Newspaper Page Text
D. F. BRADLEY. Editor. 0
PICKENS 0. H., S. C.:
TNUESDAY, JANUARY 27, 1881. r
For rubscription, $1.50 per annum, for six t
;ionths, 75 cents; strictly in advance.
A'dvertisements inserted at one dollar per
equare of one inch or less for the first Inser.
ion and fifty cents for each subsequent in
sertion. Liberal discount made to merchants
-.ad othors advertising for six months or by (
Obitnary Notices and Tributes of Respect
iharged for as advertisements.
Announcing Candidates five dollars, In
gi We will commence in a few days to
send out to our subscribers who are behind
on their subscription, a statement of their
accounts. We nean no insu~lt. hy this, but we
need money, and hope all will respond
promptly. Our machine needs "ile" and it
can not be run without it.
The Labor Question.
In a recent interview with the Washington
correspondent of the New York Ihrnld Sena
tor Butler is reported to have *said that the
condition of the South would be greatly im
proved by the migration of a large proportion
of the negroes to other States; that the blacks
are too numerous to do well, and that South
Carolina would be a more prosperous and ad,
vancitig State if half of her present colored
populat ion should emigrate to other sections of
The Charleston KN.ws and Courier disagrees
with Senator Butler, and las "propounded
certain leading questions" on the subject to
its correspondents in the different counties in
the State. Correspondents from Sumter,
Barnwell, Orangeburg, Darlington and Spar
tanburg have sent in their replies sustaining
the views of the News and Courier. This was
to be expected, for the views of regularly se
lected correspondents are expected to coincide
upon all leading questions with those of their
journal. In its comments upon what its cor
respondents have s.id, the News and Courier
says that "the general condition of the color
ed man has been greatly improved." This
declaration has been time and again made by
this journal O 4Eterated by other journals
in the State. gYe have took' s'ome pains to
ascertain ho thie matter stod in this section,
aind have been forced to the conclusion that
nine-tonths of them are in as great poverty to,
day as they were when set free. Their op
portunities for acquiring property have been
equally as good in this as any other section
of the State, and we believe that what is true
of their condition here Is equally true of their
condIition elsewhere in the State. It is true
that, some of them have purchased small home
steads, and in a few instances have paid for
them, but a majority of those who have pur
chased homesteads have~themi mortgaged eith
er for the purchase money or supplies ad
ranced to make their crops. Up to 1876 the
condition of the negro gradually grew worse.
This was during the time when theft was the
order, and honesty the exception in our State
Government. The negro was kept in great
political excitement all the time by his white
leaders in order that they might, retain the
oflices and escape exposure. This .caused the
negro to neglet his own interest and grow
gradually poorer every day of his life. Since
then we admit there has been a tendency to
improvement, which we regard as a natural
result of the improved condition of our State
If the negroes would entirely ignore poli
tics, or break up their solidity on the color
line and follow'the native white men of the
State, there would be some hopes of them bet
tering their financial condition. This we do
not believe they will do. His carpetbag and
scalawag leaders will not permit him to do so
as long as they have a numerical majority in
the Stai~e, and there Is the shadow of a hope
*f their regaining position and the spoils of
office. Hence it is plain to our mind that
Senator Butler Is entirely correct. In fact
we h'ive held these views and so expressed
hemi several years ago. The objection of
the Neus and Courier, that "There is no or
ganized movement in any part of the State to
-"pply the place of the negro with white la
'orers" is no argument against the emnigra
Ion of the negro, for once the negro is gone
he farmers of the State will organize an im
'iigration scheme that will soon supply all
1 eir dlemands-a society that will be more
-ifective than all the puny schemes yet in
o.uguated by the State Government. They
w'ill bring too, .besides, reliable labor, skilled'
ibor to the State, which at this time is moret
n.eeded than any other kind of labor. This
a ind of labor is not comning amongst us as
ing as it has to contend with negro labor..
iut remove at least half the negro labor from
' he State, then it will come, and with it capi,.
td which will seek investment in our mann
1 oturing interests, and at once put us on the
highway to wealth, power and happiness.
donator Butler is right, and we are glad that
a man of his ability and influence has given
his opinion to the public.
