COST OF USING TRA
Preparing Seed Bed V
(Prepared by tbo United State? Depart
ment of Agriculture.)
During Del ober and November, 1920,
representatives of the United States
Deport mont ol' Agriculture visited 280
tractor-owners in Ohio, Indiana, and
Illinois. A complete record of all tho
.work demo during the year both with
tractors and horses was obtained from
each farmer, information from which
the cost ol' using the traci or and the
cost of maintaining the workstock
could be determined was also obtained.
The investigation was made through
the co-operative efforts of the bureau j
of animal industry, ellice of farm man- !
ngemenl and farm economics and the j
bureau of public roads, in accordance j
willi plans outlined at the farm power ;
conference at Chicago, III,, In October, i
1910. The object was to obtain Infor- I
matten, in addition to that airead.,
available In the Department of Agri
culture, which would aid in determin
ing advantageous forms of power for
different farms and different condi
Farms Above Average in Size.
The average size of the farms vis
ited was 2f>8 acres. This is consider
ably above the nverage size of all
farms in these states.
Two-plow tractors were owned on
174 of the 286 farms, three-plow trac
tors on 104, and four-plow tractors on
six farms. One farmer owned a one
plow machine, and one farmer owned
a five-plow machine. Two-plow ma
chines were found on 75 per cent of
the farms with less than 160 crop
acres, and on 53 per cent of those with
lflO or more crop acres.
One hundred and six of the tractors
bad been In uso one year, 100 had j
been in UKO one and one half or .twa:
year*, 40 had hoon in nae two and oney
half or three years, and 31 had been]
In me more than three years. I
On the average the tractors were
used for 80.8 full days during the year
covered by the investigation. Twenty
three and live-tenths days of this was
drawbar work on the home farm,
2.7 days was belt work, and 4.0 days
was custom work. Seventy-three of
the 2811 tractors did less than 20 days'
work during tho year and 20 did 50
or more dnys' work.
The number of workstock still
owned varied from two head on ll of
the farms to more than 15 on five of
the large farms. On the avernge there
were (5.8 bead per farm ot the
time of the survey, and their value
was $145 i>er head. In all there were
1.878 head of workstock on the 286
farms and 111 colts less than one year
of age. s
The average number of full days
work per year per horse, for all farms
was 68.6. On 20 of the farms the
workstock did less than 40 full days
work and cm 27 they did 100 or more
days work per year.
The tractors did 85 per cent of the
plowing on these farms, 78 per cent
of the disking, 43 per cent of the har
rowing, planting, rolling, and pack
ing, 41 per cent of the grain cutting,
and about 15 per cent of the loading
and hauling of hay.
Of 267 men who did spring plowing,
142 did lt all with tractors, 121 used
both tractors and horses, and four
used horses only.
Of 225 who did fall plowing, 190
did it all with tractors, 27 ie-"- both
tractors and horses, and eight used
In nil. the power for 30 per cent of
the drawbar work on these farms, as
measured by days of horse labor re
quired for lt, was furnished by trac
tors and the remainder by horses.
The nverage cost ppr head of keep
ing workstock on these farms for tho
year ending November 1, 1920, was
$159, and the average cost per farm
Coots 45 Cents Daily to Feed Horse.
Exclusive of grass and stalk posture,
the average ration per horse consisted
of 1.3 tons of hay, 1.2 tons of straw,
0.2 acre of stover, 87.8 bushels of corn,
and 22.3 bushels of oats. The total
cost of feed per head was $184. Based
on present prices (March. 1921), the
cost of feed per head would be about
The ovoroge cost per day of horse
labor for the year of the survey was
$2.48. Based on present prices the cost
on these farms would bo not far from
$1.50 per day.
The average first cost of the two
plow tractors was $972. of the three
plow tractors $1,354, and of nil trac
tors $1,140. The average amount spent
for equipment, mostly plows and disks,
for use with tractors was about $840.
The average value of (ac horse-drawn
Implements disposed of after the pur
chose of the tractors was 712.
The average life of those tractors
as estimated by their owners ls 6.7
VN IN YEAR'S WORK
Vlth Tractor Power.
years. The annual depreciation of the
two-plow tractors amounted to $104,
and of the three-plow $217. The an
nual cost of repairs, including the
value of the owner's time spent In re
pairing the tractors, was $39 for both
the two-plow and three-plow sizes.
