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" TO THINK OWN BKLF 1IK TIIUK, AND IT MINT t'OLI.OW, AB TIIK NIOIIT T1IK DAY, 11IOU OAN'BT NOT THEN UK FALSK TO ANY MAN."
IBmL 8. f 1'K'KK.NiS COURT IIOI'SK, S. <FRIDAY, .11 I,V IS, 1850. Ntt H
I-KINTHD AM) rUIU.IMIII) WKKKt.Y BY
TRIMMlEll A LEWIS.
\V. K. Easlky, Editor.
IfSreW' One Dollar ami Fifty Cent* for <?m.? yonrV sub- j
' jWcripttAn when pniJ within three inoiithn, Two
*(.. Jmothir* :f payment is deluyoil to tho clo.<e of the ;
? tif 11 .1* v?.nf
I All #ub->crip(ions not clearly liuulfil, will be j
onnidered as made fur an indefinite time. Mi l
ontinued till h di-continuance is ordered and
11 nrrenr.agc* pui.I.
A(lctrti*cincnt* inserted nt 75 cent* per square '
?r the first insertion, ami 37 l-'J ct.<. for encli :
ontinued insertion. I.ilcral deductions made
o those advertising l?v the year.
I3T All Conununicatioin shou'.d bo addressed
t<> the Publishers post naid.
In the Semite, on Friday, the 2Sth
st.. tlie consideration of the com omise
The question pending at the adlurnment
yesteruay was on the subitute
propo. ed hy Mr. Soule, (for j
tat pa.t oi the bill relating to Cali- j
>rnia,) and tlie amendment to es- j
iblish the territorial government for
Mr. Davis, of Miss., resumed the
marks commenced by him on yesjrday.
lie said the amendment of
ll'. Sonic vvns ono invnlvin.r
I promise which once restored peace to
a (distracted and agitated countiy.?
(ireat as was the danger then 1o I lie
country, he still believed that it was
nothing compared with that of tin;
present day. lie hoped that now
n~v? lbere would be found in Congress a
k majority equally willing to preserve
^he Union, even by a sacrifice of
themselves. l ie had supported the j
^ motion to raise the committee, in the ,
IIHU r.uuiVUIUI^ CUUKI oc devised
calculated to preserve harmony and
peace, upon which he could unite in .
supporting. He had been disappointed.
He could not see in this bill anything
which he could sanction as a 1
Southern man, nor anything that he !
could approve of as a measure to re- i
store peace to the country. Mr. Jef- .
fcrson had truly said the Missouri
I compromise was but a reprieve, and
such it had been proved ; and now j
that which was denounced by a
Southern man was considered as too
ultra to be considered by Congress.
Thev were now to be denied a se-'
lie contended that the line of 3G
30 seemed to be marked out as the
natural as well as the geographical
line of division between the Kotth ;
and the South. He then examined
ihe geographical and topographical
I situation of California, and commented
upon it, maintaining that the division
of that country by the line of
30 IK) was a measure eminently advisnblc
and desirable. He proceedAo
?*d at great length to advocate the i
|K adoption of that line.
Mr. Soule said that he proposed to j
offer some remarks in reply to Mr.
Webster. The Senator had controverted
some of the positions taken
|n#j nun in nm lunucr lemurns i:pou
this amendment. Mr. S. then repeat-'
i <id his formrr arguments, that unless
, ihe public domain in California should
k be reserved to the United States by
r Hinic precedent compact between
California and the United States, that
\ domain would attach to California
by the act of admitting1 her as a sovci
reign State. He examined the ob-1
factions to this doctrine urged hy Mr. j
Webster, and replied to them at
length, and again maintained his own I
He also reblied to M*.
1/ "i V" .? !
. upon the points of legislative prece[
dents, embraced in that Senator 's reI
marks on Wednesday. He again
maintained that with the exception
of the State of Arkansas, there was i
no precedent for admitting a State, i
containing public, lands, until ihe pro- j
Visions of his substitute had been ;
He repelled with much warmth the |
intimation that the opposition to the
admission of Ca'ifornia was because ;
of the exclusion of slavery by her !
constitution. lie also denied em-1
I ? it -
I pnaiicany mat there was any ground
K of apprehension of her secession from
K. the Union because of any proceedings
which Congress may deem adMr.
