Newspaper Page Text
------ -- I) T1 !'ULITI C, MORALITY, ElUCATIUN AND TO TTF; GENEl L INI'ECS 4)1 Tir; C0Ur yi
By 3. F. BRADLEY & (0. PICKENS, S. C , TH URS DAY MARCH 15 18813 VOL
------V-L. XII. NO.2.
.TO1ICS. OF THE DA? -
Q=AT BnrrArw has no less than .1,674
Generals in her army, but only 250 of
them are in active service.
Ttn Inspector of Milk, in Hartford,
Ct., recently found soven samples of
milk out of thirty-five adulterated with
water or skim milk.
IN Massaohusetts there 1. Ie* divorce
to twenty-one marriages ; in Vermont,
New Hampshlro and Conneoticut, about
one to fourteen ; in Rhodo island, one
to twelve ; in Maine, one to Cight.
A LATN Assistant Commissioner of
Ireland says that a proper system of ar
terial drainage is the most practical way
of assisting the solution of the "Irish
question." ly such a system landsu
could hos relainied and farmors would
take the place of laborers.
AN EMINENT French physician, who
has known Prince iisnark well for near
ly a quarter of a century, says that all
talk about the Chaucellor's health break
ing down is sheer nonsense. -is nerves
and general constitution are in admniralec
condition, and bid fair to remain so for
twenty years to come.
Wm N Dr. Weeker, tho colebrated
German oculist, removed Gambetia's
right eye in 1867, the organ was pro.
served in spirits. 'It is the oye," the
surgeon said, "of a man who is sure to
enact an important part in tho world's
history." Ho was riglit, and the eye i:
NEW YORK is soon to havo in readiness
a thoroughly drilled and equipped life
saving corps to act in conjunction with
its Firo )epartment. It will be pro
vided with ingenious mechanical coln.
triauces for sealing the highest builds
ings and bringing iurnatos in safety to
- the ground.
AcconmNo to the report of the Secre
tary of War, the organniz'd strength of
the militia of the United Stvtes is 87,611.
Of this unmber 0,583 are comlmission d
otticers, and 81,081 are non-romnission
ed offiers, musicians and privates. The
nutnber of men available for military
duty, but unorganized. is 6,797,000,
IT is reported th.tt there are 30,00
rlegroes in Ind]ian errit.ry denied ihe
privilege of franchise and schools, and
.re incompotent as sntnessrs and jurors
in courts. Thiy were, or are, descond
ants frem former slaves of the India,-s.
They acsk the Go ernment to remove
them from among the Indians and settle
them ou.Oklalhomua lands.
AoonDING to the MLnchestf,r Guar
dian, the latest and largest donation to
the fund for England's Royal College of
Music came from New York City, and
was the gift of Mr. Andrew Carnegie.
Its amount was $25,000. The college
will, it is thought, be opened in South
Kensington in May next with about
A Nsw Yonx surgeon, the other day,
successfully tried tram sfusion of blood3
for asphyxia. A manl named Okceburg
blew out the gas in his roomn at a hotel,
was almost dead when discovered, and,
as he was not rov'ived by ordinary rome
dies, several ounelos of blood, tale
from a healthy negro, were plumpedi into
a vein in his arm and he soon regained
A GENIRAl, dteproesion of budness pro.
vails in England, one cause of which is
believed to be the unfavorable agrienl
tural outlook. The wveather has been
bad all throngh ihe winter for that inter
est, and now the heavy~ ruins prevent the
usual preparations for sprmng planting.
The proispect in othei E'urop)eau Coun
tries in also gloomy. p)articularly France,
Germasny, Rlussia~ and Turkey.
IMMEN5E fiolds p.nd IlOnlutaiso c
have alrea ly appmred off the banks of
New-foundlandc. The your, hound to he
hiistorica,l for its Iloods. fires, storms
and accidlentsf, will ail-o probaibly so
momunorabile fo the immnonsity ami d:iu
gerousness of its icohurga. 'Thes, great
masses of ice are, said( to lbe p)rodnetivo,
thr-ough their atmotspheorie influence s, of
the violent temipes.ts thait have of late
distressed Atheitie mariniers.
Tr?Irr it is not good for man to b)0 alone
has been the belief of 0,000 years, but it
is only recently that the fatal evil of
such solicitude his beeni wo rked out l,y
the sta tist ii-s. "'Bachlelo rhood," ' u
Dr. Stork, ''is motre destructive to 1 f
than the most unlwholesome traud.
or than residhonco in an unwhioleomec
house or district where there has nev. r
been the most distant attempt at sani
TLurn lato Robert Asa P~alcker, when on
a visit to Clonnecticuit in his youn er
days, discovered that the c'xcellenit
broad on his host's table hadl booni malt
by one of his daughters. He sough
her out and married her, but they onh~
lived together a few years, not hoimf
able to get along at all. Heo afforwn 3
-mariiriedl a daughter of Victor E. I iolmt I
with whonm ho lived ias happily ait I .
could wvishi, and entertained his friends
in regal style.
TaxE junior 3t1. P. for Ed4inburgi: has~ im
proved upon hijs great colleatgue in thie
matter of p)ostal cards. Mr. (latdston.
used to writo his, to the greait joy oh
autograph colctors. laut Mr. Watddy
replies to all applications fromt his 'oin.
stituenits with a printed card], as follows:
"I beg to acknowledge the receipt of
yourii nte. I receive so nmany apuili(a
tions of a similar character, that I cani
not possibly oOmply with your recquest. I
regret my inability to assist you, and am,
yours truly, S. D. WVAOvY."
