunate in the distri- 1
bution or equalization of wealth as well as <
in its acquisition. At all events, I htive I
rescued the controversy between the two 1
Bections from the control of bold assertions
and slipshod declamation, and confided it <
to the umpirage of argument and docn- <
There are some who sneer at statistics,
and assert that anything can be proven
by them. But such expressions I think
are peculiar to those who deal in assertion
chiefly; and find it unpleasant to be answered
with facts. For statistics are
nothing but collections of facts. I admit
that facta themselves may be powerless
or pernicious to a mind not logical nor
philosophical enough to comprehend and
classify them. But in relation to the af- J
fairs of this world at least, I ask, with the ,
K.nrrlioV* ^
"What can wo reason but from what we know." ' i
Facts constitute the great restraint on the 1
impositions of interest, the dogmatism of 1
fanatics and bigots, the fallacies of the 1
vulgar, the prejudices of the sectional, ' 1
and the dreams of tho enthusiasts. Facts I
are the test of systems, the land marks i
of progress, the harvest of time, the ele- 1
mental particles of truth. 1
But it is peculiarly important to resort <
to statistics on this question, because they 1
are so much employed and perverted on i
the other side. From the speech of tho \
Senator to the columns of the Editor we <
are continually assailed with statistical 1
comparisons between the North and the 1
South derogntory.to the latter. In 1839 i
Daniel Webster presented in a speech to '
the Senate in praise of Massno.buRP.tt* nn i
official statement of her annual products, <
which nmountcd to nearly $100,000,000, 1
which he characterized as the yearly <
fruit of her industry and capital. This i
certainly, would strike every mind as evi- 1
dence of great productiveness and profit <
in a State of her population, since the an-|1
nual product of Virginia is only about \
seventy millions. But on scrutinizing i
the Massachusetts fitntpmonf W ic
,v...v.tvf aw *0 IVIIIIU 1
that Webster included as the products of 1
her industry, the raw materinl employed i
in her manufactures obtained from other |
States ; the raw cotton, the wool, the raw i
hides, the dye stuffs, ?fec. <fec.
It ??? hut the other day that we had '
an extract from the report of the Com- '
missioner of* Patents, recently published i
in nil ' J . -
... ?... viiv. pupcm which unoerrooK to give
us an estimate of the wealth of the respective
States. On exomination, it is found
to assume population as the basis of
wealth. An average is made of the <
wealth of each man in a few States, and ]
thnt multiplied by the number of men in i
each Suite. By this rule Indiana, which
is more populous than Massachusetts, '
has more wealth?ind the North of
course greatly more tlinn the South. Th i i
Commissioner of Patents is a Northern <
man, and travels deliberately out of the
sphere of his duties to make up and send
forth this absurd table ; nnd in thus un- <
dertafcing^ officially and officiously to en- ;
lighten the ignorance of the people, dis- ;
plays his own.
But while I contend that statistical evidence
may be sufficient to convince, I
am aware that it is not enough to satisfy,
the mind, particularly when at variance
with prevalent opinions. It is a legitimate
and laudable desire, even after
knowing a thing is so to know why it is
so. I acknowjedge it i* incumbent on
whoever attempts to overthrow a popular
error to show not onlv that it is KiirsH.
but that it must be sucti, on the recognized
principle of human judgment. 1
The reason, then, I conceive for the '
great pecuniary prosperity of the South, <
is that she is so generally agricultural.? '
About half the population of the old '
Northern States resides in towns or cities; 1
in the southern about one-tenth.
liven Ohio, a new State with greater
agricultural attraod$n? naturally, than <
any o'her, haa already a town and city
population estimated at one-fourth of the
whole; the single city of Cincinnati only <
fifty yearn of age, containing more people j
than ten of the largest towns of Virginia,
the oldest State in the Union. <
But why is agriculture more profitable
man manuiacfrtues or commerce? One i
veftson is, that agncuhurfi i6 raoro produo- !
tiva or ttuitiplyicg than them; iKit ite <
products, are the principal and the iodis^i;
pcnsablc article? of human aubeiateaoo*
and are obtained with less of hnroan labor
and skill theu the othors. A grain o& <
wheat when nown wilt nfoduoe a bandred {
fold, but no fabric of tee loom, no cargo <
of the ship, can have its Take augmented '
in the tame proportion without the oo- (
operation of a much greater proportion of 1
t *
labor and skill. Commerce and manufactures
are chiefly artificial; agriculture
ia for the most part the work of nature.