We are glad to welcome the BoUthera Pree- I
/ terian to our office. It Is an excellent, re, q
'Igous paper, and should be in the posses- ~
g on of every Presbyterian family, in the
There have heen several small failures in E
CLkarleston recently. B. W. Marshall & Co. I
v as the largest, their liabilities amounting to
Hion. C. W. Dudley, long one of the most i
prominent citizens of Marlboro County, died
on. the 15th instant, at the age of 78 years.
IIe died of paralyses, from which he had 0
be en miaring for a. year nast
The Negro and Politics.
The Democrats of Greenville have
ecently reorganized their club, the
bjects of which are set forth in a cir
ular letter of the Greenville Nets
oet to the "political leaders" of the
tate, for the purpose of obtaining
heir views upon the movement. The
Alowing is the circular letter:
"We propose to organize "Citizen's
Pair Play Clubs" the first article in
he constitution of which will be un.
,Iterable allegianceto the Democratic
oorty and hostility to the Republican
>arty. But we will invite the colored
caders to attend and discuss politics
uietly, and the idea is to offer them
L certain share of the offices, it they
m'll join our clubs. We feel the no.
)esdity of doing something to obviate
3xisting political difficulties, and this
promises at least a chance of success.
Dvertures for peace can best come
from the up.country, and especially
this district, where our power is un..
disputed and absolute."
The replies of Congremsmen O'Con%
or and Col. Aiken have been publish
ed by the News. Mr. O'Conor ex
presses his approval of the movement,
but Aiken, as will be seen by
the following reply, only takes a part
of the programme in his:
WASHINOTON, Jan. 13, 1881.
DEAR SIa: Yours of the 10th in
stant has been received, advising me
of your organization of "Citizens Fair
Play Clubs," with "unalterable alleg
ianee to the Democratic party" of the
State, and similar "hostility to the
Republican party," so called, of the
State; and asking my approval of such
organizations, to membership in which
"colored leaders" are invitel, "the
design being to offer them a certain
share of offices, if they will join our
Your effort to organize clubs with
sworn allegiance to the Democratic
party, and no less unalterable hosti
lity to that political spawn that has
assumed the name of Republican party
in south Carolina and the South,
meets my heartiest approval. Beyond
this, I am not in accord with your of..
forts. I am irreconcilably opposed
to giving the negro 1o itical recogni
tion because he is a negro. The gov,.
ernent has miade him a citizen, with
equal rights before the law with all
other citizens. In all thoso rights he
should be, and doubtless will be, and
is protected. 11 ho is ever to attain
to political pref ermen t, let it be upon
merit. Why give office to incompe
tent negroes, if more competent white
men are willing and anxious to fill
the same office? Fortune or mnisfor,
tune has placed the colored citizen in
the midst of a sup~erior race, who are
better able to govern themselves and
him without his aid than with it.
Then, why compromise this su per'iori
ty, when no general good will or can
be effected thereoby? Neither the
law, not tho public welfaire, iminposes
the obligation of ma~king the negro a1
participant in the affairs of governs
ment because of his numnbers, and he
certainly presents no other' cla'm to
which the most charatable sentimient
would give assent. Give him all the
protection and advantages the law
allows him, and let him take huis
chances in society as any otheor ci tizen,
and play a subordinate role uiiil he
can claim promotion by reason of
merit. Beyond this I am unwilling
to go. There are too many legal al,
trnatives to which we can resort to
rnatch and thwart his superior num%
aers, for us to consent to compromis,.
ng ourselves by such political horse
swapping as you propose.
Other citizens better entitled to
formulate public opinion than myself
upon this subject may, perhaps, dift'er
with me widely. I have consulted
no one, and give you my oupinion for
what you think it is worth. Upon
the "negro question," as well as upon
rIlquestions affecting the publIc weal,
I have found our best thiunkers so at
variance with each other since the
war, that I have long since adopted
the policy, and as yet have no reason
to regret it, of "loving my neighbor
is myself, and paddling my own ca
." Very respectfully,
D. WYATT AIKE.
To use a slang phrase, Col. Aiken
'knocks the black out." We most
leartily endorse his views, and be..
