Newspaper Page Text
DEVOTED TO POLITICS, MORALITY, EDUCATION AND TO TBE GENERAL INTEEB5T OF TUE UOUNTRY.
By D..F. BRADLEY & 00. PICKENS, S C THURSDAY, FEBRUARY 3, 1881. VOL. X.--NO, 20
The paid capital of Charlotte, N. C.,
banks is $825,000.
The contract for building jetties at
Fernandina, Fla., has been reawarded.
In Mooresville, N. C., out of 710 caves
of measles, there has been one death.
An attempt is to be made in North
Carolina to create the office of Railroad
Eight thousand logs broke loose in the
Lower Pearl river and floated out into
the Gulf of Mexico.
Subscriptions to start a glass factory
at Moss Point, on the Mississippi coast,
amount to $13,500.
One thousand immigrants7 are expected
to arrive shortly in Southeast Missouri
and North Arkansas.
Four large rattlesnakes, killed recently
in Greennel county, Ala., had fifteen,
fourteen, twelve and ten rattles.
Last year was the most bountiful
* known in Texas since the war. The cot
ton alone amounted to 1,200,000 bales.
A person writing to a Mississippi paper
thinks that cotton seed is better for fer
tilizing purposes than cotton seed meal.
A company is to be chartered to devel
op the granite quarries near Petersburg,
An alleged petrified baby, said to have
been unearthed near Eureka Springs, has
been sold at Russeilville, Ark., for
It is suggested in West Virginia that
the State shall appropriate $10,000 to
send an agent to the North of Europe to.
induce the immigration of families of
Swedes and Danes.
The estimates of the expense, of the
State government of Texas for the year
ending February 28, 1882, aggregate
St. Stephen's, in Savannah, is the only
colored Episcopal church in Georgia.
The twenty-fifth anniversary has recent
ly been celebrated.
The loss to the Louisiana sugar inter
ests by the cold and wet weather is now
carefully estimated at 25,0.0 hogsheads,
or about ten per cent, of the expected
The Swiss colony in North Carolina is
said to have discovered that the mulber
ry tree grows with as much luxuriance as
the cherry, and that the soil and climate
favor the production of silk.
Thue capacity of the Chariot te, N. C.,
cotton mrilis is five bales of cottonm per
day, there being 3,800 spindlks. The
machinery is all on one floor. The walls
are very thick and the floor is triple,
thus neutralizing the effects of the jar
ring'of the heavy machinery.
The Birmingham Iron Age report-s a
contract with pairties from Ci"ago for
15,000 tons of coal to be delivered on the
line of the New Orleans and Jackson
New Orleans States: Mr. Duncan F.
Kenner is the first planter to take the
wvise precaution to lay tramw~ays from
his cane-fields to his sugar-house. Ihis
exarnple should be followed.
The soil and climate of souith Florida
are saidl to be very favorable to tihe culi
tivation of sugar cane. The vieldl is
sometimes as much as 4,000 p~ounds to
Mr. Cage told the Sugar-planters' As
sociation at New Orleans that ini his
opinion nothing could equal a negro as a
laborer on a sugar plantation when lie is
properly paid and handled.
Over 300 p~upils are now in'attendance
at the Agricultural and Mechanical C.o1
1lege of Mississippi. This is the limit of
its cap)acity at present, andl Gen. Lee
has accordingly announced that no more
pupils will be received.
Wages for good field hmandsm in Abbe-,
ville, S. C., range from $50 to $76, some
few receiving as much as$100. But f w
Scontracts have been made, a majority
prefering interest in the crop or rental.
The Montgomery (Ala.) Advertiser re
ports the dlepartnre of a considerable
number of carpenters for Pensacola, Fla.,
where they expect to find work in the re
building of the burnt district.
Thefailure of Welsh & Bacon, at Al
4 bany, Ga., is salid to h)e perhaips the larg
est single failure that section has ever
known. 'rhe gross amount of assets is
raported by Col. Nelson Tift, the as
.signee, to be $498,254.17 and the liabili
It is said that what is called the Pied .
mont region of Virginia, the eastern
slope of the Blue Ridlge Mountains, pro
Sducing the finest Sou thdown sheep in
the United Stats and that the Souh,
down sheep gives the fattest and best
flavored mutton. It is also said that all
Virginia, except the alluvial region, is
pre-eminently a sleep-raising country.
The oldest living student of the Uni
versity of North Carolina is the Lon.