Douglas replied, ugt*in repeat fcgL
ing the several acts admitting the
W Miveral Stales into the Ui^ion* and
|1. contended that in no case had a compact
l>een entered into as a condition
Bfc-B precedent to admission of any State.
Mr. Webster also replied to Mr.
'JMv., in denial of the doctrine that
Hp such compact wav necessary for
uiu picHiTvauon 01 ine rigiil ol the
United States to the public lands.
The question was then taken on
the amendment ol Mr. Soule, as follows
Yeas.?Messrs. Atchison, Barnwell,
Berrien, Butler, Clemens, Davis
of Miss., Dawson, Downs, Koote,
Houston, Hunter, King, Mason, Mor
Inn. 1?i,cL- 'P
.niMioumi, uuiiii:, AUiliey,
Nays.?Messrs. Badger, Baldwin,
Boll, Benton, Bright, Cass, Chase,
Clarke,Clay, Cooper, Corwin, Davis
o [' M ass., Dayton. Dickinson. Dodge,
Douglas, Felch, Greene, Hale, 1 lanilin,
Jones, Miller, Norris, Pearce,
Phelps, Pralt, Seward, Shields, Smith,
Sturgeon, Underwood, Upham Walker,
W ales, Webster, and Whitcomb.?3(>.
Mr. John Davis addressed the Sen
?ilc at length iti opposition to the hill.
Mr. Davis, without concluding,
yielded to a motion to adjourn.
Mr. Clay expressed a hope that the
Senate would agree upon a day to
take the question on the engrossment
of the hill, lie suggested Wednesday
Mr. Bell objected. lie wished to
give his views. He and others would
not be able to address the Senate, if
so early a clay was fixed.
Mr. Yulee laid on the table an
amendment to the bill.
Alter an Executive session, the
In the House, Mr. Parker introtroduced
a bill respecting the nation-1
al armories at S'jrii.or field and Harper's
Kerry; which was read twice
and referred to the committee on
The IIou.-o then proceeded to the |
consideration of the Iowa contested
The debate being closed, the Chair
stated that the question would first be
oil the resolution of Mr. Van j)y!e
to give the seat to the contestant,
moved as a substitute for the resolution
of the majority of the committee
of-elections to give it to the whig
member, Mr. Thompson.
The question was pnt and decided
in yeas 95, nays JM. The chair voted
-i < ?
in me negative; so uic amendment
was not agreed to.
The House adjourned to Saturday.
Slave Lahou in tiik Territories.
House of Representatives, June 1,
Dear Sir: In a speech delivered by
you, in the House of Representatives
in March last, I understood you to
say that you had been in the valley
of the Great Salt Lake, and that you
were acquainted, from personal observation,
with a lanre part of the ter
ritorv of California. \Vill yon be s6
good as lo give me vonr opinion, and
tlie reasons for entertaining it, of the
probability or improbability of the introduction
of slave labor nto any part
of the territory recently acquired by
the United States from Mexico; provided
such introduction be not p?ohibitud
jl wish 10 ooihiii jour opinion 111
regard to other kinds of labor, as well
as agricultural; because, as it seems to
me, a most unvvarantable, if not a
most disingenuous attempt has been
made, <o lead the public to believe
that no form of slave labor will ever
oe introduced mere, because, possibly
or probably, it may not be introduced
for agricultural purposes.
A reply ut your earliest convenience,
will much oblige,
Yours, very truly,
Hon. S. JR. Thurston *
Delegate from Oregon.
Washington, June 10, 1850.
1 received n notee from you some
days ago, making certain inquiries,
but which, up to this time, I have
been unable to answer. I desire to
take no part in the question now dividing
the country; out as you have
asked my judgement upon a matter
wmcli appear# to be a disputed point,
1 cannot, conscientiously with the law
of courtesy, refuse you an answer.
That answer will l>e in conformity
with what I have frequently said,
heretofore, in private conversation
with gentlemen on this subject
The point of inquiry seems to be,
whether slave labor could he profitably
employed in Oregon, California,
Utah and New Mexico. If the nature
of the climate and resources of
these countries are such as to furnish
a profitable market for slave labor, it
appears to be conceded, on all sides,
that it would be introduced, if left i
free to seek profitable investment* j
like other capital. The w< ole point
at issue, then, is dependent, as it is
conceived* upon the determination of
the first point of inquiry- Hence to
that point, o*ily, it is necessary for
me to confine my answer. f*
1 nemt not remind yon of the law
regulating the investment of capital.