ievo that he expresses the sentiments
>f nine-ten ths of' the Democrats of
his section. We are, like Col. Aiken,
irreconcilably opp~osed to giving the
egro political recognition because he
s a negro." Fr'om the lack of educa,
ion and proper training lhe is not
ualified to fill any public position,
which has been sufficiently demon
trated in this State. le has had all
he rights of' citizenship confered upon
im, and stands before the law equal
rith the white man--let him take
is chances for politionl preferment
pith him. Qualification and merit
lone, should entitle a man to political
reforment. Because the negroes are
umnerically the strongest race in the
Itate, it is no reason why they should
e given recognition in preference to
hite men. The whites, by reason
i their superior intelligence can, and
vill control the State. Educate and
ualify the negro for office before you
fer it to him. The Republican party
rher'e theyv have a mjity. do not
Oive bim political recognition. Not
)no of them has over been elected to
Dion gres or any other responsible
ffce in the North , nor they never
will be. President elect Garfield very
plainly tells the negro in his reply to
the dele'gation which recently visited
him, headed by Elliott of this State,
for the purpose, of laying before him
their alleged political grievances, that
they can only hope to rise in the po
litical scale by culture and intelli..
gence. Ile said:
"I noted as peculiarly significant
one sentence in the rematks of Gen.
Elliott to the effect that the majority
of citi2eus, at he alleges, in some por
tions of the kouth, are oppressed by
the minority. If this be so, why is
it so? Because a trainediman is two
or three men in one in comparison
with an untrained mran, and outside
of politics and outside of parties tbat
suggestion is full, brimfu of signifi
canoe, that the way to make the ma
jority always powerful over the mi.
nority is to make its members as
trained and intelligent as the minority
itself. That brings the equality of
citizenship, and no law can confer
and maintain, in the long run, a thing
that is not upbeldo with a reasonable
degree of culture and intelligence."
George 3liett's Romola.
A timely interest is given, by the
death of the author, to the new edi
tion of her masterpiece, "Romola,"
just iesued by the American Ex,
change, New, york. It shows her
work at its best and strongest, and at
the same time gives the reader the
opportunity to acquire a lasting fa
miliarity with the scer.es and society
of medimval Italy. It is one of the
few really great historical novels of
the world. It is issuod in handy and
beautiful form, extra cloth binding,
simple but rare elegance and taste in
design, and like the other issues of the
'Literary Revolution' i cost is almost
numinal, viz: 35 cents. I is one of'
at series intended to form a library ot
classic fiction, which wvilI include one
representative and characteristic work
of each of the groat authors who have
wvon lasting fame in the realm of' fic
tion. Life is too short and too full
of work to permit, theo reading of all
that is beautiful and valuable in these
cations of the Imagination, but even
very busy people e:.n find timeu to
rend one Look by each of the score of
authors who have won immnortal fame
and place in the affections of the poo..
ple. Not to be acquainted with them
is to be ignorant of much that is most
impor tant anrd most in'terestinrg in t ho
history of nations and of men. Not
to posses them is to be deprived of
miost fruitful anid p~rofitable sources
of enjoymcnt. Among those issued
or iiearly ready are Scott's 'Ivanhoe,,
B3u1 wer's 'Pompeii,' Irving's 'Kn ick
Crboeker,' Cooper's 'Mohlicans,' 'Torn
Hzrown at Rugby,' 'Adventures of Don
Quixo to' and 'Uarda&, a Romance of
Anciernt Egypt.' Full catalogue of
standar'd publications will be sent on
requet, by the American Book Ex
change, Tribune Building, New York.
Thbere are four eoun ties in this State
in w hich no licenses are issued for the
sale of whiskey, viz: Pickens, Lau'.
rens, Marlborro and [lorry. We hope
the same can be said of all the coun
ties in the State before another year
has rolled around.
If Mother Shipton's prophecy is not yeri.
fled the people of this section of the world,
at any rate, ifave had gloomy weather en.
ough to make them believe there is somes,
thing in it.
The Republicans are nagging the Democrats
in Congress 'with the declaration that if an ex
tra session is held it 'will be because they
make it necessary. The majority should pay
no attention to this scare-crow business but
go on and perform such work as the exigen
cies of tbe occasion demand.
A heavy storm' prevailed at the North on
21st instant. The telegrap'h, and telephone
wires in New York city were nearly all blown
down, and several vessels at the docks were
The town of Durham, North Carolina, has
been twice visited with conflagrations during
the past season, and twenty two stores were de
stroyed on the last occasion. Hardly any..
thing Is left, save the huge brick and iron
built tobacco factory of Blackwell's, which is
The friends of George White, who stabbe d
and killed Mr. Schofield in Greenville in
Christmas week, have employed Messrs.