Mark Alexander, of Mecklenburg
county, Va., who matriculated in 1808,
and is now in his eighty-ninth year of
life. He is the only survivor, except
one, of the Congress of 1819, and the
only survivor but one of the celebrate(d
Virginia convention of 1829-80,. of which
President Madison, President Monroe and
Chief Justice Marshal were members.
The colporter of the Maury county,
Tenn., Bible Society distributed to fain.
ilies in that county destitute of the
Word of God six hundred Bibles and
Testaments (during the past year, is
probably the time). The Maury county
Bible Society is the oldest in the State,
having been organized in 1818.
The second annual report of the At
lanta Board of Health states that the
total number of deaths was 679, an ar.
nual death rate of seventeen and eight
tenths for each thousand inhabitants. Of
the whole number, 288 were wlhite and
391 colored. The death rate for the
whites is thirteen to each thousand, and
for the colored people twenty-three and
The following excellent suggestion is
made of Gov. Jarvis, of North Carolina,
"No court requiring a jury or witnesses'
either civil, criminal, inferior or sup rior,
sholuld be held in the month of jine.
Oar people are eminently an agricultuoral
people, and to take a ilarge nulmlber of
laborers (out of the fields for a week, Vs
is now done in many of tle counities in
the busy month of June, is a serious in
jury to the farmers of that countv."
Rev. T. I-I. Campbell, of Coh unbus
Ga., one of the most active philanthircp
i-As in the SLate, writes to the Columilibus
Times that in all his fifty years' expe
rience among the poor, he never I as had
an application for charity from an Is
raelite. They sometimes give him money
for the poor, but never ask charity for
themselves. During the recent cold
term, when white and colored people of
all denominations were cilamoring for
wood, he specially notes the standing of
the Jews, to whom he says the facts are
The New Orleans Picayune reprints
the following idvertiseients from the
Louisiana Gazette, printed in New OrL
leans, andl dated February 17, 1823.
"Passenigers for MaI~disonvile-An ele
gant sleigh and1( four will leave Basin1
Carondelet this day at 3 o'clock for
Madisonville, by way of the Canal and
Lako Pontchartrain. It will be p~rovidled1
with b~ufhido robes and other accom moda
tionis for eight passengers. Apply to the
dlriver, on board, or at Libriskini's stable.
Passage live dollars.".S.."kates-A few 1
pairs of Holland- made skates for sale
at 111 Custom house street, ready
Very serviceable and pretty picture
frames can be mnade~ out of pasteboard.
For cabinet photographs, cut four strips,i
two six inches and twvo eight inches.
long. Lap them across the cornera, in
the same way as the rustic frames are
joined, and punch a hole through the
two pieces so that you can fasten them
with a button. You can find four of a
kind handsome enough in the button
box on the shelf. Cut steel are the best,
but any kind will (10. Strips of paper
on the back will hold the picture in its
These frames are pretty, made of
b)lack card-hoard or covered with black
silk.' Little gilt stars, or strips of gilt
paper down the center, have a p~leasanft
effect on the black. You can cut little
pieces of paper to represent gilt buttons
if you do not happen to have any in the
house. If you can, embroider a narrow
vine on strips, with a cluster of leaves or
flowers at the corners. Almost any com
bination of materials and styles is effect
ive for these frames, and they are an|
agree able change from the perforated
card so long used. Glove and handker
chief boxes, and, in fact, boxes of any
kind, all lie in this line of manufacture.I
What a Coroner's Jury Is Composed of.
Confederate Burker arose to a ques
tion of privilege in the club. Hle was
working in the eastern part of the city
with a man who was fatally injured. He
saw the whole transaction andk knew all
the particulars, and yet when the Coro
ner's jury was made up he was ignored
because of his color. He felt slighted
andl indignant, and he hoped the club
would not overlook the insult.
"JBrudder Burker, you didn't lose
nothin'," replied the President. " It
was a complunent to yer intelligence to
ignore you. De average Coroner's jury
am composed of two loafers, three old
b~ums and a fule, and dey would have
insisted dat you war do fule. You
haven't got any case, sahi, an' de meet
ini' will now be declared split up."-New
TUEN AND NOW.
BY OLIVER WENDELL HOLM&.
Dear ancient school boys! Nature taught to them
Tho simple lessons of the star and flower,
Showed them strange sights; how on a single stem
Admire the marvels of Creative Power!