It will always go where, under all
circumstances, it will yield the greatest
return to the owner. Upon this
principle I am very clear, that slave
labor if unrestricted, could be employed
in Oregon, with at least double
the profit to the owner of the
slave that it now yields in any State
1 of the Union. lain uniniformed as
to the usual price of slave labor in the
States, but the mire mi id in iiidinne
in Oregon dining the past year, lor
labor, lias ranged from two to three
dollars per day. Domestic negro
servants, whether male or female,
who understand the business of housework,
would command, readily, five
or six hundred dollars a year. I recollect
well, that there was a mulatto
man on board the vessel in which I
took passage from Oregon to San
Francisco, who was paid one hundred
and c'glity dollars per month
for his services as cook. I will not
stop to particularize further, in regard
* 4 4 I. ! 1 ' v
u> me liuiuceniems urcgon would
offer to unrestricted slave labor, but
will simply add, that a very large;
number of slaves night now be employed
in Oregon at annual wages
! sulticiently large to purchase their
| freedom. ] think, therefore, that the
point is settled so far as Oregon is
| concerned; and that slave labor, if it
had been left free to seek profitable
; employment, would readily find its
way 10 mat Territory.
[ As to California, I am eqanlly clear,
j California will always bo a mining
! country, and wages will range high.
At present slave labor in California
would be more profitable than in
Oregon. And I have always been of
the opinion, that wherever there is a
mining country, it not in a climate
, uncongenial to slave labor, that species
of labor would be profitable.?
That it would be in California
: is evmeni. a good, able bodied
slave, would have commanded in
California, during the past year, from
i eight to ten luirdred dollars per an:
num. When it is recollected that one
I hundred dollars per annum, upon on
average, is considered a good com;
pensation for their labor in the Soutlij
ern States, it is idle, in my judgment,
I to contend that slaves would not be
j carried to the California market, if
I protected by law.
j The greatest impediment which
' >vunu muor ims 10 encounter in me
| mines, is the intensity of the heat and
prevalence of billions disease. The
one is almost insufferable, while the
other is pestilential. Against both of
these the negro is almost proof.?
Now, while white labor is so high, it
is evident that no one can hire a
white laborer, except at a rate that
would consume bis profit. Not so
with negro labor. That species of
1 i - -1 .i
km/mi no uijuiiuuu n?i llilll lit'
, amount which you would have to pay
. for while labor. The result will be a
, profit a!:';e to the hirer and seller of
slave lo'ocr. There is no doubt, in
my judgment, that almost any number
of slaves might be hired out in
! California, were tfce whites willing
to allow it, at from eight to ten hundred
dollars a year. This is pay so
much above what their services command
in the States, as t? satisfy any
one, that could this species of service
be protected in California, it would
L A .. it. - - V - 1
hush iv uiv jrucijic 111 aimosi any
T.?ot us turn our attention to Utah
and New Mexico. I have 110 doubt,
from what knowledgeIhaveoftho.se
countries, that they will turn out to
he filled with the richest mines. I
clip the following from a recent paper,
containing the news from Texas
"Mr. James was informed, by Maj.
j Neighbors and Mr. l*>e Vining, that
! they had been shown by Maj. Stein,
j some gold washed out l>y his troops,
i *jn uic *juii uver, 111 u?nori excursion
j to that stream.
"It is reported that, at the copper
' mines al>ovc El Paso, there are anout
1 100 tons of pure copper lying upon
the ground. This had l>een got out
by Mexicans, and aSatuloned when
attacked by Indians.
"There are at El Paso, in the hands
of different persons, several larire
I amounts of silver ore, taken from the
mines in that neighborhood. With
j guaranties of titles to lands, and protection
from Indians only a short
time would elapse before all these
mines would be well worked, and we
would have large quantities of metal
seeking a market through this place."
And if you consult !< remont's map
printed Dy ordor of 'the Senate in
1848, you will find near the source
of one the branches of the Gila River,
"copper and gold mines," laid
down. And if I am not greatly mistaken,
it wiil turn out that the Mort'm^4
,4 " -,v v.;?
