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1ARKEISNC FARM PRODUCTS
Co-operative Selling Will Glvt Grower
Lfcrge Share of Consumer's
Clemson College, May 2.-In mar
keting farm products, cooperatively
or otherwise, certain things must bo
done. Most of these necessary stepa
are included In tho following.
(1) The commodity must bo assem
bled or concentrated.
(2) lt must bo graded and standar?
(3) Part of the crop must be ware
housed or processed.
(4) The marketing operation must
(B) Cheap transportation must be
(6) Expert salesmanship must bo
.brought into play.
(7) The commodity must be retailed
or distributed to consumers.
Tho above mentioned steps coining
between the growing and tho consum
ing of a crop aro at present largely
conducted by tho so-called middlemen.
By looking over the Mst lt is seen that
tho "middlemen" Includes the rail
roads, bankers, jobbers, retailers,
warehousemen, and in the case of
some commodities the manufacturers,
in addition to speculators.
Co-operative marketing by the grow
ers, if it accomplishes its object, will
effect saving in those stems between
tho growing and consuming of a com
modity whore loss or unnecessary
waste now occurs. In oilier words, a
cooperativo marketing association of
growers will tlo those things neces
sary which are nor now hoing done
efficiently and will leave ahme those
things which aro being dr no properly.
Tho following principies of co-opera
tive marketing luu.'Q been pul into
practice by tho California associations
and elsewhere ano clearly apply to
the co-operative marketing of any
(1) Organization by commodity or
(2) Memborsshlp limited to growers
rand to landlords who receive a part
of the crop as rental.
(3) Binding crop contracts between
i growers and association.
(.1) Grading of the crop or commod
ity and pooling according to grade.
(5) The business of the association
to be handled by exports.
(6) Organization without capital
stock and therefore .a non-dividend
paying association. All profits aro
paid to growers, time making the as
sociation purely cooperative.
Organization by (Commodity.
It seems woll established that or
ganization of a farmers' association
by commodity rather than by locality
is essential for success, An organiza
tion set up for tho purpose.of market
ing peanuts efficiently might bo utter
ly unable to cope with the problems
Involved in marketing cotton or tobac
co. It would not bo advisable to try
to combine tho marketing oT cotton
and peanuts hut it would ho entirely
feasible to market several kinds of
truck crops through th?- same organ
ization because of the Similarity of
!ho probl?me involved.
Rineo then- is no ?tock and hence no
dividends in a purely co-operative as
sociation there ls no inducement 'for
anyone to Join ox'-opt those having
the commodity to soil. In order that
tho association might represent pri
marily tho interests of growers, mem
bership is limited lo actual growors
and landlords wno receive part of tho
.crop as rental.
The Crop Contract.
The crop contract is essential for
Yb o reason that it g'ves the association
Hilo to tho commodity for purposes of
marketing. Without such contract tho
association could nert market the com
modity because lt. would have no con
trol over it. Tho crop contracts create
H basis upon which (he association
can moro readily borrow money for
making advances to growers as first
Grading and Poohing.
When a mombor of an association
delivers his crop lt ls immediately
graded and he is given a receipt for
tho amount of each grade delivered.
Ills product Is then mixed in with
lhat of other members and lotn of each
grado arc made up. Those lots aro
called pools. Ills interest in each
pool is represented by tho proportion
which tho product delivered by him lo
tho pool boars to tho total amount in
that pool. In this way every man re
ceives the samo price for the same
Trained and Expert Management.
Farmers aro too busy with produc
tion evor to become export and efll
clont at handling those seven stops In
marketing. A cooperative marketing
association of growers, If largo enough,
may employ tho host talent In exis
tence to work for tho growers In elim
inating wanto and loss in any ono or
In all of those stops.
Pure Co-operation Vs. The Stock
Organization without capital on a
non-dividend paying basis ls an es
sential principio which has tho follow
ing .advantages: (a) It makes lt un
necessary to raise largo amounis of
capital slock; (b) ft is sanctioned by
tho Shormnn Antl-Tru'st Act; (c) It
turns all profits back to tho growers,
only operating oxponsea hoing de
Whore co-operative marketing asso
ciations op?ralo largely rural Ufo ls
moro stable and farming offers a moro
sorta In living to those who engage in
tt b> ror.son of tho fact that many of
tho elements of chance aro removed
from tho industry.
