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VOL. X V. PI(' hEINS, S. G., Th lURISDAY, AUGUST 19,vr rrro 86. NO. 47.
.JONSUN'S ISLt. I)
'' A P'EN PI?'TUl: OF T'll, (:it1:.1'T .lonTt'il
IIit I n ?-o.
'Iii, Pirate of Lake ICrik' -'ie hei.zure" of n
Iate htennier by a Hn il of (ot Iederni ite -n
pathimzerT-'he IFnlure of 'hiir 19:: 't'he
ChIef of li' Crew, le.
(I.rtn tlo Atlanta Conutit.ution.)
Johnson's island, now an historic sjiot,
lies four miles from the city of Santhisky,
Ohio, in the midst of as beuattiful a
sheet of water ns can be found on the
lakes. Seen across the blue waves, its
green slopes relieved by the ptils of
white limestone, it presents a hvely pie
turo. 'T'lho highest is perhaps lifty lect
above the water level, and is near the
center of the island, which is ine mile
long, a half wide, and contuins :00 acres.
In the days long siiice departed, it was
covered with a magnificent growth if
o.k and maple, and was a favorite resort
of the Indians, who then thronged all
the lake shore. The waters which v:tsh
its shores were alive wit ih black 1 ass,
pickerel and perch, and contiinlie su to
The soil is full of indiai relies, aud in
one corner is 2inl old lItltit bnuying
r ground. Many weird legends of lutiditis'
ghosts are still extant, and would bear
telling. For years the ishnd was owned
by one Bull, and it was called after himii.
The first custom-house for this prtt was
located on the island at one tinwe, and
the foundations are still to 1be seen. in
1852, 1. B..Johnison b ougiht the ptrolwr
ty, and still owns it. hii i1 a depot
for Confederate prisonrs was wanted,
andti the government leasetl the island,
which at onre sprting into inoriet y as
Johnson's Island. 'i tlt thee but lit
tle of it was under cultivat i, aid the
improvements were of tI I irimni
tive character. \V. T. \' , of this
city, was awarded the ctriai:tet ort iuild
ing quarters ftrtto e p isi i t s t i g:tts,
and from that tine, until tih close of
the war, it was the scene of Coistatit
activity. January 1, (2, mLany A,
of IIotnian's lattalioni, to lok o po ssion
for the government; later ('om ianis I1,
C and 1), same attalion, were adldetl,
and in 1863 six i iscellaieous comp:1)aiies.
''he whole was erected into o:n houttiretl
and twenty-eighth 0. V. I., ii the hitter
part of 1861. h'lie Ii rst pns c tolnaiani'
Wias Mfajor W. S. 1.'iieon, :titerw:tIl
brevet brigadier general. ('oao l (hat.
W. Ilill, (eierial T'1'rr- itnd \hijor Leoc
were successi\-ely his eltne ,o rs. 'T'he
troops on the island were enili:ted spe
cially for this particulair er\ice, atnl
sonie of thi iiiovcd their f:m5ili(s to
lthi prisoln, ant soon a schu-l:iuuse itlit
church were erected.
April 9, 1862, the first instilhtant of
prisoners arrived. Tli's! i'n were
nearly all privates, but as the great se
curity of the prison lecane ki> twi, only
ollicers were sent to the isl,uis. From
the first arrival until itle elose of the
var there was a constantly varying 2uliii
ber of Confederates on the' ihal: . Some
times as high as 3,llt)) were unidatergutid,
the total nitumber coitiied :g_regatiig
15,000. Many died, and Snill a lii tle cemie
tery of sonic 4ll) graves wa tbitliIted
in a bauitiful grove on t lie ': ern etiil
of the island. Cmronmles of the leccasetI
whiled away days iii carving clti)or:tte
woodenu head hoards for their dal tont
rales, tan1d some of them, exteitedt with
ordinary pocket cutlery, still reamain ex
4luiit exalnplts of :tuIttenr taleit. t'ur
someC reatson1, the dleled. of a lest
(ausNe lve tevre, wit It Iwo or Ililt a cx
ceptions, given tlie pa :mi y a ttention,
andI butt for the kindness if the ( . A. it.
Post, the Itonely buriy inug spiot would lhe
lost in a mass of unidergriwlh.
As Catnada hilled up1 wmih Sten
3.mplathiz.ers, it was~ dheine be1;st ho
bring' addtitionial troopsi: iio tIe jElain!,
and1. to erecet stronig fortificationsi, the
ruins of which stilt remiain in almoost
p)erfect condition. Evenx the maogazines
of the forts are in such a statet oif pre
servation as toi admit tif inuite explorat
tioni. From time to timie ro'iios tof 'ani
atthick from the Caianiii shnore were
heard. It was said that at strnnberfre
wouldi comeO froml ( atlh, release the
prisoniers, antd stizinig thei ammliuniitmin
aint (ialion oif the forts, foin 2221 invad}
ing army toi burn'L Toledo, Sanidtisky,
(Clevelandt and thle Iak' por'ts.
Tihie warsiup 2doiich tig:mi was pumt on
gualgd ait(i every liteationI tken to
4 1)prOyvli suirlrise.
the various rumorsii, was subl-mpwitnt ly
provenCi by the cap~turet anid tx'cuitiion of
John Rleali, soimetimies spellh.d "eaili.