T naare several thousand house
keepers in the laud who would f.-el
gratofidl to the several Legislaturos if
they should carry into effect the sugges
tion of the Lime Kiln Club, of Detroit,
which is as follows :" Resola'd, Dat dic
present Liegisobur of a1 is State an
or'dered to pass a law makin' it a penal
00cos~e fur a grocer not to delivor onme
moud of cheese and deoyen ooenW wat of
halibut widin ton minits of de timo
ngreed upon when do said articles are
rdered and paid for."
A COMMr1'rEI to plan an industrial
ichool at Springfield, Mass., have de
3ided to teach the rudinents of trade,
tnd not to turn out finished mechauics
rite desire Is to give the boy a knowl
)ego that will enable him to choose a
p)ursuit for which ho recognites his own
tdaptability, so that three or four years
)f his life may not bo wasted after he
leaves school in trying to determine
how ho will earn his living, and finally
Irifting through ignorance and neces
sity into work whore manual labor, not
brains, is needed.
1VONo CI Foo, editor of the Chi
nese American, is elated over the suc
cess of his pap-:r, which is now about
four weeks old. Wong c tne to this
mountry in 1874 with Rev. Mr. (ilsn1,
and was mnolbed at San Fra nciso fo
trying to liberate twenty-threc Chinea
women who had been sent over in bi;
Slip by businless agrnts. Sinne thin he
has lived in the E ist as.I a e- rer am;d
writer on Chineso mat.tcrs. fis thi ic'=
Lhe present Chinoso Enlbassy to this
ountry is a use!es body, ensl its i
poor opinion of the conImnon Chine,o.
AcconD)m to the summary of the
Datholic directory for 1883, the hierarchy
>f the ;Catholic Church in the United
tates comprises 1 Cardinal, 13 Arch
bishops, 59 Bishops, 6,54G priests, 5,241
-]hurches, besides 1,180 chapels and
1,768 stations, which are attended by
priests, and where mass is oceesionally
14lebrated. The Catholic population is
3nlmputcd to be 6,832,954. There are 31
eclesiastical seminaries for the educa
tion of 1,434 ecclesiastical studennts. The
number of colleges. 81 ; academio;s, 579;
and parochinl schools, 2,491. ThIe 1tnlum
ber of pupils attending the Catholic
ciools, exclusive of colleges and acade
mnies, is given at 428,642. There are 275
tsy'lums of various kinds and 185 hoslpi
tals. A comparison of figures will show
that there is but a very slight overaver
uge of one priest to every church. The
number of educational institutions foot
up over 3,000, or equal to half the num
her of churches.
A YOUNa servant girl b, the name of
Annie Lennon, who is omploy d in the
family of Sheriff Easton, of Non port, R.
I., performed an act of brave devotion
a few nights ago, of which it is proposed
to make some public recognition. She
and a five-year-old daughter of Sherill
Easton were alone in the house, the rest
of the family not having returned from
an Odd Fellows' Festival. Soon after
midnight she awoke to find her attic
room filled with smoke. She waited
only to put on a skirt, hurried down
stairs, and, being unable to open the
door, climbed through a window upon a
back porch, jumnped to the ground, eight
feet below, and. ran with baro feet ovei
the ice and snow to rouse the neighborts.
Hastening home again, she appealed tc
several persons, who by that Imeo had
gathered before the house, to saVe the
little gi sleeping upstairs, and, ats in,
one responded, she ent)ered the hous; as
she had left it, felt her way through the
blinding and stifling smoke to the child's
room, and escap)ed with her to tIle yar]
eniough to scorch their clothing.
THEn State of Georgia nmakes a very
happy showing inl thle nmatter of decvelop
mont of a coulntry by railroads. A few
years after tile war the Southern manni
racturing State began to move inl tihe di
rection of connecting hlerself with outer
malhrkets by rail ways. TLhe reslt was
lhat farmers began to putin lair~e'r crops,
plantors to double their aereage ini cottonx,
11d( stock raisers to increase their expor
tat-ion of dlomlestic animals. They hind a
rnarket for their prodlucts. Thlis is tie
result ini 1882: The State raises th ree
timesC as muchl corn and whleat as5 iit did
in 1870, anid six times as nmany p otates,
In all other farm p)roduc1t5 there has b 'emi
a correspondling increase. Since 1X71]
the amount of cotton raised ham louhh.d.
A largely increased production to Ithe
acre shows also that the methods of
tillage have improved. The added num
b)er of farm animals, horses, muller
swine, mnilch cows and sheep is no0 lvo
striking. Tile tendency scoems to be it
out up tile great estates inito small ones.
In 1870 Georgia had 70,000 farms. There
are now 139,000. Tihe valuo of faryr
products has, in fact, nearly doubledo(
since 1870. It is mostly owing to tile
building of railroads.
A iI:h-'u: (of Amieica ha:s nrisenl
amonlilg Enigili noelists inl A mllaji it
Edwa-rds, who IIli in he stoy or is i
UraLckenbury"~'' 1now publish'ing in //,.
lishdwomn:: ". It s(eems to us th li t
keepi youir clever pleole at arm'is l-lYh
imtroduced, or as if you wanitedi to knoilw
aibmout thieir fat hiers anld grandfatherI nos.
dare sayV I'mI wr-ong; but11 that is ouri il
preSSLJ)iln inA mrien." ''" We s-- crt ail y
donim't send a man51 ouit as LambassLadm. to
Pauris or Ilirlin h)ranse( hei haippiens to
youl areu a great hiistorie ination. You
hiave yourt traditioalchol of dliplomaHev
--at the Fo reigni ()tlie, isn 't it, Lase'y
Rymles?--one of thi- genteel idiot as.
ians you mlentioned just now. We. have
niothing of that sort---no t radit ions, youl
knowv; not e' en so maniy idhiot aisylumis as
you have. (ht thenl we hlave nio young'er
50ons (of niohi3 birthl to push1 $ brPouigh i heIL
TIE IIAPPY ISLANDS.
tlo roaun l1>otit. the tow Iroi (lawn till
Ai1 old In11 w;tli hent forini an<l wlhiti ne(
W Ihio (lreaOni the eartli lie tl(.1(.9 Cli o i' It 1):l1,l
iliat :ils 1( lI110 a 1h>re Iovor fair,
Tihe shoro So tntitt\ 8ek Iu(1 (t< not i11(1.