Subscribe for Tho Courlor. (Boat.)
USE PUREBRED BOARS
Inferior Sires a Great Handicap.
Clemson College, May 2.-With the
increased interest in swine in the
state, there will he a largo demand
for breeding animals. On account of
this demand, a number of persons will
be tempted to use inforior boars and
Bows. While it cannot be hoped to
have ali of the sows purebred at this
time, yet there ?B no excuse for tho
uso of grade or scrub boars. There
aro sufficient purobred boars, if prop
erly distributed and properly man
aged, to make every market hog in
tho stato at least fifty percent puro
Why the Purebred Sire?
There are six goods reasons for us
ing a purebred boar.
1. Larger and stronger pigs are
2. The pigs grow faster and make
.3. Tho pigs reach market weight
?L The pigs aro more uniform.
6. The pigs meet the market de
mand, thereby bringing a higher
G. Pork production is made more
On account of the increased value
of the litters produced, any farmer
with eight or ten sows could well uf
1 ford lo keep a purebred boar. At
least, several farmers in a neighbor
hood can co-operate in tho purchase
und use of a purebred boar. Through
judicious management, a purebred
[ boar for every twenty-five or thirty
wows is sufficient.
' At this time when every advantage
inust. bo taken to realize; a profit from
farming operations, lot no ono handi
. cap himself by usine; inferior stock.
Let your animals marc)? with the
? BETTER SIRES-BETTER STOCK"
.Prepare to "Care for Animal? and
Clemson College, May.-Are you
ready? It "is said that opportunity
knocks at (he door of every man some
j time during his lifo, and tho quostion
; which you mu?t ask yourself is, "Am
j I roady?" Are you ready to go Into
? the livestock game? Is your land well
fenced? Have you the right sort of
I pastures? Do you raise yonr own
! feed or muBt you buy it? It pays to
. gr"ind your aa before you start. If
I you plan to go into the livestock busi
I neas he sure you are ready and then
! go in to stay.
Animals make loads of manure. Are
yo? prepared to save lt? The horse
will produce 9 tons, tho dairy cow 13
' tons, the steer 6 tons, the hog 2 tons,
; and tho sheep 2-5 of a ton per year.
' Will you save this manure?
The best international harvesters
in thc world for corn and velvet beans
are (rattle and hogs. The best, inter
national manure spreaders are hogs
and cattle. The grandest fertilizer in
all th*' world is manure.
On the average r? ton of barnyard
manure will contain io pounds ol' nit
rogen. G pounds ol' acid, and 10 pounds
of potash. Il also contains a large
M mount ol organic mutter which our
South Carolina soils need and mtisi
Experimental Results With Manure.
Did you ever stop to think that
more than hali the fertilizing value
of manure 1s In the liquid manure?
The Ohio Experiment Station found
eut that enough manure was lost by
seepage In twelve months' time, even
wliore liberal amounts ot bedding
were used, to pay for concreting the
Ohio and Cornell Stations have
proYod that manure oxposod in tho
barnyard will lose approximately Ru
percent of its value.. If lt is allowed
to heat, tho loss runs from 10 to 15
Tt is a common practice to haul
manure to the field and place lt In
piles. This ls not a good plan. It
flbould be immediately spread over
the soil, and the thinner It is spread
tho better. A ton of manure thinly
spread will be worth moro than ono
thickly spread. Thirty-five years'
worlt af the Pcnnsylvania Experiment
Station goes io pro^e that manure put
on al the rate of 12 tons per acre re
turned $rt.20 per ton. while manure
put on at tho rate of 20 tons per nero
yielded only $2.29 per ton.
Pastures for Pigs.
Clempon College. May.-We cannot
make tho hog business go In this stato
uni ess wo make good use of our graz
ing season. A pig in a pen ls lazy
and expensive, while the pig on pas
turo ls happy, thrifty, and profitable.
Every experiment station, every ex
tension department, and every pros
perous hog raiser in this country be
lieves in good pastures for hogs.
What can we grow in Son I h Caro
lina that hogs will pasture? Rape^,
rye. soybeans, cow] eas, Remitida, les
pedoza. velvet beans and many other
pastures do well In (his state. Rup
peso wo try some of these pastures j
and cut our grain ration in two.