< ' : > -y
molls lire in possession of the riches!
1 kind of mines, east of the Sierra Nevada.
Jt is known, too, ti. t silver
; and copper mines have, for many
years, been worked in New Mexico,
and 1 am informed by Hugh N.
Smith, esq., that there are in that
Territory, gold, silver, copper, lead,
and zinc mines, of the richest (nudity,
and the rea on wli) they have
not latterly heen worked more ex-I
ivii?ivi:iy, is uuii 11 is prevented t?y
i the incursions of the Indions. He is
of tii? opinion, and lie is borne out
by what history we can get 011 the
subject, that when these mines shall
come to be explored, their wealth
will turn out to be onormous.
W hen you have once cast your
eye over that country lying west of
the Rocky Mountains, and b/ast of
, the Sierra Nevada, and are informed
of t lit* gold hearing region, you at
once become convinced that the United
States is in possession of mineral
wealth so vast that ages will not
be able to measure its extent. And
wllPtl illovn mnmo clw?ll ?... ' - -
.. ....... ...V.JV 111 I IV'l Olltlll IU Lie
I developed, and their un<iuestion riches
known, population wiii set that
way, attended with the usual consequences:
high prices and a demand
lor labor. If slave labor is like other
capita!, if it will go where it is best
paid, then we have a right to say it
' will seek these mines and become a
part of the producing capital of the
country where those mines are located.
') 'hat these whole regions arc
filled with rich mines, is little less
than' certain, and that they can be
profitably worked by slave labor is
! sure. Hence, were I a Southern
man, and my property invested in
slaves, I should eonsides the markets
in New Mexico, Utah, and Califorinio,
for slave labor, worthy of an honorable
eontest to secure.
I am, sir, with due consideration,
yours truly, Sam. 11. Tiiurston.
j Hon- lloracc Mann
Smith O'Brirn.?In the House of
! Commons, on Kridav lvcrht. Sir L.
j O'Brien called the attention of the
Government to the state ot hea'Mi and
| the treatment of his brother, Smith
; O'Brien, the convict upon Maria Island,
Van Dieman's Land. The Hon.
. Baronet stated that his health was
! suffering, and described at some
! length the regulations uuder which
I he was placed, in consequence of having
refused the indulgence of a ticket
Sir G. Grey staled that Mr. S.
, O'Brien having positively refused a
| ticket of leave, the Government of
j VanDieman's Land had no other
, course open to them than to adopt
i Uie regulations which they had taken,
j without neglecting their duty; hut at
! the same time he had indulgences of
which the other convicts were deprived;
in fact, every indulgence has
been shown which the Government
had in its power.
The Isx-Kixo of Fr wcf..?The
health of Louis Philippe is rapidly deI
dining, and his symptoms are such as
' tn r;iiKo tii o (rronfnct ?mvi?hr ..rl
ing their immediate results. Te ex;
King arrived at the Victoria Hotel,
1 St. Leonards, about a month ago, and
has been confined to his room ever
| since. It is said that Mr. (luizot, M.
I do Salvandy, and M. Duchatel, are
also about to pay a visit. It appears
; that the ex-Kirigis anxious that sev;
oral ancient Ministers should assemj
ble round him before his death, and
that some questions of great political
j importance will be discussed in that
council. It is said he intends in his
will to lay down to his family the
; course lie wishes them to pursue after
i his death. The French LecritinustK
! say that his'wish is in favor ~of a reI
conciliation with the elder branch of
Ireland.?The Cork Exa.iiiner
on the authority of a correspondent
officially connected with the Government*
say that it is the intention of her
Majesty and Prince Albeit to visit
Cork on the 2d of August, for tho
purpose of witnessing the regatta.