Twin apples grow, one sweet, the other sour.
How from the lull-top where oar eyes behold
In even ranks the plumted and batinered maise
Range its long coluimns, in the days of old
The livo volcano shot its angry hliaze,
Dead since the shadows of Noah's watery days.
How, when tho lightning split the mighty rock,
The spreading f ury of the shuft was spent;
How the young secion j(ined the alien stock,
And when and where tho homelessi sparrows went
To p-is tho winter of their discontent.
Scant were the gleanings In those years of dearth;
No Ctivier yet had clothed the fossil bones
That sIunhcred, waiting for their tecond birth;
No Lyell read the legend of the stonei;
Science still po'nted to her cuipty thrones.
Dr-aining of orbs to eyes of earth unknown,
HIerschel look< d heavenward In the starlight pale;
Lost iii th<o, - awful depths lie troil alone.
Liplace stvo in ute before the liftei veil;
Wh-le i home-bred IIambolt trimiued his toy-ship's
No mortal feet those loftier heights had gained
Whence, the wide realms of nature ire descry
In vain their eyes our longiug fathers strainet'
To scan with wondering gazo t he smununits high
That far beneal h their children's footstepi lie.
Snile at their firt small ventures as we may,
The school-hoy'% copy shapes the scholar's hand,
Tli-ir gratq ful inemory fills our hearts to-day;
rave, hopeful, wise, this bowei of peace they
While war's dread plowshare scarred the sufiering
Child of our c'illdren's children yet unborn.
When on this yellow patg you turn your eyes,
Where the brief record ol this May-day morn
In phiase antiqume and faded letters lies,
How vague, low pale our fitting ghosts will rise!
Yet in our veins the iblood ran warni and red,
For us the ihelds were green, the skies were blue.
rhougit from our dust the spirit long has fled,
We lived, we loved, we toiled, we dreamed like
Siniled at our sires anl thought how much we
Dh miiilit outr spirits for one hour return,
When the next cent ury rouius its hiundreth ring,
All the striange socrets it shl t-ach to learn,
'ro iear the large truths its years shall bring.
Its viser sages talk, its sweeter mitistrels singI
Dr. .Jex's Predlicament.
It was the funniest thing that I ever
saw in my life. Cruikshank would have
gloried in it. I wish I had him here to
ilustrate that scene with the spirited
vigor that only his dancing pencil gives.
It was in Kentucky that it happened
that pleasant land of blue-grass, and to
b)acco, and fine stock, with white-teethed
girls. Mrabel, my - sister, had married
Dick Hlucklestone, and they had begun
life in great contentment and a liltlo
three-roomed house scarcely big enough
to hold the bridal presents. But they
were happy, hearty, healthy. Theyhiad
two coWs, iceo-cream every day, a charm
mng haby, and Uncle Brimmner. Who
itll say that their cup was not full? In
leed, they thought it full before Uncle
Briamier added; hiiself thereto-a -very
)ondrous rose leaf. He was one of our
>ld family servants, who fonily believed
hat Miss tMahel and her young hushand
vould never heo ale to get on without
iim. Ho walked all the way from Mis
issippi to Kentucky, with his things
ted up in a meal sack, and presented
imuself before Mabel, announcing affably
hat he had conme to ''stay on."
"But I haven't any place for you,
Uncle Brimmuer," said M% ahel, div'ided
>etween h~ospitality and emblarassment.
''Lor' honey, you kin jes' tuck mc
trouni' anyuwh ar. I don't take up no
Maibel looked thoughtfully upon the
>ig brownt gray-whisukered old negro,
.vhose proport ions wvere those of a Hercu
es, and shook hteriead. ''You are not a
lPom Thlub, Unucle Brimmer."
"Nho, ma'am," said he, submissively
"bhut I've got his spirit. Couldn't I
deep in do kitchen, honey?". he went on,
with insimuatimg sweetness.
"'No, ilndeied," cried our young house
iceper; "'I putt my foot down on any
)ody slooping ini the kitchen."
Aunt Patsey, the cook, stood by, bal
memihg a pan of flour on her head, one
'at hand on her hip. I susp~ected her of
i personal interest in the matter, and iln
Ieed she afterwardl acknowledged that
<he th ough t Uncle Brimmer's coming
w~ould1 prove a "less5in1' to her feet.''