A inong tie IhiaS (row(, li 110(hees It nol,
ltut i;O " u1 0oles Io till 0111 )lensilro IWind(
The world 1no live-s in suetls v iui forgot
Somtitnes lie stops one In tie Crowdel
And (ilie,tions thiis: "Why (to wo still s(
1 lunowy fnll well Iho ves'el's couri-I 1< wroig
For fII II le(1 south the ll1appV II lan1(s are,
Ain whe are near I1hen, for la'-it ui..;ht I he('r<
'Jlo soundt of 111i8if c"oiing;> froma thei
And elau;ght tihe scent of Ilowe.era, and on,
Flew hio:iiewartd, over i=, to roamnt no mnor
"1 aliiio8t h '111-:!ht I (aw hein in thin (iawn,
l'' . I.a ti' rIosy peal-; of I'.tra(lieC ;
Ilut wben11th(, day brok.:) fully Ihey weretgono'
Far, fi- thor soutl1 tho 81101e0 we stearcb fo
Il'ray ;o1 they tirn tie ve.l't' re to, lattel
\Ilust we saiil by, atv mny tiunes beforo"t
They n11ak1 inti'.I:alces, and laty it aill to iato
That 'wno hatvo never reached the longe(d-fo
s ho 'o."
And 14 lie talks the old man's ('i;er pyo.
Are looktilg sotthwarl, whrcr 110 lopes t
Tlhoitsprple .penkc:, Crownedt Witlh stuanl.
4)' rt, 1rise
'Nealher si-s th ha tlhose 4t Italy.
No sight of lan<d breakcs onl hiv ho>p fil(yos.
"All, we have Ili"a<l 11then, uS se lil betor(:
And wo were near, ." 11a1r to then,'' h erel
"Must we Hail on an(1 on. tfrevetrinoro!s"
lihet'e are owr llappy J+slan(ir! Mun-t whe s:t
l orIe"er 11 k a,t It"1h I whe.n S( n'ar they se1-lm1
Illowy front t)he 1se: 'f ht I . I< favoi (;i :s
AnT'wtft u, to ol poritics is tit.e.t peent
O follow voya :er. nrav' (.o(1tv( we11n,
Tile nulst w i ek :::1 '1 not l>t . it by!
I),. Ilo 11 to th - 'It it. ineo Ntantt wintv I
-or Iore,we (l1in0c. the l(appy ll Itlls li(.
-Eben i-. 1|cJ."rd. in Our Conline'nt.
The domnin of politics isthe present,
T.ho l)olitician way know theo patst and]
divno the flture, but prima:trily h muslt
deal with the present. lki operation:1
are with the real. .he mon and meas.
utres of to-daty atro beforo him. It is hii.
promise to leal with them. iIe muso
tako them11 as he finds them. ie car
not havo te 111a is hu wisles tlemu
There is so much material before 1um,
and it is just this ehape. So the practica
st"ltesmnan finds a1ffairs. Ile sees at one(
that therw mu1st b)0 tdta111tion. '.'he
past is deadi. The historian canl retreal
into it and reconstru(t it.. TIhere heo ha!
no rusistanlce. D emuosther(eso does nso
o1)PI1se him. Cicero does not colitrover
11m1. u311r1ko does not Ieat him dowi
with his relentloss logic. Wtiebster (oel
hot slay hint with a thund'bolt of Ii
ciI quelnc:'. Thos historian works amont
passive mnateriatl. The philosopher, uI
tleorist may rush in to the future and
give to his ideas what shapes his fanc3
may hild. 'Th11ere is littid resistanco foi
mtan ill citihelr the plst or Lite fuiture. 1
is-the boast of politicians that they ar
practtial. That is what colistitute
them statesm en of the hour. They mus'
Work iu the present. If they are practicla
they can1 not work outside of it. It ii
the first qualiienttion of a ruler that 11
should know the temper of the peol)1
over whomul 110 rules. This temper ht
must r0cognlize. Failing to do tlhi:
Iruder'ed Alt-xaldl'r, and causes th<
pacselt Czar to hiido limoif from hi.,
)cople. '.l'lie 1111n who acts truly for 1i;
time is also buililg for the future. But
is a man servile to his ige? If so, (he
lie will not live in the future. Thc
practical politicintl too often becomes u
lero idle trille(r, toying with the presenlt
for tho profit of it, aul for the honor.
Such len 110 th weeds on public life.
They are neither maples nor oaks.
Consider Jeerfli1son. lo was a man for
hm day. le lived trliy the life that wa9
before hiim. Io (lid not live inl the pattt
with the K ings of Ei'glmlnc, but hle lln
Oult his lighit for It peopiln .f hi tim.,
The hu111p luils niever been 1)11t out. Peophi
ml tis counlitry' aro wal king b y its light
no0w. lHe was ia pracltical man11 bul op
year's later c:11ne J::ch son. lie was n
bunlgler beIsid es de ~flerson5), 1buit lewa
pra'fet Ica enoiigh toi tight lionopolly. ite
of the dlay inl wich they lived; but fle
lgic of tihle evenits of 1.11at dlay 1ha1
reach1ed to the0 presenlt. 'The b)o1t' fu
tiire is wrallippd upI in then 1bette'r no0w.
