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44 To (hine own ?elf be true, and it must follow, as the night the day, thou'can!st. not then bc false to any man.''
BY ll. A. THOMPSON <fc CO.] PICKKNS C. H., S. C., SATURDAY, PUB lit! A KY 3, 1*800. [VOL. I-NO. 20.
O ?R, I O l IST jf^. J-j.
, ' FOR THE K KOW ER COURIER.
Mr. Editor : Having promised several of
my friends an occasional article for your pa
s' per on tho planting, cultivating, and manage
ment of Tobacco, I propose commencing with
an article on sowing the seed and raising the
plants : -
For this purpose, a moist spot .of land near
a* branch should be burnt sufficiently hard to
prevent any;wild growth from springing up;
When cool, the coals and ashes should be shoved
off, and the bcd hood up about two inches deep,
and well manured with manure frosh fuom thc
stable. It should bc well mixed with thc soil
by repoated hoelngs, and the bed well cleared
of roots aud turf, by means of a rake. Then
mix thc seed in. . hes and sow thom regular
ly over thc bcd in the proportion of a table
spoon full of seed to iifty square yards of sur
face. It should then be tramped all over and
covered moderately thick with any kind of
brush that has no loaves on it. Secure it fron,
the stock, and let the brush remain on it 'till
tho frosts of Spring ave fully over. Then re
" move the brush and clear the bcd of any trash
or Jeavcs that may have accumulated. In this
way, phip ts may almost always bo raised in
good time for transplanting, which should be
commenced about the first of May, and may
he continued 'till the first of July. The best
time for sowing the seed is the middle of Feb
ruary, but any time viii* do from the first of
January 'ti1! the first of March. Fifty square
yard?, well set with plants, will bc sufficient
.for transplanting three acres. New ground is
the best for Tobacco, from which' a full crop
4 I m? y Ko rjiisod t.l>o i\rnt. yuwv ; which,' in OOM?,
Would not produce more than half a crop.
. . Alargo portion o" the districts of Pickcns
and Anderson is well adopted to the produc
tion of Tobacco, and, at this particular time,
might be mado profitable to the planters, as
well as to those who might engage in its man
ufacture. Should a sufficiency bc planted this
year to justify the establishing of a Factory,
iu Pickcns district, the planters need not have
. ?my fears about finding purchasers at remuner
ating prices in thc leaf, or they may have it
mauufa'ctured upon shares, vary according to
In coriimencing the cultivation nf Tobacco,
1 wouW advise tho planting of not more than
one-and-a-half acre to the hand * which will,
not materially, lesspn the grain orup ; yet, fur
nish profitable employment after the corn crop
I will furnish the renders of the " Courier"
with further instructions, from ti tuc to time,
asl think'it maybe needed, 'till the crop is
ready for market. So, in concluding this ar
ticle, let tue a'dvise those who desire to try the
experiment,lo sow the seed and deal' as many
acres as thoy wish to plant, and have" it ready
for tho next article. ' .
January, 1860. ' I). 1 ?ESTEtl;
HA^TY. LEO ISL ATiO N.-Tho House of Rep
resentatives hastily passed a Pill the other
day which in effect released thc illinois Cen
tral Railroad from transporting Crovorninont
stores without transportation, contrary to the,
terms of the original. grant. After tho Bill
had'passed into thereunto one or two of thc
. members rubbed their eyes and awoke to the
?m por taped of thc measure.- The matter was
again brought to thc attention of the House,
'and a lively debato ensued. Mr. Washburue,
of Illinois^-who introduced the Rill, disclaimed
having any sinister or concealed object in
view. T?i? result of the debate was tho recall
ing of the Bill' from ?the Senate to review it.
Oatonstbfjr thc Rill Was a hit ajb tho Camdon
a'nd Amboy Railroad, but thc heavy stroke
foll in another quarter. This carelessness or
indifference on thc part of tho members of the
'House with reference to felic business before
it was made prominent by Mr. Hale, of New
York, and some Others, and it may bc reason
ably expected that in future wc shall not have
, a repetition of hasty legislation on important
topics.- Cha flaxton Courier.