Oconnei/s Mansion.?The town
of Killarney was posted last week
, with bills announcing a sheriff's sale,
to take place at Derrymane Abbey,
! the residence of the late Daniel ()'
I Council. The sale was to bo at the
I i. ir i I**
i buii hi Sonic nail nozen creditors, and
J the sheriffs name affixed to the placard,
France.?The Pope has sent a
gift to Prince Louis Napoleon consisting
of a superb missal decorated
with paintings, and having on the
covcr a gold cross which once belonged
1< ranch and thb Sandwich Islands.?The
Courier du Havre states
that Mr. Judd, tHe envoy frovn the
Sandwich Islonds, who had visited
Paris with the obiect of demanding
an indemnity from the French government
for damage done to the fortifications
of Honolulu by the French
squadron, and the capture and de
, tention of several steamers, has left
without having succeeded in his
mission, except that both parties
have accepted the Rood offices of the !
1 A public meeting was held at Can-;
ton, i\li?s., 011 the 15th ult., at which
Col. I). M. Kulton presided, and
James R. Chambers acted as secretary;
and at which resolutions were
unanimously adopted, declaring the
Compromise of Mr. Clay "unconstitutional
and derogatory to the rights
and honor of the South, that an overwhelming
majority of the people of
\i? > <
^niaAinni|'jii ?u?- (ijJjJUSCvl lO lli 1111(1
that if Senator Koote will not yield i
to them, lie ought not to retain a position
in which lie misrepresents his
i constituents.1' Mr. Koote, on the
other hand, declared in a recent
: speech in the Senate, that he had
' abundant evidence in his possession
I that he was sustained at home.
Judge Sharkey, the President, of
the Nashville Convention, has addressed
a letter to the Jackson South
1 ?4.?I.~i ...i i- - - iI
ivii) ouuui^ melt vv lU'll 111' WI"iHC I11S
I letter to Air. Foote, approving the
i Senatorial Compromises ho was not
| fully possessed ofits details, and was
| under the impression that no better
measure could be obtained, and that
' the Convention itself would prove a
failure. He now makes it known !
that the Missouri line, as proposed '
by the Nashville Convention, was J
what ho originally preferred, and j
that he will cordially sustain the ac~.*.i
ii--' <1 * 1
nun ui iiiiii uvnij 1 <IIHI i I till I HO WI10IC |
| South ought to unite in a spirit of firm
determination to insist upon thelim
of Compromise recommended by the.
I O^r In a late debate in the House
I of Representatives, on the California
j biH, Mr. Morse of Louisiana is thus i
i "Mr. Morse did not ask a compli
i mentary vote. J Ie desired something
| substantia). Th? Union was not
I worth a straw so long as a difference
j exists Between tlie slaves of the South
I and the horses and carriages of the
j North,as property. He wanted no
J milk and water compromises."
! Will Mr. Morse and his Southern
j friends consent to do away with the
, difference which allows a representation
in the Federal Government, to
; the property of the South in its slaves,
j while the horses and carriages of the
North are unrepresented/
This difference does exist. The
I North will not ho any the less well
disposed toward the Union if the j
i South is of opinion that this difference ,
j impairs it value-?N. Y. Ev. Post.
i no ooiun win agree to strike out
three-fifth clause from the Constitu(
(ion, for the South would then be en!
titled as the North is to a representation
in proportion to population.? !
Southern Pross* ;
England and thf. Ccra Affair.
?A letter from London to the Philadelphia
North American,dated June
"When this letter reaches you, Lopez,
his expedition, and Cuba may be
forgotten in the United States, and
other affairs may be uppermost. I
can assure you, however, that, secret
_ 11 il " *
i its ?ire an me movements ol the JLirit!
ish Government, some very impor1
tant measures are about to he submitted
by England to more than oprEuropean
nation, having for their object
certain checks on the grasping
j and growing ambition, as it is termed,
of the United States, as a Gov,
eminent and as a people.11
The ridiculous custom of in tori nr
| ding articles with foreign words is rii
diculed by the Common School Journal.
For our part, when we hear a
I preacher talk much in his sermon of
! the original Greek or Hebrew, or see
! an editor drag in Fronch and Lr tin on
i every occasion, we at once set the
1 man down as laboring under the douj
hie affliction of ignorance and vanity,
j With such persons a tned/ci/ or nurture
! is a Pielangc; afray is nothing short
j of a melee, and the select nrn not ilm
j choxeti, but the elite. The disputants
I do not differ entirely but toto ccdo\ ami
| they never begin again, but da now,
i or, as some goslins prefer to say ab
! ow. The common items of news are
interlarded with such barbarismsThus
the President is never going to
Washington, but he is e;? route for
tho city. No remark can now be
I made by the way, or in jKimng, but it
! must be en vaasnnt. A rising of tho
i poople is no longer a mob or a rebel
lion, l)ut an cmctrtr. Some years agd
an editor observed that noun verrons
was a more expressive phrase thUii
wc shall sec, and now every village ed
itor, after giving' his views of national
affairs, gathers himself up in his
arm-ehair, and utters the doubtful
prophecy, "nou# vcrrons."