Plhose feet of hers had been saved many
step~s through the service of her ten-year
(lid (daughter Nancy Palmuira Kate
called Nanky Pal, for short. But of late
N'anky's services hand been called into
reqaisition as a nurse, and Aunt Patsey,
who was fait andl scanit o' breath, thought
die had too m~uchi to (do; and so she
vowed~ wvith eividenit delight the stalwart
proporhions of our good-natured giant
fronm the south.
"Dar's do lof', Miss Mabel," she sug
"It is too small, and is cluttered up
with things already."
"'Oh, shto, chile, dar ain't nothin' in
dat lof' 'eep' de 'tatters, an' do pepp~ers,
an' do dried apples, an' some strings o'
terbacker, an' do broken p~low, an'
some o(dds an' ends o' do chillen's, an'
Lucy Crittenden's pups. Lor', dar ain't
noth in' ter speak of in do lof'."
"Hie can't get in at the window," said
Mahel, shifting her grond.
"'Lenmmo try," said Uncle Brimnmer.
The kitchen was a small log-cabin
some (distance from the house- "in good
hollerini' reachl," to quoto Aunt Patsey.
Above it was a low room, or loft,
crowded with the miscellaneous articles
enumerated. The only way of getting
into it was from the outside. A ladder
against the side of the cab~in admitted
one, through a little window, no longer,
T am sure, than that of a railway coach,
imto tlis storehiouse of treasures. Nank y
Pal, wvbo was as slim as a snake, was
usually selected to fetch and carry
thrVour.h1 the smnall aperture. But Uncle
"i.'ni pretty sho I kin do it," he said,
Rqgtinting up one eye, na ho took off his
cost and nmnpared to try
Wo stood in the doorway as he can
tiously went up the ladder; and after an
exciting momen t lio pushed himself
through the window, and turning, smiled
Tlis settled the matter. A cot bed
was procured for Uncle Brimmer, and
lhe soon becaio the mainstay of the
family. Cheerfully avoiding all the
work possible; indifftrently as ain ostrich
cating all lie could find in clpboards or
highways; grimly playing hobgoblin for
baby; gayly twanging his banjo on
moolight nights--memory reealls the)
with, a smile, Uncle Uriminer! I can
close my eyes now and recall him, big,
sh1apless, in(listinct in the semi-darkness
as lie sat under the mulberry-tree, sing
' Wish I was Iii Tonnspmne,
A-settn' ini iy cheer,
Jug o' whifsky bv my side.
An' nrms aroui' suy dear!"
This was his favorite. Wh1o shall
doubt that it expressed to himi all the
poetIy, romauce, passion, of life?
After a time Uncle Briimer fell ill)
and we sent for a doctor.
Dr. Trattlei Jex was the medical man
of our county. l ived in Middleburn,
seven miles away, and he canie trotting
over on a great bay horse, with a pair of
saddle-bags hanging like Gilpin's bot
tle's, one on either side. He looked as
diminutive as a monkey perched on the
tall horse's back, and indeed he was ''a
weo bit pawky body," as was said of
Tommy Moore. But, bless me! he was
Ls poipous and self-important as though
he had found the place to stand ou, and
could move the world with his little
lever. A red handkerchief carefully
pinned across his chest showed that he
had lungs and a mnolher. His boots
were polished to the last degree. His
pink and beardless face betrayed his
youth; and his voice-ah! his voice!
What a treasure it would have been
could he have let it out to nasqueraders!
Wfether it was just chatging from that
of youth to that of man, or whether, like
reading and writing, it '"caie by na
ture," I can't tell. One instant it was
deep and bass, the next, squeaking and
soprano. No even tenor about that
le held oft his hand, with, "Good
norning, Mlr'. Hcklestone. I hope the
bnl y has not, had an atftaek?"
I popped into the dining-room to gig
gle, but little well-bred Mable did not
"Oh no," sho cried; "it is Uncle Brim
'I lie (1octor offered to see him at onco.