SCARCITY'OF COTTON.-.It \s behoved th'at,
in the.most hopoftil view that can bo taken of
the cott?n product of' 1866, such a dearth of
cotton will bc experienced this year as to raise
the price, before next September, to a dallar
a,pound. Thc Oovernmcnt.so far inclines tb
this belief that it has suspended the sales of
captured cotton iu .Now York.
Headq'rs' Dep't'ment of South Carolina, 1
* CHARLESTON, January 1, 1800. /
[General Orders No. I.]
I. To tho end that civil rights and immuui- j
tics nitty be enjoyed; that kindly relational
among the hfhabitunts of thc State may bc cs- i
tablished ; that the rights and duties of the
employer, and the free laborer respectively
may be defined ; that thc soil may be cultiva-'
ted and the system of free labor fairly under
taken ; that thc owners of estate may be se
cure in the possession of their lands and tene
ments ; that perspns, able and willing lo work,
may have employment'; that idleness and va
grancy may be discountenanced, aud encour
agement given to industry and thrift; and
that humane provision may be made.for the
aged, infirm and destitute, thc following reg
ulations arc established for the government of
all concerned in this Department :
II. All laws shall be applicable alike to all
the inhabitants. No person shall be held in
competent ta sue, make complaint, or to testi
fy, because of color or caste..
III. All thc employments of husbandry or
of tho useful arts, and all lawful trades or call
ings, may bc followed by all persons, irrespec
tive of color oreaste; nor shall any freedman
be obliged to pay any tax t>r any fcc for a li
cense, nor be amenable to any municipal or
''parish ordinance, not imposed upon all other
IV. The lawful industry of all persons who
live under the protection of the United States,
ami owe obedience to its laws, being useful to
the individual, and essential to the welfare of
society,, no person will bc restrained from seek
ing employment when not bound by voluntary
agreement, nor hindered from traveling from
plano to place ?rn lawful busiucRf.. All co&ibU.
nations or agreements which aro intended to
hinder, or may so'operate as to hinder, in any
way, thc employment of labor-or to limit
compensation for labor-or to compel labor to
be involuntarily performed in certain places,
or for certain persons, ?? well ns combinations
or agreements to prevent the sale or hire of
lands or tenements, arc declared to be misde
meanors ; and any person or persons convicted
thereof shall bc punished by fine not exceed
ing five hundred dollars, or by imprisonment
not to exceed six mouths, or by both such line
V. Agreements for labor or personal ser
vice of any kind, or for the uso and occupat ion
of lands and tenements, or for any other lawful
.purpose, between freedmen and other persons,
when fairly made, will bc impartially enforced
against either party violating the same. "
VI. Freed persons irfmble to ' .bor, by rca?
son of age or infirmity, and orphan children
ol' tender years, shall have allotted to them by
the owners suitable quarters on the premises
where they have been heretofore domiciled as
slaves, until adequate providion, approved by
thc General Commanding, bc made for them
by tho State or local authorities, or otherwise ;
and they'shall not bo removed from thc prem
ises, unless for disorderly behavior, misde
meanor, or other offence committed by tho
head of a family or a member thereof.
VII. Able-bodied freedmen, when -they
leave the premises in which they may bc dom
iciled, shall take with them and provide for
such of their relatives as, by the laws of South
Carolina, all citizens ?Ve obliged to maintain..
VIII. When a freed person, .domiciled on*
a plantation, refuses to work there, after hav
ing been offered employment by the owner or
lessee, on fair tertps, approved by the agent of
tho Freedmen's Hurcau, such freedman or
woman shall remove from the promises within
ten days after such offer, and due notice to ro?
move by. the owner or occupant.
IX. When able-bodied freed persons are
domiciled on premises where they have been
heretofore held, as slaves, and are not employed
thereon or elsewhere, they shall be permitted
to remnin, on showing to thc satisfaction of
.theCommanding officer of the Post, that they
have made diligent and proper efforts to ob
Xl Freed persons occupying premises with
out thc authority of the-'United States, or thc
permission of tho Owner, and who have not j
been heretofore held there as slaves, may bc
removed by tho Commanding officer of the
Fest, on the complaint of theciwnei1, and proof
of tho refusal of said freed persons to remove
after ten days notice.