Will hogs do well on pasture alone?
No, lt is host to feed a little grain
Whllo the hogs are on the pasture.
Two or three ears of corn to each
slioto per day will work wonders. The
pasture will maintain the animal and
tho grain will make gains in weight.
An nor* of good pasture will re
turn ?Tom 300 to BOO pounds of pork.
Forty dollars per acre ls not had
when lho ul gs do the work.
Seaweed ts the source of paraffin.
SCH WAH TALKS ON CONDITIONS.
Must bo u Readjustment of Railroad
Kates and Wages us Koginning.
New York-, April 28.-Germany,
through the economy and sacrifices
of her working peoplo, has settled
down to real production and is out
stripping the United States and tho
nilled nations In the light toward
normalcy, Charles M. Schwab de
clared here to-day in an address be
fore the chamber of commerce of the
State of New York.
.Mr. Schwab was tho guest of thc
chamber at a reception given 111 rec
ognition of his service to the coun
try during the war. I
"Germany to-day can put a ton of
steel in England at a price twenty ;
dollars a ton cheaper than England |
can make it," he said, "and'is selling
pneumatic tools in Detroit, where
formerly we shipped such machinery
to Germany and sold it cheaper than
she could make it.
"The difference is solely a matter
of labor costs.
"lt is estimated that 5,000,000
men nre out of work in this country,
ll is. accordingly, of supreme import-'
ance to the working man ;is well as
to the capitalist to restore our pros
"Never before wus the need for
products so great, never before was
such valuable machinery and facili
ties available. never before was
lhere SO much thal needed to 1)0
"I have just returned from Eu
rope, and I came with renewed ad
miration for tho courage and d?ter
mination displayed in Italy, France
and England. However, Germany
was ahead of them all in production.
"ls it possible that, after having
won the war, we ol the Allied na
tions, with everything in our hands,
will allow Germany to win the peace
through the efforts of ber labor?
"Labor, on the whole, can be paid
only what labor, as a whole, returns,
and if some sections of labor exact
more than their share of the cur
rent product or the world, other sec
tions are going to suffer. 1 under
stand thal our railroads to-day pay
to labor over sixty cents out ot every
dollar received. The labor cost of
making a ton of steel to-day is 85
cents out of each dollar of total cost.
"Labor costs underlie our railroad
difficulty. They are tho cause of
the excessive railroad rates. We for
merly sold pig iron at a profit, at
about $14 a ton. To-day the total
freight rates involved In making a
ton ol* pig iron are more than $14.
"But the railroads cannot give ser
vice even at present rates with their
..Railroad costs must come down
and it is in thc Interest of national
prosperity that our government, act
ing (brough the labor board and
every other agency, shall reduce rail
road wages and bring costs down lo
a living point.
' The same situation confronts our
merchant marine. In the operating,
building and repairing of ships the
labor costs are hopelessly high. That
this is true is shown by the millions
of tons of shipping now lying idle,
the great number of ship-yards with
no work to do, and the hundreds of
thousands of shipping and ship
"In so far as our people in Amer
ica are prepared to go to work at
reasonable wages, in so far as we
aro prepared quickly to abandon the
artificial extravagances of Hie war.
will we lay the foundations for a
prosperity never enjoyed before.
' This is the route through wi ch
not morely America, but tho pooples
of our allies as well, eau find their
way out and triumph in peace as
they did in war."
The chamber presented Mr. Schwab
a bronze tablet, al the top of which
was inscribed words uttered by Inchl
mo, a character in Shakespeare's
play. Cymboline. The quotation is
as follows: "Here's a voucher oven
stronger than Hie law could make."
laical Notes from Tabor?
Tabor. April L'7. Special: The
farmers in (his community are just
about through planting their crops.
Miss Ethel Owens was a recent
guest in tho homo of Miss lilllie Oil
Miss Ulttle Huff and Robert Land
?pent last sunday in TOCCOO, Ga., vis
iting Mr. and Mrs. Jesse Jenkins.
Mr. and Mrs. Eugene Singleton,
nf Westminster, were recent guests
In the home of Mr. and Mrs. ft, I.,
Several from this community at
[ended the funeral of Private Walkor
DweilS at the First Baptist church
In Westminster last Sunday.