Mabel got up to lead the way. Tn to
this moment I warrant it had not struck
her as anything out of the way that she
must invite Dr. Jex to climb a ladder
aid crawl through a window to get at
his patient. But as she looked at him,
speckless, spotless, gloved, scented,
eurled, then at the ladder leaning against
the wall in a disreputable, rickety sort
of' way, a scono of incongruity seemed
borie i) ol her soul. To add to her
dist rep and my hilarity, we saw that
Un l rimmer had hung out of tho
winadow somoI my sterious under-rigging
that he wore. Long, red, and ragged,
it "'Ihnined ini the breeze" as pictur..
sequiely as the American flag on a Fourth
"-am afraid, doctor, it will be a little
awkwvard," faltered M\ahel; ''Uncle Brim
mer is up there;" and she waved her lily
''An' y'ou'1l have to elime do ladder,"
put in Nank~y Pal, with a disrespectful
I thought thle little doctor gasped; bult
he recovered himself gallantly, and
''A' a b'oy T hnve climbed trees, and
think I can ai<end a ladder as a muan;"
and he~ silm hieroically.
'We wat..hedi hiimi. Hle was encumf
becred by the saddle-bags, but he man-.
agedl very wvell, and~ had1( nearly reached
the top,, when suddlenly Uneo Bim
mhr's head and(1 shoulders protruded,
giving him thle look of a snail half out
of it shell.
"'11 re's my pulse, do ctor," he cried,
blandly, extending his b)ared1 arm.
"'ain't no lahce for you up here. 'An
here's mny tongu."Tenot et i
tnnefor D~r. Jex's inspection.
The doctor settled himself on a rung ot
the ladder, quito willing to be met half
way. Professional inquiries 1began,
"'A dleep) sound( struck like a rising knoll."
"G(ood gracious!"' exclaimed~ MabeCl;
"what is that?~"
Naniky Pl'1 sprang up, with dlistended
eyes, almost let ting the hah y fall.
"'Nearer, elenrer, (deadlier than before."
"'Sakes alive! Miss Mahel," cried
Nanky, "'ole Mr. Simmioni's bull1's done
She was right. A moment more, and
in rushed the spllendid angry beast, bel
lowing, pawing the ground, shaking his
evil lowered head as if the devil were
D~r. Jex turned a sac'red face. My
lord 11ul1 caught sight of the fluttering
redl rags, and charged the side of the
house. And Ii give you my word, the
ne'xt instant the ladder was knocked
from under the dloctor's feet, and lie was
clinging frantically rounid the neck of
"Pull him in, Uncle Brimmner-pull
hiim in," shrieked Mab~el, dancing ab)out.
"I1 can't, honey-I can't," gasped the
chiokinig giant; "'I'm stuck."
"'Hold me upi," cried the doctor.
"'Send~ for help.''
Uncle Brimmier seized him by the arm
p)its. The sad1(i1e hags went clattering
(own, and~ about thu head of Master
Buill a cloud of quinine, enamel, D~over's
anid (divers other powders and jells, broke
in) lindinig conifusion.
"Aunt P'atsey, go for Mr. Huncklestone
at once," called Mabel.
Aunt Patsey looked cautiously out
from the kitchen door. "Ydr don't ketch
me in de yard wid ole Simmons' bull,"
she said with charming independence.
"Thou I shall send Nanky Pal."
"If Nanky Pal goes outen dat hous.
I'll break every bone in her body."
Then Mabel began to beg: "Aunt Pat
sey, let her go, please. I'll givo you a
whole bagful of quilt pieces, and my
ruby rep polonaise that you begged me
Aunt Patsey's head came out a little
further. "An' what else ?"
"And a rutiled. pillow-sham," said Ma
bel, almost in tears, "'4 and sone white
sugar, and I11 make you a hrt-and
that's all. Vow?(!"
"I reckon dat's about as much as the
chile is wuth," said the philosophio
mother. "Let her go."
"Fly! fly!" cried Mabel.
"I ain't skeered," said Nanky. "I
ain't dat sort. Manimy ain't nuther.
She was jes' waitin' ter see how much
Nanky's bare legs scudded quickly
across tIe yard. Thle bull took no notice
of her. He was still stanping and bollow
ing under that window. Uncle Brimmer
and the doctor clung together, and only
a kick now and then testified to the little
"Su1l)pp.e Uncle Brimmner should let
go ?" I suggested in a hollow whisper.
"Oh, hush," cried Mabel. "The doc
tor's blood would be on our heads."
"Or the bull's horns."
It was not far to the tobacco field, and
in an incredibly short time brother Johl
came riding in followed by half a dozen
stont negroes. With some delightful
play that gave one quite an idea of a
Spanish bull fight, his lordship was cap
tured, and our little doctor was assisted
to the house.
Gone w-as the glory of Dr. Trattles
Jex. His coat was torn, his knees grimy,
his hands scratched, and he looked-yes
-as if lie had been crying.