Wells, Orr & Westmorland to defend him.
Iils trial will take place next March.
The bill to fund the maturing United States
bonds, to bear three per cent. interest, has
passed the lower House of Congress, and Is
now before the Senate for consideration. It
s certainly very much to the credit of our
iovernment to be able to float a bond at par,
bearinur only three per nt neet..
The Most Horrible Crime Ever Re
PRospERitrry, S. C., Jan. 19.-On the
evening of the 17th as Miss Bettie
Wertz was going home from her
brother's, whom she had been visiting,
she was assaulted by two negroes,
Dave Spearman and Sam Fair, who,
after effecting their fiendish purposes,
tied her to a bush, first gagging her,
and then went to Mr. Wertz's and
got their supper; afterwards, return
ing to their unfortunate victim and
again committing acts of violence
they killod her by choking ter. At
the Coroner's inquest suspicion rested
on the above named parties and they
were arrested, and confession on the
part of Sam first, and then Dave, con
firmed these suspicions. They were
then lodged in the guard house. Last
night; they were taken from the
guard house by the infuriated popu..
lace. Sam was shot on the spot and
left as being dead, but Dave was car,
r;ed to the spot where the cri me was
committed, tied to a pine tree and
then shot. On returning, the crowd
did not find Sam, and at once search
was instituted. He was found at his
mother's and brought back to Prosper
ity, He was then taken about one
mile from town, whore his own life
paid for his hellish acts, the negroes
assisting in the vindication of right.
Quietude prevails to-night. Miss
Wertz had a gentleness of disposition
and personal beauty not possessed by
Miss Wertz was buried yesterday
by the Good Templairs Society, of
which she was a member.
DETAAILs OF THE CONFEssIONS.
The following dispatch to the Co
lumbia Register gives the details of the
confessions and punishment of the
Several parties were arrested on
suspicion and the evidence pointed
directly to two boys working on Mr.
Wecrtz's place. On their being first
sworn both denied it, but on calling
Sam Fair to the stand aguain he made
aconfession implicating David Spear
man. The confession of Sam Fair was
that last Spring Dave had made a
proposition to outrage M isis Wer tz, and
last Fall he again maide the same pro..
position ; arnd on the 17th instan t., justa
after dinnter Dave again told Sa~m that
he meant to outrage her'.
Dave's tesu.monyV was to the effect
that he anid Sanm were to perpetrate
the deed mn the evening; at, a given
signal he was to come to Sam's assis,
tance. But Sam could not lcavo his
horses. When Dave saw Miss Wertz
ap~proachinlg he 'vent, to the spring
anid gave the signal agreed oun with
his confederate. He then went off
and met Miss Weortz, to whom he
spoke and then passed her. TIurning
suddenly around, however, he clutch,
ed her neck from behind and choked
her down and tied heor. He thon went
and got Sam. The black devils then
secreted their victim near the path
and returned to their work. This
was about 5 iP. M. They went to the
house and got their suipper, after
which they returned .to the body and
killed her. They tihen carried the
body of the unfortuna~te young girl to
the crossing at the fence where the
Dave went and dug up the hand
kerchief with which he had strangled
Miss Wertz, together with the rope
they had tied her with. Ontbe hand ker
chief wore found bloody marks, which
he said came from her neck when he
Dave was summarily dealt with on
the spot whore ho had committed his
Sam was captured this morning and
hung near this place by a party of
aroused citizens, estimated at from
six hundred to eight hundred persons.
His body is still hanging, where the
punishment, was meted out to him.
An Act to amend an Act entitled "An
Act to secure landlords and persons
Bo it enacted by the Senate and
House of Representatives of the State
of South Carolina, now met and sit
tin g in General Assembly, and by the
authority of the same:
That an Act entiled "An Act to
secure landlords and persons making
advances," approved March 4, 1878,
be amended so that Section 6 thereof
shall read as follows:
SEo. 6. That every lien for advano,
em and for rent, when the agreement
is more than one third of the crop,
shall be indexed in the ofe of the
registrar of mesne conveyanece of
the county in which the lienor re
sides within thirty days from the date
of the lien; and the indexing di the
said lien shall constit4te notice there,
of to all third persons, and entitle the
same to the benefit of this Act- said '
index shall bhnw the nam.. f t.o
lienor and lienee, the date and a
mount of lien, and brief description
of place so cultivated; and for index
Ing said clerk shall receive fifteen
oents for each lien from the party
presenting the same, and said index
mng shall be a sufficient record of the
same and the property covered by
said lion so indexed as aforesaid, if
found in the hands of subsequent
purchnsers or creditors, shall be deem.