Miss Daisy Tannery made a re
cent business trip to Seneca.
Miss Ida Marslngale, of Westmin
ster, spent one day recently with
Miss Ethel Owens.
School closed at this place on Fri
lay, the 22d.
Subscribe for Tlio Courier. (Best)
KA CT I YEAH
FOR THEIR CAR
THEY HAYE WA
SON A HI JY PROM
WILL HAYE IT
SHH I NO.
GENERAL DIRECTOR 75-M1LLION
.CAMPAIGN TELL8 PURPOSES
TO WHICH MILLIONS GIVEN.
EVERY CAUSE IS BENEFITED
State, Home and Foreign Mltelona,
Christian Education, Hospitals,
Orphanages and Ministerial
Relief Share In Receipts.
DR. L. R. SCARBOROUGH,
Chairman Conservation Commission
Baptist 75 Million Campaign.
Dr. L. R. Soar boron ff h, who waa
general director of tho Baptist 75
Million Campaign, and who was lator
elected chairman of tho Conservation
Commission that is seeking to con
serve all tho Interests of that cam
paign, has Issued a report from th?
Nashville headquarters showing the
various interests that havo profltod
from tho $16,851,100.68 collected on
campaign plodgos up to Dec. I, 1920.
With its receipts of $2,958,808.07.
tho Foreign Mission Hoard has added
to its territory five now provinces m
China and made tho beginning for
opening up work In tho new fiolds of
Spain, Hungary, Roumnnia, Jugo
slavia, and the Ukraine In Russia;
strengthened its work In Syria and
Palestine, made a beginning in East
ern Siborla, added 100 now workers
to its force of American missionaries
in foreign lands, provided new bouses
of worship, hospitals, schools, pub
lishing plants and other Institutions
needed in tho prosecution of mission
ary work. What ls of oven moro im
portance, in tho estimation of Secre
tary Love, is the completion of many
institutions and undertakings that
had been hold np for lack of funds.
Home Missions Doubles Budnet
By reason of tho larger receipts
from tho campaign, tho Homo Mis
sion Board has been onabled to prac
tically double its annual budget for
Ita work of evangelism, church build
ing, work among tho foreigners. In
dians and negroes, mountain mission
sc hools, enlist mont, and general mis
sion work In Cuba and Panama. Thc
appropriations to evangelism have
boen practically doublod, thoso tx
(burch building Incrcaaod between
500 and COO per cent, those to the
mountain schools, forty In number,
loo per cent, and thoso to tho work
of enlisting undeveloped churches,
300 por cont.
THE UNIVERSAL CAR
$440 f. o. b. Detroit
g comes the Rush
, THOUSANDS HAVE UK KN COMI ?101
S A KT KU PLACING TH Kl lt OHDKltS
ITKI) MA NV MONTHS.
li YOI IR ORDKR NOW, YOU WHJIJ lt
INST 1)101.AV. YOU WHJIJ RIO A HMO
PT D101AVKRV ON YOI R KORI) VJ
TO IONIO Y WU ION YOU WANT IT TU
OKK PLACING YOUR ORDKR.
S. C. WEST>
In tho. ronlm of stato missions,
which embodies such work as provid
ing missionaries and other special
workers Por needy fields within the
states and aiding weak congregations
in tho building of houses of worship,
tho advance made possible by the
campaign ranges from 25 to 100 poi
cont in tho eighteen states of the con
! Returns to the Conservation Com
mission by forty-flvo of tho Baptist
institutions of learning which ore
sharing in tho returns from the cam
paign, show that they havo rocetvod
$2,713,7f>G so fer. Of this sum, fl,
640,000 has been expended on Im
provements, $400,000 has gone to en
dowment, several hundred thousand
dollars In old debts have been wiped
out and other Improvements aro un
Ten New Hospitals Provided
Southern Baptists were operating
fourteen hospitals when tho campaign
bogan, and as a result of the new in
terest in this work aroused by the
campaign ton additional hospitals
have been launched. These hospital
havo received $1,111,439.46 from th?
campaign so far, while local commu
nities In which tho hospitals aro lo
cated havo subscribed approximately
$2,000,000 additional. The hospitals
have practically $1.000,000 In Im
provements under way. Tho seven
teen Baptist orphanages have like
wise como in for much larger support
as a result of the campaign, their
receipt? from this source hoing
$1,018,798.67. As a result of this in
come the orphanages have been un?