"Can you ever forgive us?" said Mabel,
piteously. She hovered about himliko a
little mother. She made him drink two
glasses of wino; she mended his coat; she
asked him if lie would not like to kiss the
baby. And finally a wan smile shone in
the countenance of Dr. Jex. For me. I
felt my face purpling, and leaving him
to Mabel, I iled with brother John to the
smoke-houise, where we-roared.
Uncle Brinner got well and went in
to see the doctor. He returned with a
new cravat, a cane, and several smart ar
ticles of attiro, from which we inferred
that in those trying moments whci lie
supported the suspended doctor, that lit
tle gentleiaian had off'ered many induce
meits for him to hold fast. When ques
tioned lie responded chiefly wi4h a cav
ornous and mysterious smile, only say
"Master Dr. Tex is a gentleman;
starclh in or starch out,, lie's (10 gentle
And brother John), who is somewhat
nerpiainled with slang, said, with a great
laugh, "Wiell, II I l man, Ion had a bull
chancee to judge, so yon must be right.1'
Paper Iloxes Substituted for Tin.
A fe w years ago a process of p~aper-box
manufacturing was invented, which has
since placed p~aper, the rival of so many
materials, in the position of a stron'g
rival of tin in packcages for certain arti
cee of commerce. Previous to this in
vention the great objection to using
round paper boxes for small packages,
w~hien in was commonly used, was that
the covers, being in two pieces (a disk
and a rim), were not durable or safe
enough to fill the requirements of fre
quent handling. Under the new process
the heads or covers of the box are
" drawn " from a single piece of straw
booard, so that not only is there no sepa
rat ing of a disk from the rim by use, but
there is n10 seam thru .1hI which the con
tents of the b)ox can flid its way. Tihe
b~ody of the box is cut from pap'r tubes,
made of several thicknesses of a light
weight of straw board or heavy straw
paper. Almost any desired diameter or
len gth of box can be made. The heads
are malhde of heavy straw board, from
what is known as No. 90 to No. 50, or
hleavier if desired, and are "' drawn"
undler a peculiar process, with great
raipidlity. One of these heads is fastened
to the buottom of the box, another of the
same kind is adjusted to the top, not
fastened, and the box is comp1lete. For
these a straw board lined with fancy
colored paper~ CanI 1be used ; oftenitimes am
tinm-foil pape.r is selected, in which case.,
with the b~ody of the box covered by a
lab~eh, the package resembles a hand
some Ma(,i tin box. The boxes have
been introduceU nuto a great variety of
uses, where, on at mount of chleap~ness,
they have already superseded till.
Large quantities are used with and
without water, air anid grease-pro of
p~reparationls, in packing such iarticles ams
chloride of limo, paris green, putty, tar,
seeds, etc. The same princilo is ap
plied to the manufacture of small pill
boxes aind toy paper-cap boxes, the hat
ter b~eing known now by " Young Ameri
ca," almost to an entirety, as his chief
Fourth of July delighit. Tis class of
boxes is made with astonishing rapidity,
as can be imagined from the fact that
they are sold, b~y the thousand gross, as
low as 7 and 8 cents a gross.
MANY 'if the ilindoos still think that
the leader ~A the Sepoy rebellion, Nana
Sahib, is yet h1inig, and that he is in
America, a region as vague to thenm as
the dominions of Prester John were to
tihe mediievalists. Although his death
was announced twenty years ago, the
truth or falsity of it was not then, nor
has it since' been, ascertained. He
alight be alive, so far as his age goes,
for, he would not now be more than 60
BITS OF INFORMATION.
Tan fiddle is spoken of as early as
1200 A. D., in the legendary life of St.
CRAMoi1 skins are not derived from
the chamois, as Many people suppose,
but are the flesh side of sheepskins.
The skins are soaked in lime-water, and
in a solution of sulphuric acid ; fish oil
is poured over them, and they stro care
fully washed in a solution of potash.
IN 1789, when the Federal Govern
ment was organized, heads of depart
ments received .3,500 per annum salary.
The principal Secretaries who formed
Washington's first Cabinet were : Of
Stato, Thomas Jefferson ; of the Treas
ury, Alexander Hamilton ; of War, Gen.