The fuel consumption per day for
the two-plow tractors varied from
ahem 18 gallons for fall plowing to
about ll gallons for drawing the hay
loader. Por tile three-plow tractors lt
varied from 23 gallons for plowing to
LS gallons for drawing -the hay loader.
The two-plow trarlors covered 0.0
acres per day in plowing and three
plow machines S.ti acres. The amount
of fuel required per acre by the two
sixes was practically the sonic, 2.8
pa 11 ons for the two-plow and 2.7 gal
lons for the three-plow tractors.
Difference in Plowing Costs.
The average cost per acre of power
for the plowing done with two-plow
tructors was about $2 and with the
three-plow about $2.20. The cost of
power for the plowing done with
horses on these farms was about $2.90
per acre. Based on the present costs
of keeping workstock, the cost of
power for plowing with horses would
be about $1.90 per acre. For most of
the other operations the cost of power ?
when furnished by horses was slightly
less Uiau when furnished by tractors.
Tho cost per acre of power for disk- !
ing with tractors was $0.67, with :
horses, $0.04 ; for cutting grain with '
tractors, $0.67; with horses, $0.50.
These figures represent the cost of |
power only, and do not Include either
the cost of man labor, or that of the
Thc average cost per day of two
plow tractor? for drawbar work on
the home farm was about $12.Csr>, and
bf three-plow tractors about $17.76.' ;
The total cost of power furnished by
the tractors for drawbar work at home
during the year averaged $341. This
drawbar work on the home farm con- 1
Stltuted 76 per cent of the total work
done by the tractors, and only 70 per
cent of the total annual charge for de
preciation, repairs, and Interest on in
vestment, ls Included In lt.
Tractor Reduces Number of Work
On the 172 farms where there had
been no change In acreage the num
ber of workstock had been reduced by
2.2 bend, an average reduction of 20
per cent. Forty-four of these 172 men
had pot reduced the number of work
stock, 02 had disposed of one or two
bend, 43 had disposed of three or four
hood, and 23 of more than four head.
On those 172 flinns one horse had
been kept for each 28 acres (total
acres, not crop acres) before purchase
of tractors, and at the time of the
survey there was one horse for each
37.7 acres. For nil the farms there
hod been an average of one horse for
each 27.0 acres before purchase of
tractors, and there was one for each
37.9 acres at the time of the Investiga
tion. On the farms where there hod
bcon no change in acreage there had
been one horse for oach 21.5 crop acres
before tho purchase of tractors, and
there was one for each 29 crop acres at
the time of the investigation.
Operating Costs May Be Reduced.
There were great variations on In
dividual farms in the cost of power
furnished by both horses and tractors;
and by more careful management
many farmers could doubtless reduce
this cost. Repair costs and fuel con
sumption of the tractors could in many
cases have been reduced by more care
ful operation. The cost of keeping
workstock could have been reduced on
?nany farms by more careful feeding
The overage annual cost of power
for the drawbar work on the homo
farm which was done with tractors
was equal to the cost of keeping 2.1
head of workstock and this ls prac
tically the average number displaced
per farm. On the basis of present
prices, however, the cost of keeping
workslock has declined considerably
more than the cost of operating trac
Since, during the year covered by
the Investigation, the cost of power on
the overage farm was no greater than
If lt had all been furnished by horses,
any saving In man labor costs, any
gain due to getting a larger amount
of work done In a given time, and any
other advantages connected with the
use of tractors which cannot be meas
ured directly In dollars and cents,
might he considered clear profit. It ls
doubtful, however, If such gains were
groot enough to balance the cost of
operating the tractors on many of tho
fanni; where there was no clip n ge in
acreage and whore no workstock was
AMERICAN IMJLI/rK? ARK *X)UNl> !
lu lt-oluud-Finding ot 10,388 May |
liri nu Hep row en Ul lions to U, S. j
London, May 26.-American am
munition totalling 16,388 rounds has!
been captured in the Dublin district
since ^larch 26 last, Sir Hamer j
Greenwood, chief secretary for Ire-j
land, stated in the House of Com
The chief secretary made this
statement in reply to Col. Martin Ar-J
eher-Shee, Unionist member for |
Finsbury, who asked him whether
ammunition of Amorican munufac- .
ture had recently been captured in
raids on Sinn Fein premises in Dub- |
lin, and, if so, what was the amount
and nature of tho captures.