The pnw'tie.d politician who 11:1s th<(
Acolpe to wolrk iunselli-lhly for tile prles''nt
is also4 imlingjl' tor tile futu. 111T wL~ ill
b'e (cosideredt by till ihistfr151 ol)l th<t
lni th i nb.ri1 i,,wns ' 141 aind Iillag~es (4
(iernomy1, it hIS 1b5en thle cuIstoml foi
tlw, iron fI r he'iis tires anld hor41sl2ihoes, 11m1
wago budt,. ll to I pure cha:m alllw iron en
b-ri:s S into ilm I:lle th Ill en 14thsof. lI 1':r
41i 15 II;h: fil hed11 ll h I till Ufih
shalll not rI 1turn1 to tile f Irmer(1 al 11nd
at l e .1lting 1fromI thl ir441a,' ul i t InI l
hluly X'ints that1lllI' thu farm1r r1main
ati; 1:1~ thesho utIll the Jiniliallet
tIllord; til t thell' sih sall nt h im flI
iito nuwh' 1cabba(Ill. Each 1mit I sho11
has what lis ( 11S:I term d, ''c t i ll" and(i
il1 ingli 5:T a st o f4 irs4, ifA thel4 frme I;
144t 4'ff ilin itsh.jl: way tlt "fe hel"
d'uty o u ig fe," id l org
the4 youa wife, rentive. From ikv
alwalyl ph-ntiful. Itr thels 1mith iunl
las m. rbd fo r LI(4te mn eaufthe <'ll
ho , ors IAh)Ws et. o raset
IV13 WORLD BANKRUPT.
TheLiarge Amount Owe4 by Governments.
An ingenious stisti(intl, who had
beIen losing SIecq) inl the pursuits of
ecience, 11as addt'd up the nations of the
world, anld i: listresst"d to find out that
this poor old world is re:lly bankrupt;
that it owen more thlan it c:m tv t, and
that, an' tho pIrocess of debt-ndiaing is
contitinally going on, the inevitable end
will be it utivers:vl smashl. ''he gloomy
view of the situation is supporled by the
magnitude of the figures.---total innount
we b.lie ve is soie 2 0,)000,10I00(h>r $:39.
000,000,000-anld it. is platinly true that
'with the exception of the United States,
the civilized go,verIent9 of the worblhi ar,
rapidly increasing tle.ir indebtedness.
Blit we believe that this inmense ag-re
gate of d('1bt is ani evidence rather of sol
veilcy thiant of bankruptcy; i proof, not
that. the world is so poor as to be insul
v("nt, but that it is so rich that no exit"rava
(Vince can ruin it All the great public
debts of the world are the creation of t he
Present century, antd many of them of
the past. twentty or thirt,y years. At. the
C be;giuing of the century France had no
e debt at ill and Eigl:uid oily a trilling
one. Italy, whielh is (Itite active as a
debtor, did not exi.t as a natiton th itv
years a;o tntd the Uiitel States h11 no
)ubhlic (' lca1 debt of aniy oiamounit twenlt y
It, in the coiurttse of eightyv v":id, the
nati(ns of tin wiil have sur'.(tl:d inl
b loading thenselves 111p wit It a himln of
debt to the whole of the estimated wealth
of this coiiiry at the last census, it, is a
proof tlutt their malterial proesperity ando
a:cunlnlat(d re(sonriettes have reached pro
portions which would have been conisid..
ered imp)ossiblo and mlylhie:al in any
pre'ious era of lustt I. France, which
now thrivcs atil t ilris nder an enor
mlous deht of SI,7(tH).u,1,0Ui, oi which it
1iayi an aninual int"r,st of S203,00),010),
wtould haive found iitlnptssib,lc .l)t years
a;u to Iorrow the amiuntl which is tn
nmally paid fo' interest. Eiiglaud owes
a debt of somu' 81,0)00,u11t0,<00), the foutn
dations of which were laid in the atteinpt
to prevent, the F"reincI fio m1 1ein;g ruiined
by a sove'cign of their own choosin.
1Btt if Eng.ad had liuil alny idea ).c the
ountbreakl of the Napole tonie -wars of the
outlay which would i:" inutietred, we may
heo sure the ablest fitnneiers woutild hatv'
said that there was no credit of gover
ment or power of authority which would
sutliee to carry SO large a dehhi. Now,
triumphant ('erm:mny asl:s France for a
trifle of $1,000,00(,0(00 as cuolly as if it
were a bottle of wine, tod totally mort
gages the resources of a nation before It
nation is establishied. Wis the world
any richer 100 years aigo, whien its lack
of credit nrevented its 1orrowinig money?
Is it any poorer now, when it has l ir
rowed so much that it deInand for pay
ment would 1binikrupt it: ?