Df.CIMXG T11K QlttSTION*.?TIl<J
following extract is from an editorial
of the last numher of the Charleston
Southern Baptist, and shows strikingly
?i.? ? r r... r. ...i: :
iy mi; lunr hi ii'i/nu^ >a nil 11 i.> i wilting
to be prevailing one among religious
"Fourteen years ago we travelled
at the Norih with two gentlemen.?
In public houses, in singe coaches,
on steamboats and canal boats, wo
were beset by persons keen to discuss
the slavery question. One of
our company never indulged this appetite
for debate. lit; arrested the
Ciltor'his.iiir vvhifli :? vnrifprniiy nlii
lanthropist was about to practice, by
remarking that this question would
some day be decided by the musket,
and he would await that time.
"That time is nearly come. It depends
upon two things- The. do termination
of tin; North to maintain the
false position they have assumed, and
the resolution to supersede their paper
arguments with the arguments of
iron and lead. If their consciences
will not let them go back, and their $
obligations to humanity shall
compel them to draw the sword, then
what wo have said is true?the time
for this final debate is nearly come.
Wc know very little of what is current
among politicians. Our intercourse
lias been with religious men
mainly. \\ e have conversed in families
where C>od is worshipped, and
there wc have seen the calm, settled
conviction that the only thing to be
feared might be the pusillanimity of
some Southern members of Congress.
W c tell our Northern brethren that
when the time comes to try the last
argument, they will have to enforce
it against the opposition of Southern
mothers and Southern ministers, ft
ic l< \ r 1 1 wt It 4 #-v t l?<\
ivi v*iv/ 11 im i ii iv> vuuui 11iv.; i.uDh
that is no part of our business.
! They have a favorite theory to maintain,
we our firesides, our altars, and
"We are no alarmists. We eschew
<>d the excitement of party politics
more than twenty years ago,
when we began to preach the Gospel;
Hut the times demand that every
man should do his duty. Fanaticism
has placed the powder-mine under
the foundations of our republic, and
Northern editors are ^coolly drawing
their matches and smoking their se
gars over tne explosive material. We
clo our duty by' warning of the danger."
They say "the Wilmot Proviso is
dead." It is easier to say it than to
produce any evidence that the North
has in the least degree retreated from
its support of that hostile measure.
The last developement is from Maine,
where a few days ago the Legislature
adopted unanimously a resolution in
favor of tlu' immediate and unconditional
admission of California, and by
a majority of 100 to 21), passed others
in favor of tho Wilmot Proviso,
against connecting the admission of
California with any other measure,
and instructing their Senators to carry
out their views. And this unani|
mity against the South is seen in a
Legislature so cut up with factions
that they have been vainly struggling
for three weeks to elect a United
mutes ncnaior. l lie same is true of
Connecticut. Both States have shown
ati unusual degree of discord except
in the matter of anti-slavery. There
they all agree, or the dissentients are
I so lew us scarcely to break the monotony.?Charleston
i The Texas Difficulty.?uX"of
the Baltimore Sun, in relation to the
prospects of the Compromise bills,
"The Texan boundary question is ,
the only one which looks ugly. Texas
was admitted with her constitu!
tional boundary, and the Democracy
I North and South will sustain that
proposition. There is lanr'^at stake,
and the descendants of ti.e AngloSaxons
will finrlil mnr? m???lrl?>
lands than lor abstractions. The
I Texas ease in a word, is tangible,
mid the whole South, with a ronsid!
cable portion of the North will back
: l.er. If a drop of fraternal blood bp
| spilt no one call tell whether the Un1
inn virill l?%ti * M
j >un miimoi niiuiiivr ycur<
I O-V The Connecticut legislature,
i unable to clect a Senator, nas post!
poned the choice until the next Session.