Col. Archer-Shoo, in a supplemen
tary question, asked whether, tn
view of the fact that largo sums of j
money had been raised in tho United ;
States "for support of the campaign
of assassination and anarchy in Ire
land," strong representations would
be made to the United States gov
ernment with reference to this fact
and the Unding of tho ammunition.
Another member wanted to know j
how it was that this large amount'
could come to Ireland, and whether j
Sir Hamer would ask the United j
States lo assist In preventing its so;
doing. The rhief secretary said ho;
noted the importance of these sup
plementary questions and would cou-j
fer with lin? foreign secretary re
Colds Cause Grip and Influenza
LAXATIVE DROMO QUININE Tableta remove tho
cause. Thcrols only one "Uroino Quiulue." E.W.
GROVE'S signature on the box. 30c.
President's Sister Mudo Defendant.
Washington, May 20,-Mrs. Caro
lyn Volaw, sister of President Hard
ing, was made defendant in a $25,
000 suit for alleged libel, Hied to-day
in the District of Columbia Supreme
Court by Dr. C. R. Lee Cole. The
plaintiff claims he was damaged in
bis good name and reputation as a
result of n letter written by Mrs. Vo
taw to Justice Stafford last April 29,
during the trial of the domestic dif
ficulties of Dr. Cole and his wife,
Minnie B. Cole.
In the letter Mrs. Votaw, who for
merly was connected with the wo
men's bureau of the police depatt
tnent, asked Die court to carefully
consider the evidence, and charged
that Mrs. l/olo had been terribly
wronged by l*)r. Cole.
1 Crandal Mackey, counsel tor Dr.
"Cole, called the letter to the atten
tion of President. Harding's secre
tary. Mr. Harding wrote the lawyer,
but the letter was not made public.
Knb-My-Tism is a powerful Anti?
. ?ptic. Cures infected cuts, old sores,
; ott er, etc.-adv.
.lustiee White's Will Very Hrief.
Washington, May 27.-The .viii of
Edward Douglass White, former
Chief Justice of the United States,
was Hied to-day for probate. It was
executed Juno 26, 1910, and is con
tained in two sentences-51 words
in all. It reads:
"This is my last will. I give, be
queath and devise to my wife, Lolta
M. White, in complete and perfect
ownership, all my rights and prop
erty of every kind and nature, whe
ther real, personal or mixed, wher
ever situated, appointing ber execu
trix of my estate without bond, and
giving her seisin thereof."
First War Criminal Convicted.
Llepsic, May 26.-iSergt. Heine,
accused of having ill-treated British
soldiers who were prisoners of war
at the prison camp at Horne, West
phalia, was sentenced to ton months
imprisonment hy the high court boro
to-day. He was the first Herman offi
cer to be (ried on criminal charges
arising from thc conduct of tho war.
The attorney general demanded that
Heine be sent to prison for two
The next case to bc. tried will be
that of Capt. Mueller, who was ac
cused of ill-treating British soldiers
at the camp nt Karlsruhe.
Uti ? 1,7r>1,8?2 in Bank Resources.
Columbia, May 26.-The report of
'State Bank Examiner Craig of the
condition of the 181 State banks, 16
brandi banks and ono private hank
on April 28th showed tho lol al re
sources of these banks to be $164,
751,862,1 I. The total savings on
deposit were $38,408,862.91. Indi
vidual deposits subject to check were
$ 17,197,482.7 1.
Abandon Air Mail Heute.
Washington, May 26.-Tho Wash
ington-New York air mall route will
bo abandoned af tor May 31, Post
master General Hayes announced to
day. The urgent need of economy
and Hie fnct that moans of continu
ing the department's experiments
with air mails would bc afforded by
the New York-San Francisco route
were given as the reasons.
If you are doub
a Ford Truck fe
owns one and ai
and will tell yo
ers have told us
ly a paying pro]
It brings the
solves the hauli
tween the farm
feront* jobs evei
tear of farm um
A post card v
THE DISARMAMENT PROPOSAL
Meets With Favor-Foreign Govern
ments Invited to Send Men.