A very simple answer to the question
may he had by merely consi-1''ring where
all the money came from which is now
investud in the Grand Li vre (r )edgir of
France, the consols of England, and the
bonds of other countrit"s. ]'tt"re. ihio
country could h51orotw therein Imst ave
been cap)ittilists who luittI the toiniey to
lend--andlto sp)are. T1he initions coul not
have horrowed tnless the peoi 'lr)e
abtleto l0nd(1, itilnif the" worblisabieto lend
8 20,000,0001,100 or .W0o0,())(,000 it c'an
hardly he inl datgr rf imnntliatelh:m
rup)tcy. In fact, to h1db t; ieit natiins
arte merely tie sutrltis of' the i)olle, It
small part of th," aetumonia:tiontS which
hiave beleI made iu t cc;nt ur of indust 'v
and of progress. Stealml, eetricit V, antd
patenlt inventtionls h:Laventulntla'ted inl
the world such it ilass of wealth ts the old
world never dre:uned of; and, as the pro
eess of neuinilationt is gin;i on fatster
than the Iioeess f hor rowinig, the world
is tgrowiig riicie every day, iil-r in
spite of wtar' anmd aiiets and( kinigs mali,
taitTh anid tatx-eati'rs, anid ot hier iobstneh'..s
and there is no call for' any learned stadils
tican o st u ofsnihtsini despaiir ever
It is iimpossible thiat peole of ord in
hi:s torturing discouriises wit iiiiit hiieom
ing at last sick oif heairiing of ininit
horilrors andu entdle'ss ag~.o'iii. it l,llS
very'3 hardI to kh )di-hetedtii pe n to biil
lieve tluat the least sini 'xpiosdi it iireat
ure( GodI hail niiitie to miwhl exorb ( it
piina:lties. ]Elw\arids' whol'e systi mn h:il
tioo uimchi of tihe lmrm-iiter oif thii sava\1l
reciently beeni ten:muteid. Thl ere wias r'
venigei - " r'eveniging jus/le " wi
what he cnl led it--inis:iabi1li e, i
hauosting its ingimiit.y in ciiitr'iving I hI
most exiquisito torinenits; theriiei was the
hiereditairy hiattred glaing on tine habin
its cradle( ; thire wire thie sitrin
w iretch ando t hae plea'isi'd andi ilhin.
olsa is-lin. Everyv citurald gracof it1'
poisitilon; all Ilm. h:al ionce ino-nw ini
thiuswiet ig'mousni s tof youthii, in the
(i ( ngi --thet (ouiii lliblinl, ni
wmmnguu' hlplessniiiess oif a iiie ; -* o
viirtufit,st Platoy haidiiw itji'uoi, e
e twlie wiiild witch theti ifew, wich
f Beftt atie bakg e linscr iptgin upI i
tihem ri tliOithatywere ac ieuer. I
(iherit hislno asluiitien renaan fori at- i
e. tarkin-th nn>ic'tivis o al-I man mii iS
i (ilife, sotholy in asiations,t i o nhi
isiotlabriotus, sioiut thoothl i mi erm vi in
s the oirk to whihf h lilwa yiv.
,i But Io-afte. ln mtrin 1d,faii'I I'in/ ith
tttingu like th;ii-istvthuisihr aauviin' $ .i
frthite Aet.d withlif uof Iiy lii nlul!
tcrabler pa, hif urotest dlm sto? Ifa
I tr t1o1 thtven pin of asti(' ttui Iiui fit
chsuic an inna is Iun o It h( wrt hy of it- ii -. i'.
r na'utur th'olian.Iis aulim,t 'tletit vithn
.shto oiur~ naituilie teiy potl asmhu htihi:.n
.. it i ~to ibiz th Deity /21 h. H .
What Is Nickel I
Since the convenient five cent coin
vhich in common talk is called "' a
lickol," has conic Into general circula
ion, the question abovo is asked, either
netally or orally, hundreds of times
1very day, and but few get an intelligent
mnswer. In China and India, a white
opper", called pattlk-tong, Ilos lollg beenl
nw(NVi and has been extensivel.y used
)oth there and inl Enrope for (couterif,it
ng silver coin. About the year 1701 a
)eculiar ore was discovered iii the copper
unes of 5axonly which lutd the appo.ir
tuce of being very rich, bit in sneltiing,
t yielded no copper, and the tminers
tallcd it kIupfer-uickel, or falsoe cer.
[n 1754, Crolnstadt aiinounced the li;
,overy of a new metal in kupfer-liickel,
:<) which lhe gave the inunc of nlickel. It,
wras in colminationt with arsenie from
wvhich ho could relievo it only in part.
lho allo,y of nickel and arsenic whiich Ie
)tainled was white, brittle, very hird
iud had a melting point nearly is high
is cattt-iron. It was not until 1.2M3 that
puro nickel was obtained hv analysis of
Geriman ilver which lid for a nuiiaer
>f,years, heen 1produced at Sul in vSa a.
ts composition wias ascertained to 1w
copper 10 parts, zino 5, and nickel "p if
mnore nickel be uit-d tie, allov is as white
is silver and musce,itible of 'i very ligt
polish, but b)ecomes too brittle in'd litrdl
to Ie haumtercd or r4died. and cann be
worked only by castinr;. 'ure nie'kel is
1 wlito metal with a tartitah ri;olily inl
the air. Unli!w silver, it is nlot acted on1
by the vapor of suplrlir, aid even tle
strong mineral acids attract it lmlt
3lightly. Nickel has tho haridness of
Iron1 and like it, has strn g nii:grnetie
pr. .p.rties, but cannot be welded and is
ioldered with ditlieulty. Pure niekel
Ills heretofore been 'used chiefly for
)lating, for which puroi>se its lnir1l(
md1( power to resist aitmosp herie initli
'nces, altlirilydv adopt, it. Withit the
ist. year, the F reni have sucii ciedd ini
oling the metal inito plates fr,on wihiell
spoons and other table furniture may be
)ressed. Nickel bronze, whib ch nsists
jf (111 parts of copper and nikiel, with
1 little tini, may b4 cat. into very delicte
Ioris, iind is suseeptiblo(If a high p1ish.