ed liable to said lien. Provided, that
all leases herein provided shiall be in
writing, except the land lord'& lien for
rent, where the amount does not ex
ceed onesthird of the crop. Provided
further, that so much of any Act or
Acts as is inconsistent with the pro
visions of this Act be, and the same
is here repealed."
Approved December 24, 1880.
MIRACULOUs PoWER.-The Forest
and Stream has it: 'To preserve health
use Warner's Safe Remedies. These
are almost of miraculous power in re
moving diseases for which recom
mended. The wonderful curative
qualities they are possessed of is
vouched for by tens of thousands.'
Vice President Wheeler claims that
the Republicans are sure of their
ability to organize the next Senate.
THE MOST WONDERFUL SHOW EVER
seen in Pickens has just arrived. Among the
various Artieles in this Show and which can
be purchased at the LOWEST CASH PRI
CES, are all kinds of
Staple and Fanoy Dry Goods,
FANCY ARTICLES, LEATHER,
HARDWARE, CUTLERY, and all kinds or
Groceries needed for family use. In fact
everything kept in a FirstClass General Mer
cha~ndise Establishmienxt can be round hero at
FR.ESH[ CORN MEAL will always be~ found
On handlt for salte.
Till8 811OW cai he found across the street
opposite the Oouirt, Ilouse, at the
Griffin & Newberry.
AGENTS ALSO FOR DIXIE GUANO.
S A LE.
1WILLf sell to th highlest bidder for cash.,
.at. Pickenis C ourt- 110ouse, ou Sal lay ini
Februar~y 1881, all lthat PLANT1A T[ON OF
LAN I) on the lb>st side of Twelve Mile River
in l'ickens County, adjoining landn~s of Chris
Rohinson,, the Tlemnperalnce Madd.en place
and or ters, conitaninrg 400 acres mnore or
less, and k nio win r.s the Fc Iger or [Keasler piace.
'fhiis is thle 9atuie traet conveyedl by N. MI
Miadden to TV. W. Folger, and aftewairds
miorigaiged by T1. W. Folger to WV. 0. Whild
en, and1( whticht was subsequently sald by t he
Shecriff' of l'ick ens Conunty under a judgment
of foreciosnre of said mo:-tgage to me as agent
of WV. G. Whiilden, and under this sale I will
convey all my right anid title acquired under
said deed of the Sheriff.
0. WV. Taylor, Esq., at Pickens C. TI. will
give any information required concerning the
titles, and sell the same in my absence.
JULiUS C. SMI1'll, Agent.
jan 20, 1881 18 8
BIG PAYABAGENTS WANTED
We anta limited
number of active, energetic business canvass
er's to engage in a pleasant and profitable
business. Good men will find this a rare
To MIake 1Money.
Such will please answer this advertisement
bytr, enclosing stamp for reply, stating
wII business they have been engaged in.
None but those who mean business need ap
FINLEY, IARVEY & CO., Atlanta, Ga.
Patents for Inventions.
E. W. A NDERSON. J, C. SMITH.
ANDRSON & SMITH,
Attorneys atLaw No. 700 Seventh-St.
Opposite the United States Patent
Office, Washmngton, D. C.
INo fee for prelimiary examination.
No fee unless patent ia allowed.
Fees 1088 than those of any other
Practice in the U. S. Patent Offie,
U. S. Supreme Court, and District,
Correspondence solicited and no
charge made for advice
Books of information sent free of
.Reference furnished upon request.
oct 14, 4 3m
Those of our readers desiring steady and
profitable employment, or valuable reading
matter cheap for 1881, should send 16 cents to
be FRANK LESL1E PUBLISHING Co., 16
D'ey St., New York, for a complete set of their
publications and Illustrated Catalogue, con,
alning list of premiums, &o., or $1.60 for a
tomplete. agent's ontfit of 12 beautiful Chro-.
nos and our Premium Book of Valuable In
ormation, containing over 600 pagen; also
)r. Kendall's eminent Treatise on the HTorse
bnd his Diseases, with sample copies of all our
An active agent wanted in every town-$20
o $20 can be made weekly. Their Illustra..
ed Publications, with their new Premiums,
ake at sight. Do not dlelay if you wiele to
ecure yotur territory.