XI, Any person employed or domiciled on
a plantation or elsewhere; who may be right?.
? '? ?/v<* 'i't
fully dismissed by tho terms of agrcomcut,.or
expelled for misbehavior, shall leave thc prem-1
ises ?nd shall upt return without tho cousent
of the owner or tenant thereof.
XII. Commanding ollie ors of Districts will
establish within their commands respectively,
suitable regulations for hiring out to labor, for
a period not to exceed one year, all vagrants
who cannot bo advantageously employed on
roads, fortifications and other public works.
The proceeds of such labor shall be paid over
to thc Assistant Commissioner of (ho Freed
men's Bureau, to provide for aged and infirm
refugees, indigent Treed people, and orphan
XIII. Tho vagrant laws of the State of
South Carolina, applicable to free white per
sons, will bc recognized as the only vagrant
laws applicable to the freedmen ; nevertheless,
such laws shall not be considered applicable to
persons Avho are without employment, if they
shall prove that they have been unable to ob
tain employment, 'after diligent efforts to do so.
XIV. It shall bc the duty of Ofiicers com
manding Posts to see that issues of rations to
freedmen arc confined to destitute persons,
who aro unable to work because of infirmities
arising from old age, or chronic diseases, Or
phan children too young to work, and refugee
freedmen returning to their homes with thc
sanction of the proper authorities ; and in or
dering these issues Commanding Officers will
bc careful not to encourage idleness or vagran
cy. District Commanders will make consoli
dated reports of these issues, tri-monthly.
X V. The proper authorities of thc State In
the several municipalities and districts, shall
proceed to make suitable provision for their
poor, without distinction of Color ; 'in default
of winch, the General Commanding will.levy
an equitable tax on persons and property s?f
:^:ri>MV tb o n\ippnrt. of,th$^<K>r. a>. ?
XVI. Tiie constitutional rights of all loyal
and well disposed inhabitants to bear arms,
will not be infringed; nevertheless this shall
not be construed to sanction thc unlawful
practice of carrying concealed weapons j nor
to authorize any person to enter with arms on
the premises of another against his consent.
No ono- shall bear arms who has borne arms
against the United States, unless he shall have
taken tho Amnesty oath prescribed in the
Proclamation of the President of the United
States, dated May 29, I860, or thc Oath of
Allegiance, prescribed in the Proclamation of
the President, dated December 8; 1803'fwith
in the time prescribed therein. And no dis
orderly person, vagrant, or disturber of the
peace, shall be allowed to bear arms.
XVII. To secure the same equal justice
and personal liberty to the freedmen as tooth
er inhabitants, no penalties or punishments
different from those to which all persons are
amenable shall be imposed on freed people;
and all crimes and offences which orb prohibit
ed under existing laws,.shall be'understood as
prohibited in thc case of freedmen ; and if com
mitted by a freedman, shall, upon conviction,
bo punished in the same mannered if commit
ted bv a white man.
XVIII. Corporal punishment shall not bc
inflicted upon shy pierson other than a minor,
and then only by the parent, guardian, teach
er, or one to whom said minor is lawfully
bound by indenture of apprenticeship.
XIX. Persons whose conduct tends to a
breach of the peace may be required to give
! security for their good behavior, and in default
j thereof shall beheld in custody.
XX. All injuries to the person or property
j committed by or upon freed persons, shall be
j punished in the manner provided hy the laws
of South Carolina, for like injuries t<> the per
sons or property of citizens thereof.- If no
provision bo made hythe laws of the .State,
then tj^c punishment for such offences shall be
I according to the course of the coin mon law;
I and in th6 case of any injury to person or prop
I orty, not prohibited by the common law, or.for
j which the punishment shall not be appropri
ate, 8Uoh?8ontenoQ shall be imposed as, in the
discretion of the Court before which the trial
is had, shall bo deemed proper, subject to the
approval of the General Commanding.
XXI. All.arrests, for whatever cause, will
'b?*reported tri-monthly, with the proceedings
i thereupon, through the prescribed channel, to
the General Commanding. .