MIines of nickel are worked at ("Ihathamttu,
Uonn., and Lanenster, Pa., and it, is Haid
to be founid at Mine Le Motte, 'Mo., and
At several points iin Colorado, and New
Mexico, where but litilo attention is paid
to it.. It, is extensively mined in1 Saxony
anid in Sweden, 1)Ilt the ileato 1isclverv
f a nlew oro (a silicate of niekel) inl New
Caledonia will prol alliy supersede all tho
other ones. Tle inexlstitle sipply
of this or, the eaise with which it can
be smelled and the richness of the ore
will probably sulspend the use of the
arsenical ores, anid yet 1bring Itiekel into
commnl use. Switzerland, ill tho vear
1852, made a coin of German silver,
which is identical in coimposition witlI
our nickel coin. ''hie United States
mande nickel cents in 1856, and eight
years litter, coined the five cent pieces.
h3elgiumlll adopted nickel ciinage in 18t1)
and Germany iu 1873. iinlaud has
lately coined niekel pennies for Jtmaica,
lmt at home she and France adhere to
the cluisy copper small clange.
The human brain is absolutely bigger
and1 heavier than that of any animial
except the (1(111pant and the larger
whal(es, bit in no other alimatl is there
Si) great vaitionUll ini brail weights of
different individuals as ill manl, ant it
i5 p er:iitp4 a curious fact that the higher
the cit-ilization the wider the variation.
That is to say, the brain weight in saag(e
races .> ....:e narly iiitiorm than in
enlighitenedl. nations. While in a general
way the t'averag< woigliu, of the brain i:
great i civilized'4 races, it doe uiot. at
aill follow that t.he braiin is an1 inienitionl
(If thle degree0 (If intel Iigenlce. IThe
aIveIrge wiht o f thle ault Europ eanl
mIall biraini is folrty-Iinie toI tifty (tuees.
'That, of! thle female is forty-ftoi ti foty
tII ill lines, thle dIifference beinig fu lly3
tenib0 porcent .8 Stai tics fo4r Amiiericei
very nealrty (5o incidi with thi. loI 'uilt.
Ther1 e are eixamlnehs (If men I I or1remarkca
tble intt.ellctuial attanmnits whose blrains
thnvg latrgelIy e1xceed(<di the average, a.
.D an iel Webcster als~o hadt' a very la:rge
biraina. hat (If A gassiz/ wighed(
lifty'i-thIree andl a half (Innle-, ntot, v'ery
much aboI 111 ve thtietV averge. (h)i lie ot.ht
hiand(, high blrain wVem ih hiave alit beer
founid where t here fl was ) no V eidece o
srio ir iit1.tintna cIapacily. In ai
luiglisht iniS-uie atsyhiniu cwarly toen pie
ccint. (If Itie (cass (exainedI) sil,wed( I
bri wtevigh t. (If over Ii ftv-tive onices
feeblle intellect, andit ani abn'ormiall,
barge onemy inienate the s:iine. lie
t ween the extremlies theroe is a w%i(l
<puility tha n (jlantity (If brain miatter
I it, it is tsiilted b~y severa':l ('ompo1i
antthinig approIiachingi average size,:
brin Ie I han t hiirty-sevien (Iuncles
fusualty anIted wiih imeea; ility ltI
Iothe wrs, ai bratino (ilessj tl hanlIrha
wieight, wtiil t,I conf' athea ren oingit
fin 1nc.Itlieigaed aIt fi r e itelietc,
may1 lst spr aring fr a ibain?o t ir?
ouI nces.-'ui i4stt. Reu>iia7n. 1 ta
nthe rsevetenhietufcta'ry an tmrelc
iteighte and tealy iftur itrd of hitrcum,(
ferileneI ighe aOlt east ftou (p(14ItdIs,4
tandie os w ion fvaryiing from1.0 tIt .ilil,
andihii ofe moe. re4Iitai theiui'alo
wlater, tilds,or glazedir'c I~ wae r, and~
coniituted an horgton atle fty prop
smity holord asw yelsw a00 baolu eronm
th oPri mnftrer s baii to knoduce
its1 size, 1( arnd toeakt it of' tltey and
theihurs now lcti fasitn tand thoe goo
popl tei ofe thervoiinaytm.,a
The Story of a Vlriness.
'Tho several current press notices of
the royal order Of Kapiolani, recently
)resenlted to the author of I Kalani of
Oahu." by King Kalauca, failing to de
soribe tlht religo-romantic incident
which imparts intrinisic value to the
name, I send a brief epitome of the
story for publiaetion. The literal mean
ing of Kapiolani is "fprisonlr of Heal en."
I'rinces'l Kapiolhn, of Hawaii, was
daughter o the last l' ig of 11il, and
among the first converts of the mission
aries. When first seen by the white
clergy K\ ap)iolanii wais publicly ano01int ing~
herself with cocoanut oil, wilIc under
go. ng some1 heathlen rite of her t abut
creed. Fron this state of pa2an ldegra
dation the beautiful Princess soon )e
camne one of the most devout ('Cristian
con verls, glowing with pio s zeal to no
complish something winch m'ght break
through the suporstitions of her people.
Twenty-six thousand idols had been do
atroyed by fire, by order of liing Liho
liho and the ligh P riest, Ilowahewa,
tnd yet the degrading tabu remained
unbroken. It was lito for some other
overt act to be thought of. InI a state
of drunken frenzy 1 iholiho had broken
the talmi by eating with the women. A
brave act for a yolug King, hut not of
sullicientt ilportance 'U alleet the tabu.
ilpiolalli now catne to the rescue,
aid, With it moral heroism equal to any
act of h r sex, she determined to br- avo
Pole in her own fiery stronghold of
Kilauea, testing the divine power of her
new-found Go(by defying the goddess
andI breakingr her tabut in the presence
of a multitude. News of her intended
sacrilego was proclaimed all over the
islhmd, creating a feelin of consterna
tion, not only for the welfarr of the
Princess, but lest the very island should
e <lest royed. Many came to plead that
Phei would abandon the rash act: and
n1on1e Were more terrilied for her safety
t,han Nailie, her warrior-husband.