Washington, May 20. - Unani
mous Senate approval was given yes
terday to Senator Borah's proposal
for an international naval disarma
'By a vote of 7 4 to nothing the)
Idaho Senator's amendment was add
ed to the naval appropriation bill,
authorizing and requesting the Pres
ident to invite the governments of
Great Britain and Japan to send
representatives to a conference with
representatives of the United States
in ?tu" effort to reach some agreement,
Tue vote was in conformity wiUi
til? understanding roached last week
by udininislratiou forces to give
their support to Senator Borah's
plan. Besides the 40 Republicans
and 28 Democrats voting for the
amendment, announcements were
made on behalf of many absentees
that they, too, favored tho disarma
Text of Amendment.
The text of the amendment is as
"That the President is authorized
and requested to invite the govern
ments of Great Britain and Japan to
send representatives to a conference,
which shall be charged with the duty!
of promptly entering into an under-)
standing or agreement, by which the
naval expenditures and building pro
grams of the said governments, to
Wit, the United States, Great Britain
and Japan, shall be substantially re
duced annually during the next live
years to such an extent and upon
such terms ns may be agreed upon,
which understanding or agreement
is to be reported to the respective
governments for approval."
Upon the passage of the bill the
amendment will go to conference
with the House, but its advocates
believe it will be endorsed and then
approved by President Harding.
With the Borah amendment incor
porated, an effort was made to reach
a vote on the passage of tho bill late
to-day, but this was frustrated by
debate arising on minor amendments
to tho bill. Senators LaFollette, Re
publican, of Wisconsin, and King.
Democrat, of Utah, also had several
amendments pending. The latter
promised to introduce several to
abolish what be termed "useless"
navy yards and depots.
Opposes Capital Ships.
Senator LaFollette made another
lengthy address to-day in opposition
lo capital ship construction and con
siderable more debate was In pros
pect whon adjournment was taken
to-night. With to-morrow set aside
hy special order for consideration of
tho contested nomination of David
Hi Blair, to be internal revenue com
To Stop a Cough Quick
toko ' HAYES' HEALING HONEY, a
cough medicine which stops the cough by
healing the inflamed end irritated tissues.
A box of GROVE'S O-PEN-TRATE
SALVE for Chest Colds, Head Colds and
Croup is enclosed with every bottle of
HAYES1 HEALING HONEY. The salve
should be rubbed on tho chest and throat
of children suffering from a Cold or Croup.
Tho heallDft effect bf Hayes' Healing Honey In
side the throat combined with the healing effect of
Grove's O-Pen-Trate Salve through the pores ot
the skin soon stops a cough.
Both remedies are packed In one carton and the
coat of the combined treatment ls 35c.
Just ask your druggist for HAYES'
THE UNIVERSAL CAR
$545 f. o. l>. Detroit
tful whether it will
>r your farm, go to
sk him. Or we wil
u what dozen of Foi
?-that the Ford Tri
best markets to ?
ng problem on the
and the city. It d<
?y day and stands
der all conditions.
fill bring you furth<
S. C. WEST>
missiouer, Immediate passage 01 thu
Dill was a hazy prospect. Adminis
tration loaders expressed tho hope
thal it wouul bu tutop ted at tho out
side by the early part ol next week.
Among minor amendments adopt
ed to-day was the committee provi
sion for creation in the Navy Depart
ment of a special bureau of aeronau
tics, with tile head to be selected by
Another amendment, by Senator
Smoot, Republican, of Utah, udopted
would authorize the department to
continue publication of the "ship
ping bulletin" for Hie benefit of ma
rine and other interests. The amend
ment provides that lt be supplied to
subscribers at actual cost, about $1
Charleston Prospecta Brighter.
Kolnstalenient in tho Naval Acad
emy af Annapolis of lin midship
men who "flunked" and wera forced
to resign last January, was tho ob
ject of an amendment Introduced by
Senator McKellar. Democrat, of Ten
nessee. It went over for further con
sideration. Senator .McKellar and j
others contended thal the midship
men had not been fairly dealt with
In re-examination. Ills amendment
proposed that, they be renominated
and placed in a grade a year behind
Further negotiations were held
to-day between Senators on amend
ments recently debated to establish
a new naval supply base at Alameda,
Cal., and for continuing work on Hie
Charleston, S. C., projects. Little
headway toward an agreement on
the Alameda project was reported,but
advocates of the Charleston work
claimed to have assurance that be
fore a vote the Charleston items pro
bably would be reinstated.