Knox; Attorney General, Edmond Ran
THE heaviest loss inflicted upon the
American arms in any battle of the Rev
olutionary war was at the battle of
Long Island --2,00, in killed, wounded
and prisoners. But 10,000 Americans
were engaged, and the loss was only 20
per cent. At the Battle of Hubbardton
Vt., 700 patriots engaged 1,200 Britisl'.
troops, and 324 were killed or wounded
-nearly 50 per cent. At Guilford Court
House, Gen. Greene lost 1,200 out of
4,400-a loss of 30 per cent.
Yonirrow bananas come from Jamaica
and Aspinwall, and the red bananas from
Cuba. The yellow bananas sell the ii t
because they grow more to the bunch.
A bunch of yellow bananas averages
about ten dozen, and sometimes they
average as high as twelve doz-,, while
the red bananas seldom run 'ver five
dozen. The bunches are sold A about
the same price, so theretailerf :an afford
to sell the yellow ones' for les and still
make a better profit than they can on
the red ones. The flavor of the banana
depends greatly on the soil in which it
Tia English guinea was so called be
cause the gold of which it 'was first made
was brought from Guinea by ain African
trading company. Originally it was in
tended that the guinea should besrth
20 shillings, but, owing to a number
errors in calculating the proportion f
tho value of gold and silver, it never
circulated at that value. Sir Isaac New
ton fixed the true value of the guinea,
in relation to silver, at 20 shillings 8
pence, and, by his advice, the crown
proclaimed that in future it should be
current at 21 shillings.
Tan hanging gardens of Babylon con
sisted of an artificial mountain 400 feet
on each side, rising by successive ter
races to a height which overtopped the
walls of the city. The terraces them
selves were formed of a succession of
piers, the tops of which were covered by
fIlat stones sixteen feet long and four
feet wide. Upon these were spread
beds of matting, then a thick layer of
bitunen covered with thick sheets of
lead. Upon this solid pavement earth
was heaped, sonic of the piers being hol
low, so as to afford depth for the roots
of the tallest trees. Water was drawn
from the river to irrigate these gardens,
which thus presenited to the eye the ap -
pearance of a mountain covered in verd
Trim day upon which any historical
event referring to the Christian era hap
p~ened may be determined b~y the follow
ing rule :1. Subtract 1 from the date
andl divide the remainder by 400. 2.
Point off thbe centuries from the result
ing remnaindler and~ divide the odd years
by 4. 3. Multiply the resulting quo
tient by 5 andl to the product add the re
nmainder, 4. Fr:>m the sum subtract twice
the number of centuries pointed off and
divide the remainder by 7. 5. Add the
resulting remaindler to the (lay of the
year upon which the event happened
anid divide the sum by 7. 6. To the last
resulltinlg remainder adld 1. T~hien will
the sum be the number of the day of the
wveek reqiiredl. When the first quotient
is zero, or when it is 1 and the (cntuiries
pointed off 3, unless there be a remain
decr, to avoid negative results, add 27 to
the date insteadl of subtracting I from it.
(leanllness and H~ealth.
The0 alarming sp~read of diphtheria
and1( kindred diseases is a warning to the
people of the United States, of which
t he~y canniot long nieglect to take heed.
lii many cities and towns diphtheria
now exists ahnost to the extent of be
'omning (epideic, while there are few
sectionis of the country eiitirely exempt
fromn its rava~ges.
1t is blieved that the first cause of
the disease is the preparation of the aya
temi by the p.resence of impure air for
the germis of theO dliseaso to take effect,
whie these germs are believed to be
nuit iplied by this implure air. The
bes houses of the cities, where there is
a Ic id flw, are liable to the disease, be
cauI~se the S(ewer coinnections are in the
houslr, anid canniot easily be so secure
but that the gas is forced by the bellows
of the tide ba)ck into them. This is also
the (ase with dwellings in cities where
high water fills the sewers, or into
whuic.h from other causes the sower gas
Upomn the farm and in villages the dis
0a e is propagated by the impure air
fr~n eesspools and other sources. The
germs of the disease are not destroyed
by thme frost as with thoso of yellow
fever, and thme only safety is in a comn
plete removal of all impurities from the
vicinity of the dwellings, and not only
this but the filtli must be entirely de
odorized and rendered innocuous.
In the cities the sower may be made a
complete carriage wvay to a place of safe
ty. In the villages andl upon0 the farm
the remedy cani be 1mad(e the means of
adding largely to the fertilizing element
of the country as well as securinghealth.
Theo farmer and the village improve
ment societies5 should( take this work in
their especial charge.