Followed by eighty of her terror
Ftrielet friends, Kapiolani walked a
hulndrecl miles through the moun'ain
wilderness on her pi grmniage of terror.
Approaching the seet hing crater, lia
piolaini was met by a shriveled old
priestess of Pele, benring a tiery male
diction from 'clc-hot from the dread
11allman-Iman, (house of everlasting
fire)--in which Pelo threatened not
only death to all coners but destruction
of the island.
The multitude stood appalled, and
be-ged the Prinee-s to des:st from her
rash act. bit, <uoting some new
learned passages from Scripture to the
Kahuna wahine-womanl priost-Ka,t
piolanli talked calmly and resolutely to
the crater's verge, where the sea of
molten lava ra-ed like a storm-lashed
ocean lemonst rat ing I e wrath of l'ele.
Gathering a handful of sa:red obelo
berries, ever consecrated to Pole, she
ate them in derision of the tabu rite,
instead of casting them into the erater
as a peace oflering to the goddess.
Gathering uip stones, she threw them
into the ier !'ood instead of the a:cus
tomed berries. Standing there in the
presence of t he most awful natural ph -
Iomllela iin earth, confronting the Illost
terrible concept ion of a pagan deity,
Kaplaiolaani calmly addressed the mult i
tude as they stood appalled at their
"Blehold! my people, the gods of
Hiawaii are vain gods. Great is ,Jeho
vah, my (o I. Ile kl-indles these fires.
I-e:ar not I'ele: she is pmverless. Should
I periIi, then fear her power. Should
( col preserve IIe,, t ihen break. your tabu,
knowing there is but oie t(icl. ,Jeho
vah." in commemoration of thisbravo
nect (cf Kapciolacni, Re Nui ( thes great)',
cthe King's present wife, was named,
and the royal Order of Kapiolatni was
prioclaimedOc , for the " recompens coi ccf ciis -
tiniguishied mier:0. to thce State, for hiu
maccity, geius-~ science andc art, sir
ices rendeired to ( lurselvyes or ('ur Sue
ee,sors5. '- Hoston C'ourkcr.
KCnew ils IUnsiness.
A few months ago a conductor on one
ocf thle Chicoago street-ears sudcdenly ex
1sricecd religiocn and joined a smalli
ic ok ini theil nighborhood cli cc( of his~ re'si
diccnce. Non morceli dc dcvoiit than hce was
toc bec focind ini thel (cuntIry aroundc, and
evcry spaire iniccienut frcom his buineilss
stren'cgtheincg up thecc littlec church intco
wh ichlc c 1c0d crcojected hiiimself. NcotIic
incglcis inctcres, his pacstor', to encouragec
imc, shovced hcimi clong all he coulcd, andc
inc a shcort.t iinc the ncew cconvcrt was a
! hliningc lihit amonccg his fcllow'-wocrshcip
persi, andl thle ~Christiani grace with which
lhe cpas';dc the1 ' cc j cniu ic cl-pclate oked
iikh-s fro whai '~It beor cchcadcc bceen bar
no )cc Sulacy mnling a hioodclumn was
noccisy, ccndl ice I'cndcccccor quiiitly ocrderidc
himcc ccui. lI wentii, bcui, lust Sundicay
cvcccincg hcc ucppcarccd with, a mcb of dis
- sc biite ci c acciccis bccnt ccn ai ciiliculity.
'1leo ecclccictcr heptf. alli evie ol thie
lc:dclc itictil (lie dlisfurbaceO becameo tlu
f '1'it, cOii I craes ai incmcllt, pc rsonu,'
sacid hec, 'ftill I loock after this fare.''
i Apprcocinig thei thccg, hce went for'
himi, cccl ipdc cup sevcral yardcs oif aisle
with hcimi, andcc then stodcc imc oin his
I ive cnca for thce kingdom oif (Gol!''
Thec hoioclumii said hec djtlic ot have to
" Iive cnts fori this rido oc. the Gospel
hc cit,'' acid Ihe smacnshedc the ihng ini thec
" lit, crc ote,'' remohcst rctedl the pas
tccr, "ycu cannocllc t compejcl imc to) con
"Never ycu mcincd thact parsoni. Yo)u
prch andcc I 'll(' clleet. This mcan can't
dc ad-hc on li ticis ocicrtordcx throuighc
linec withcuuf putin g upl. lIeside ['im ic.
sponcisiblec toc thec e<m)ch'nyc fcor his faric.
i've jiiniihd im L.d he'd got to) shiow'
he robl i :c eso accminodfates itself
tco a miwdc cdiet. talking frucit ini its sea
Mr n. but. liinig a'mo1(st wvchly upon
wccrmns ini thce early and 1'ter pcortions
ofl thle year. andic feeding its young al
most exclucsivcly upcon insect food. If
thie(11 roin gets too miischtievotus he ree
ommendOlc s taking a ncumbcer of him for a
poct-pie, as Ice is a vc'ry goodl game bcird
whlen fat. It i rba,lo, however, that
the fruit eatent by the robin is not In ex
coss af what woulId 1)e destroyed by the
isects hce oats early in the Spring, if
thov Were0 loft to do their work.
1 ome snel a
gator laughs when it
is only skin deep.
HrrTs to housekeepern
favorite cats become too p
"pool their issues."
FAITH moves mountainlm
couple of express wagons.
ionable woman's baggage.