Address Frank Leblie Publishing Co., I5
k ey St., New York.
F. W. POE & .C0..
m raZ LOEIIK!
MAIN AND AVENUR B'imZTS,
Greenvi lie, S. C,
EVERYTHING MARKED I
PLAIN FIGURES AND
One Price to A11l!
Wo do not ask our customers 40$
f'or a su1T that i8 only worth 15$
thinking Lbat all wo can got
OVE R 15$
WILL BE SO MUCh
BUT OUR GOODS ARE MARKED
And beingr thoroughly pos'ted in our
business, wo conifdently nsaureo our
Customecra that our prices are as low
as the sameo Gjcooda can be bonght in
h. XV. PO IR &. CO..
dec 23, 1880. 14ga
Notico to Debtors & Creditors.
A LL iper wom having del.'nnds gainst the
. Ernte of D. A . M. F:012i13. decea.
ed, mouyst lIv, e thiiem dut1y ap jproved; andl
th~s tudebted mnusi mtk paityment: to tiho
uanderaignerd. I'rmpt senhlra~.mt di' 'your
mecdical1 accounts will Mave cost.
0. C. I''OlER, Ad-a'r.
jan 13, 1881 17
The Mtate ofSoiutha Cai'olina
Er 0. L. DiUR~A N, .JU'iE oF Pnlon'av's.
Whlereas3, . C. Gi ilin hase~ melnde suit~io n~n
to granit hinm [Letiers or Administ;rat ionl with
the will atnn x'ed, on the lEtuato and .E4fects~
of Stephen U. Ke.ith, deceased.
These are thiereriu-c to cite and adinonisia\
all anid singular the kindred and creditors of
thle said Stephen Di. h-eithi. dec.'asd, thaL
they be and arppear before me, in the ort
of Probate, to be held at. Pick ens C7. M., on
the 29th~ day of Janiunry 1W81, af ter publica
tion hereof, at 1 1 o'clock in the forenoon, to
shew cause. if any they have, why tLe said
administration sh->uld not be granted.
Giveni under my hand and seal this, the
10th day of January, A. D., 1880
OLIN L. DUJRANT, J.p.r.o.
jan 13, 1881 17
THE SUN FOR 1881
.Everybody reads TH E SUN. In th e edt,
tions of this newspaper throughout the yea
to come everybody will find:
I. All the world's news, so presented thai ,
the reader will get ihe greatest amount of in
formation with the least unprofitable expoe,
diture of time and eyesight. Tu SUN long
ago discovesed the golden mean between re..
dundant fulness an d unsatisfactory brevity.
II, Much of that sort of news whioh de,
pends less upon its recognized Importano.
than upon its interest to mankind. From a
morning to morning Tr~ -SUN prints a eo,.
tinued story of the lives of real men and we.
men, and of their deeds,, plans, loves, hate.,
and troubles. This story is more varied and
more interesting than any romance that waa.
III. Good writing in every column, and
freshness, originality, accuracy, and decoruma 4
in the treatment of every subject.
IV. ilonest comment. Tn. Suw's habit la
to speak cut fearlessly about mn and thingg
V. Equal candor in dealing with eaoh poi
litical party, and equal readiness to comiment
what is praiseworthy .or to rebuke what ia
blamable in D)emocrat or Republican.
VI. Absolute independence 'of partisan or,
ganizations, hut. unwavering loyalty to true
Democratic principles. The Sun believe. .hat
the Oovernment which the Constittition give.
us is a good one to keep. Its notion of duty
is to resist to its utmost power the effort. of
men in the Republican party to set up anoth,
er form of govern menat in place of that which
exists. The year 1881 and the years imm.
diately following will probably decide thia'
supremely Important contest. The Sun~ be
lieves that the victory will be0 with the peo
ple as against the Rung~s for monopoly, the
Rings for plunder, andl the Rings foruimp
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Address I. W. ENGLAND,
dPublisher of Tsen EUN, New~ York City.