Name "Bayer" on Genuine
Beware! Unless you see the name
"Payer" on package or on tablets you
are not getting genuine Aspirin, pro
scribed by physicians for twenty-one
years and proved safe by millions.
Take Aspirin only as told in the
Hayer package for colds, headache,
neuralgia, rheumatism, earache,
toothache, lumbago sind for pain.
Handy tin boxes of twelve Rayer Tab
lets of Aspirin cqst few cents. Drug
gists also sell larger packages. Aspi
rin ls the trade mark of Hayer Manu
facture of Monoaeoticacidester of
Soino Farmers Now Selling.
Clover, S. C., May 2 5.-It is evi
dent from the way the farmers aro
selling cotton at this mnkret that
tiley do not believe Hie price is going
to be any better soon. More than
30 0 hales have been sold here during
the past few days.
For Homo timo it looked as if the
farmers here would have to plant tho
most of their cotton over, but tho
recent fine rlans have brought most
of the cotton up.
Subscribe for Tho Courier. (Bes*.)
pay you to buy
the man who
1 come to you
rd Truck Own
iick is positive
your door. It
farm and be
ses a dozen dif
the wear and
CHILD ?VIKT ACCIDENTAL DEATH.
Child of Less (han Sir Years, Killed
nt ('(Miar Springs hy Brother.
Spartanburg, Muy 25.- Carroll
Newman, between live and six years
of ago, was shot and instantly killed
about noon yesterday by Robert New
man, agod ton, at the homo of R. G.
Newman, at Cedar Springs. The lit
tle boy was loaning against his sis
ter's knee whon the accident hap
pened. Tho girl, who is 15 years of
ago, did not know that tho larger
boy evon bad tho gun. Tho cjiildron
were on tho porch whon the older
child went in tho house and got tho
gun. Ho was playing with it in some
way when lt/ was discharged,; the lOttjT
etil erin g tho righi shoulder of tho
boy, hilling him instantly. The dead
boy was a son of tho lalo D. W. Now
mun. Hu, hillier and mutator-are both
dead. He and his Histor wore living
with their uncle, lt. C. Nowman. One
of Hie sisters is In St. Louis and two
are In school. Young Robert New
man ls one of two children. The cor
oner was notified and made an in
vestigation, bul no inquest was nec
essary, as tho killing was plainly ac
No Worms in a Healthy Child
All children troubled with Worms hnvo on un
healthy color, which Indicates poor blood, and as a
rule, t herc is moro or I ess stomach disturbance.
GROVE'S TASTELESS CHILL TONIC given regu
larly for two or threo weeks will enrich tho blood.
Improvo tho digestion, and act aa a genera I Strength
ening Tonio to tho whole system. Nature will then
throw off or dispel the worms, and the Child will bo
tn perfect health. Pleasant to take. 60?; per botUo.
Camphor Seale Pe?t. Discovered.
Washington, May 25.-Discovery
In New Orleans of the camphor scalo,
a new insect pest, was announced to
day by the Department of Agricul
ture, lt may provo a "dire monaco"
to the citrus fruit orchards and other
cultures of'-tho country unless lt is
checked at onco, tho department an
nounces. Local authorities aro said
lo he takln' active steps to control
the pest and have asked assistance
of the Federal horticultural hoard
and the bureau of entomology in tho
The insect was discovered attack
ing camphor trees in the residential
aroa of New Orleans. Hov/ lt got In
to the United States is unknown, but
entomologists believe lt was Intro
duced little more than a year ago.
Hitherto it has been known to exist
almost exclusively in India, China
and Japan. Reported occurrences of
lt In ibo Philippines and Porto Rico
were investigated as a result of tho
outbreak in New Orleans.
Enjoyable < Celebration,
Seneca, May 25.-Special: Tho
family reunion and birthday celebra
tion In honor of Mrs. Elizabeth Mor
gan's eighty-sixth birthday, at the
home of W. J. Iluskamp, was at
tended by a large number of pooplo,
considering tho unfavorable weather.
Among those attending there were
eight great-grandchildren. A largo
tablo was made across tho long ve
randa, whero tho dinner was served,
which was greatly enjoyed by all.
Though this "most estimable lady
has livod to a ripe old ago ,wo hopo
that sho may live to seo many moro
birthdays, oach ono being happier
than tho others as they go by.
Subscribe for The Courier. (Beal.);
IINSTER, S. C.
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