?bled to make improvements valued
The work nf aiding aged preachers
?a a now ono among Southern Bap
.ists as a whole, hut a? a result of
tho campaign the Belief and Annuity
Hoard K.R received $408,148.82 trom
that source and $300,000 from Mr
Lift Off with Fingers
Doesn't hurt a bit! Drop a little
"Preezono" on an aching corn, in
stantly that corn stops hurting, then
shortly you lift it right off with
Your druggist sells a tiny bottle of
"Preezono" for a few conks, suillciont
to removo every hard corn, soft corn
or corn between tho toes, and the
calluses, without soreness or irrita
Waste fruits aro employed in tho
making of perfumes.
Cotton rags are used in the, manu
facture of paper, guncotton and ex
Ibo Quinine That Doos Not Affect the Heid
Deeanne of its tonic nnd Inxntlve effect, I.AXA
TIVK BROMO QUININIt is better than ordinary
Quinine sud does not cruise nervousn?! nor
riniom: I? hend. Remember the lull linnie Und
look lur the signature oi li. W. GKOVH. 30c.
,LF,1> TO WAIT
i. SOM UTI M KS
IX) GMT KIOA
Vlt. AM) YOU
iINSTER, S. C.
soi/H iioit MOON HA inns lunns
Now York Hornill (lint Our Courin
Do J UH tiro lo tho Negroes,
fOroenvillo Plod mont, April 27.)
Tho following loiter from Solici
tor Harris, of Anderson, appeared In
the New York World yesterday;
Southern Justice to tho Negroj
"To thc IDdttor of Tho World:
"I realize that there are many
poople throughout tho North and
lOast who feel that here In tho South
tho negro ls given no showing at tho
hands of tho white ruco. Tho noted
Williams case, recently tried In the.
courts of (ioorgia, is a fair example
that wo aro not so prejudiced as soma'
would think. Right hero 1 should
like to stato that I tried a case hore
In tho Anderson Court of General
Sessions two weeks ago In which a
white man as prominent ns any man
of the county was charged with kill
ing a negro, and had some of the
host white men of the county to tes
tify as to his character for peace and
good order, and otherwise lend moral
support lo him in his defense. How
ever. I con vic I od him before n white
Jury and almost totally on negro
testimony, the while man being rep
resented by as able attorneys as tho
Slate of South Carolina abords,
j "I call these mailers io your nl
I tontion, not for the purpose of any
notoriety, nor for tho purpose of cre
ating any sectional antagonism, but
solely for tho purpose of lolling tho
people of tho North and Hast know
that Southern white juries will givo
a man justice regardless of his color.
"Another case 1 might call to your
attention during this same torin of
eon rt was whore a white man was
prosecuting a negro for disposing of
properly under Hen. There was only
the white man's testimony against
tho negro's ns to what the contract
was. Tho jury rendered a ve,?. ,t In
favor of (ho negro within flvo min
utes,, although the white man was
of high standing in tho community.
In (he homicide case the Jury was
out only a few minutes.
"Loon W. I farris.
"Anderson, S. C.. April 1ft."
Says Ignorant of Father's Heath.
Now York. April L'7. - Arrested In
Somerville, \. .1., in connection with
tho murder of Ills father in Orlando,
I'Ma., .lohn R. Bryant was reported
lo-day to have declared thal ho did
not know his father was dead. Bry
tr.t was taken into custody with his
wife and infant child after they had
men found In destitute circum
stances and given shelter on a farm
lear Now Brunswick. Tho body of
ho father was found buried in a
onely spot, near Orlando several
veoks ago. A pet dog was buried at
'Hitched Hole in Wall; Hobbed Safo.
Greensboro, N. c., April 27.-lrs
ng an Iron rail from a railroad track
ioarby, robbers early to-day punch?
d a bolo through the brick wall of
ho Spokesman Commercial Bank nt
tokesdale, N. C., and escaped with
bout ono hundred dollars in eur
olley, according to reports received
ero. Tho safe in which tho bulk of
lio bank's funds was locked with*
tood tho offorts to open it. Tho
olo In tho wall through which tho
ribbers entered measured eight, by