Tax grand and awful
twoen a tree and a bore '
leaves in' the spring, and the
he never leaves.
Tna two urchins who played * ~
Ing from the wreck" by using t
mother's holiday dough-trough for alife
boat, were lashed together.
A xAN in Baltimore has the wooden
shutter of the room occupied by Mary >
Phillipse, who gave George Washington
the mitten. Cupid's blind.
TiE bible tells us not to put our trust
in riches, and a great many men don't at
the present day. Their total lack of
riches explains why.
A MIJNESOTA farmer, who has five
grown-up daughters, hassued the county
on a claim that his residence has been
used as a "court-room" for the past two
A HADDENDLD (Cape May) sign
roads: " Is cream salon cakes prettzells
and canddy and cigars oisters and lodg
ing and horses wattered constantly an
IT lias been said that poverty treads
npon the heels of great and unexpected
riches; but then a newspaper man never
has corns on his heels, and he can,
ProrRuiToE-" If you boys don't
lear out I'll call that officer and have
you taken in." Boy-" That's where
you'd be taken in; that policeman's my'
dad, he is."
TiE church Is the pew rest place on
earth.-Steubenville Ierald. And one
can tell how good the men are by the
number of hymns found there.-G incin
SOMEBODY wants to know why we do
not go to Europe. Well, the fact is if
the rest of Europe resembles the part
that has come over here, we've seen
enough of it.-Burlington Hawkeye.
EHx talked love to her, and dove to her,
And tried to squeeze her hand,
While she sat up and " esed" and "noed,"
And yawned behind her fan
(Because she had sat up the uight before.
With a fellow she had an awful fondness for.)
Tirs following advertisement appeared
lately in an Irish newspaper: "This is
to notify Patrick O'Flaherty, who lately
left his lodgings, if he does not return
soon and pay for the same lie shall be ad
"WELn, if I ever saw the like," re
marked Mr. Whiskyskin, as lie mopped
the perspiration from his brow. . " I
don't see where all this water comes from
that oozes through my pores. I haven't
tasted the stuff for ten ye.rs."
WHAT a pity that a big heart is so
often compelled to keep company with a
small income?-N. Y. News. Rather,
what a pity that a big income is so often
compelled to keep company with a small
" Do not know commas when you see
them?" said the village school teacher
to the book-keeper of a banking-house,
whose education had been neglected.
"What are these (,, ,, ,,) on your gro
cer's bill?" "Beers," said he.
POLICE court scone-Judge to an un
prepossessing tramp : " What are your
means of living?" "I am an inventor."
" Ah, indeed. And what have you in
vented ?" "Nothing as yet; but I am
on the lookout."
Mns. D)OMEsTIcITY calls at the kitchen
furnishing store. " Have you Cook's
stewers?" she asks. The dealer is dumb
founded till ho is shown an advertise
mnut of "Cook's T1ours," when he di..
reetedl her to the nearest railroad office.
TEN residents of Waverly, who
wouldn't do a day's work for anything,
recently hauled over twenty cords of
Wood to get a red squirrel that wasn't
there. Then they crack ed a command
ment. -Owego RIccord.
WHY is it that whisky straight will
make a man walk crooked ?-Bioston
Glo/>c. Why is it ? Why, it is because
you drink it. Did you never think of
that? You leave the whisky in the jug,
and it will not make you walk crooked.
D)oN"T blame the rooster for bragging'
over every egg that is laid in the family.
Only hunan nature, nothing more. You
remember that when that bouncing boy
arrived at your house it wasn't the
mother who went about doing the crow
AN Indian came to an agent in the
northern part of Iowa to procure some
whisky foi a younger brother, who he
said had been hitten by a rattlesnake.
"Four quarts I" repeated the agent, with
sur pnse ; "' much as that?" "' Yes,"
repliedl the Indian, " four quarts; snake
lintnrail Advatiages on a Small Farm.
Amonmg the first of natural advantages
on a small farm is a good husband and
a good wife. One other thing I will
say -whaitevcr you und(ertake to do, do
it better than~ you did before. Never
mindl whether you exceed your neigh
bors or not-beat yourselves. What we
admire in a lant or animal we admire
more in a man--that is growth. If1 you
fre making beef, or perk, or mutton, or
milk or butter or cheese, or working
oxen or trotting horses, make them bet
ter next time, especially if you make
thmngz or the judgment day of the mar
ket. So of vegetable or fruit products.
Let wvithered and inferior goods come
by railroad. D)on't let the market know
ofyour going back in quallity any. It
will despise and never forgive you if you
do., Again, don't try to (10 too much tof
a kind, nor too many kinds of things.
T1o excel in leaping, you can't jump In
all directions---you must throw your
heft toward one point.,. B. Acott.
LAsT Sunday afternoon the superin
tendlent of a city Sunday-school was
quiestioniing the pupils on the subject of
the lesson. Among the questions asked
was: "When God found out that Adam
and Eve hand sinned in the garden,
what dlid ho do?" A little fellow in the
rear of the room was just too anxious to
reply; his glistening eye and excited
frame attracted the attention of the
questioner, and unfortunately lie was
greeted 'with a nod, indicating that ha
might answer. With a voice, the echoes
of which could be heard far off in the
distant commons he shouted, "Gave
'em the g. b." I'o most of the school
thin was perfectly intelligible and satis
factory, but to a few it had to be ex
plained that it was street arabic for
"grand bounce," that Is, removed from
A NEW poem says: "An angel touched
his lips, and he smiled." Well, that in
a new name for it. The author ha&
made too free use of poetic license. For
"ne"read "bottle" and why ~
"smle" wllbecome or O apparout