It is true that the facility with
which articles are produced from the
?oil, influences their value in market, and
hat the prices of different kinds of labor
end to equality; and it Is true also, that
he prices of commodities are effected bv
the relations of supply and demand*
Hence there is no sucn difference between
the profits of the farmer and the artisan,
ar merchant, as the relative productiveness
of their labors would indicate. But
the interchange of commodities between
the two classes, is by no means equal, nor
s it obedient to those laws of trade. The
farmer holds the subsistence, and conseii
' < > " * -
{ucuuy mu property oi nis civuizcd teliow-men
in his power; and this power ho
mil exercise when circumstances permit,
iccording to the sentiments which the
possession of power inspires; according
to the prejudices of his class, to the appeti
e of monopoly?and not according to
Lhe wages of labor, and the law of supply
qiid demand. The monopoly of the
necessaries of life which agriculture confers,
has produced some of the most striking
social and political revolutions in
history. It enabled Jacob to extort from
rvsuu, wno wr-s a nunter, his birthright,
for a mess of pottnge. But Jacob himself,
ftnd family, preferred the lighter labors
of shepherd life to tillage, and hence
From scarcity of corn, became dependent
in the granaries of Egypt, and fell into
bondage. In wars between agricultural
and commercial nations, the former have
generally conquered. Athena was overcome
by Sparta?Greece by Macedon?
Carthage by Rome?events which indicate
superior resources of the conquerors,
more than their bravery. In England
whose commerce has been enriched by
the monopoly of the trade of colonies in
every clime, and whose manufactures
have been expanded by the most stupendous
inventions of genius, agriculture still
remains pre-eminent in wealth and political
power, although it comprehends
only about one-third of the population.
The agriculture of the South produces a
greater variety and abundance of staple
articles of human comfort and subsistence
than any other region. Besides such
breadstuffs and provisions as the North
affords, the South has by the supenor
genius ana energy of her people ncqvured
dniost a monop' \v of the eotton culture.
?The South thur controls nn extraordinary
proportion of that food and clothing
which the world consumes, and hence
makes a corresponding progress in wealth.
Cincinnati, May 9.
Cholera.?Our city is in a staie of great
excitement in consequence of the ie-appearance
in our midst of that ? readfnl
scourge the Cholera. In order to allay
public apprehension, the Board of Health
have issued a bulletin, from which it appears
that during the last twenty-four
hours there were 26 cases of cholera, 0
af which terminated fatally.
The Roman General Marius replied to
,he Gaul who settt him a challenge. "If
pou are tired of life, you can go and hang
Dr, TDotwood, in his "Hints to Young
Mother*recommends patience and care
n teaching boy babies to feel their "footlea,
"He fiavR that, fnr flflll ?ul/? ?
-?j ?- ?*?W VI OVC*
ng them tottlc.they are put upon the floor
i?o soon, which has a tendency io furnish
them with an everlasting pair of parenthetical
shanks. "It ia not of so much consequence
about the girls /"
Honest Confession.?When Lucy Canper
was once examined in a court of justice
one of the counsellors asked her if she
jame there in the character of a modest
woman ? "No sir," replied she, "that
i? i
muvu iiftu ueen inc nm ot me, bas been
the making of you; I mean impudence."
We find the following piece of impueUu-m)
in a New York paper, viz:
Young ladies should never object to
being kissed by editors, they should make
every allowance for the freedom of the
We are sDent vritfc indignationPKUa~
itlphia Timet.
A young tody who wa# robuked bv hev
mother for kissing' her inlawed jtwfi&xi
herself by quoting l**age, "Wfoifr.
werar yo woiid tWmen ?h<mld ciouato
pot*, do yo even so unto t$$a."5" cr~"
"Cowcianre \H m&$ Mr*, Hopkfc*,.-|Qligimntiy,
"do yo? suppose nobody font#
rot any conscience tmt vour seK { H?
sonseieiioc ? as good a? yours?ay, and
better too?for it has aevor beea Mod m
he couvae of my life?whiie yours oratl
t* nearly worn out t"

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