XXII. Commanding officers of Districts.
Sub-Districts, and Posts, within their, com
mands respectively, in tlreabseneoof tim duly
appointed ?gout, will" ncrform any duty apper
taining to tlie ordinary agents oLtho Bureau
eil ijtei'ugecs, Freedmen and Abandoned Lands,
carefully observing for their guidance all or-?
dors published by thc Commissioner or Assist- N
ant Commissioner, or oth'br competent au
XXIII. District Commanders will onforae
these regulations by suitablotiustruotions to
Sub-District and Dost Commanders, taking
care that justice bo done, that fair dealing be
tween man aiid man be observed, and that no
unnecessary hardship and no cruel or unusual
punishments be imposed upon any one.
Dy com. of Maj. Gen. D. E. SICKLES.
W. L. M. BU KG Ell, A. A. General.
Official : ALEX ANDER WOORE,
Brevet-Major and Aid-do-Camp.
What Young People. Should ^n?^.
The best inheritance which parents can givo
their children is the ability to help and tako
caro of themselves. This is better than a hun
dred thousand dollars apiece. In any trouble
or difficulty, they have two excellent servants
in the shape of two hands. Those who can
do nothing, nnd-have to be waited ?p?n, aro
helpless ahd easily disheartened in the misfor
tunes of life. Those who aro active and hardy
meet troubles with a cheerful face, and easily
surmount them. Let young peoblc, therefore, ^
learn to do as many things as possible
Every \>oy should know, sooner or later
' 1. To dress himself, black his own boots,
cut his brother's hair, wind a watch, sew on a ;
button^make a bcd, and keep the clothes iu
2. Tcf harnefls a horse, grease a wagon and ' '
harness a team;
3. To;carve fowls and meat, and wait on
4. To milk thc cows, shear the sheep, ad
dress a ^fiil or mutton.
.V l^^n money?Mkc?p fttfo?ntscor- .....
rectly, ana according to book-kt'eping"rules, r "
0. To write a neat and appropriate briefly i
expressed business letter in a good hand, fold
cud superscribe it properly, and write con
7. To plow, sow grain and grafts, drive a
mowing machine, build a heat stacie and pitch
8. To pnt*up ri package, build ri fire, mend
a broken tool, whitewash ? -wall and regulato
Every girl should know how
' 1. To sew and knit.
2. To mend clothes neatly-,
il. To make beds.
4. To dress her own hair.
5. To wash thc dishes and sweep the car
\t 6. To make good bread rind perform plain
7. T'o keep her room, drawers and cloaets
in order. '
8. To work a sewing machine. ,
9. To make good butter .and cheese.
10. To make a dress and children's clothing.
11. To keep accounts and calculate interest*.
12. To write, fold and superscribe letters
properly. . ,
18. 'To nurse the sick effectually, and not
to faint at thc sight of a drop of blood.
14, To be ready to render efficient aid to
those in trouble, and iii nu unostentatious way.
15. To receive and entertain Visitors in the
absence or sickness of her mother!
A young lady who can do all these things
well, and who is always ready to render aid to
the afflicted and mitigate ,thc perplexities of *
those around her, will bring more comfort to
others and happiness to herself, and be more,
esteemed; than if she knew how to dance,
simper, sing and play on tho piano.
HON. A. H. STKPLTKNS-HIS VIEWS.-^- V
letter from A. H. Stephens, dated at Craw- ,.
fordsville, Georgia, 25th ultimo, contains'the
following paragraph :
i As to how I am doing, I oan only say that,
; in thc matter of health, 1 have improved'great
1 ly since my return homo; but the ceuntry'l
I (ind iu a worse condition-physically, morally
|and politically -than I expected. The gen
? eral'uesire of thc people is for a speedy resto
ration Of civil law and harmony, and 1*am en
gaged in doing all I oan to effect that result.
I do trust that wisdom, moderation and true
patriotism will rule tho councils at Washing
ton, * * * Meanwhile,
it is thc duty of every one to do the b,est he
? can ; the wise and thc good will always take
thin ; as they lind them, aud do the best thoy
eau with them aa they present themselves.