Ile wias born2 i.n Virgiia, bIing a ntive
of Jeff'ersoan county, whiiichi was in then
is the 'oluty seatt. .1l2 wias a laigie laind
owner, antd possessed ii 2f alt- ehi.tcaliib
cation obtained att the Uiverisit v oii
* Virgiia. At the br'eakinig iiut of) thei w:i
Iho orgaizeiii~d (5 (Compan tiy, Sectn iiiI . V.
. ., wuhich later becao e a iat of Stonie
wvall Jackson's faninms 1heigadei.
D)uring the latter pat of Ii; I a:ll I Ia
cities onl Laike Eric were great ly agi
taited. Th'me streets wire liut rIlini, ail
4. e~very p)o.5ibilo precaution titkeni a gaim
2au mivasionx from the Notrthi. 'Ii h whoh
boirdler wa conivulsedi. 01 (io hadi sei
thiousa*nds of solidiers more thn bi
qiutai to then front, anid nonin were lift It
guard her uniprotected lake frionmt. I
yeemed a practicable schieme to sendi im
4eeitio)n friom Canada to battert diowi
the J1Mke ports, and11 5 ireadt trucItim)
thronghiout, north l lichiigan, ()hiai
Pennisylvantia andi New Yorkl. Jiaeidi
Th'lompsI)on .waut* in CSanadah, innd to hi1
fertile b)ram21 t a lot of iduits wilt
charged. The only war vessel on th<t
lakes wats thme Michiigani, cari
eighteen guns. I1er regular station anm
winter qliurters haive ahvays~ btein iat th<t
port of Eric. It was agreed tlmtt if sin
were (V,lptured a very smalltt body of iae
could with but little dhtinlty ravagt
thxo frontier. In the early part tif Sep
te3mber, 1.81, she was lying bietweci
,Johnson's Islandl anid Handuisky. TJh<
air was usually full of rbmaors at thin
time. The Knights of the (Gohlen Cir,
,e in Indiana, were re)portetd to bie ii
th pot to seize the island. Main ' citi
zoe11.Ot %ndusk(y wereouspecteid. Natiur
alhly the p4yQf islamiit wias the center o
A steamer could: e;ro)m from Canada it
a few hours. .Cn winter tihe io formnet
sulliciently strong to allow a1n army t
ma,;rch from Sandusky to tho island.
'lit early Septebner days diagged slow
lv along, full of fear and trembling. TIh
19th nroved to be the day of fate. The
l'lilo .'arsons, a passenger steamer ply
ing between Sandusky and Detroit,
stopling at P?ut-in-Ia?, left )etroit ear
Iv i theo nlorning. 1'1 first sto) O
tho )etroit river was at Sandwick, a
small Canadian town. hero a quartet
of men cane on. At Malden, a short
distance' further dOwn, a score more
1oarded thu steuncr. Suveral of the
111(11 catrriedlargc valises, but the muost
conspicuous p)i(o of baggage was a great
oid-iashioned trunk, secured with ropia
and :;ciingly very heavy. Still there
was noth ing att il suspicious about cith
cr the en1 or thieirl traps. At other
points (own the river passengers were
ttkIen up until w1'hen theI Parsons came
to thec (ock att h'lly's Islandiil, sone four
teen nlies fromt Sandusky tnl ten miles
fron the island, she had atn unusually
lar'ge tassenger list. Th1te clerk happen
((d to he in charge of the boat, the cap
tain iing ofl for the day. When the
boat haid got c!car of the island, andtcl was
fully on her way to Sandusky, four men
si(11)d u)p to tile clerk, andt at the point
of revolVer5 co1pelled his surrenlder.
'H' trimk was )irst openl and relieved
of its load of revolvers and bowie knives.
'he lot carried Io armament, and had
but a few hands to work her and the
task of securin1g possession was trilling.
Under the direction of the leader of the
cols)irators, they cruised about idly for
S)111e timec, then put into Middle Bass
Isaud. As she lay here the Island
Qu eeini, passenger packet, plying between
the islands and Sandusky, ran alongside,
andl threw out a plank to discharge her
passengers. Instantly sh1e was seized by
the plotters, who fired volley after vol
ley, but did 11o damage. Captain Orr,
of the (,)ueen, atteml)ted to cast ol' the
ro)e, b ut Was prevented. The engineer
refused to obey the orders of the cap
tors, and received a severe wound ill the
check, from a revolver fired by some tn
k litp\Vi)arty. The passengers, inelud
ing fifty one lundred day len, on their
way to Toledo to be mustered out, wer'
1)mt in the hold. Captain Orr was close
Iy (uestionled as to the situation in San
dusky, the numbers of strangers in the
city, and the excitement existing, but lie
ab solutely refused to talk. The nunber
of people on1 board was too great, and
it was decided to put the women and
clihliren ashore, together with the one
Imnd (lay mecn, who were paroled.
hlt' Queell was then taken several
imiles out to sea and sunk. From the
tuns ttled conduct of tle raiders it was
(vilenut to Captain ()rr that some part of
the plmi haid mtiseairied. The mn11t in
c1- aion itd w as Ibail 1. his appearance
was such ats to excite remark, lore es1o
ciatlly as his followers were a partieula~rly
meu an lccking act. ''h is wits strikingly
the c:ase l the )ersonl of John Burley,
who Wais second inl conunland. 'heo fol
lowing progralmme is outlined from a
docntent in the Confederate archives,
1 repared by Jacob Thompson.
icall was to lead the water part of the
sclitme while a manl named Cole had
eliairge of the land end. Cole was to
(ither overpower the oflicers of the
\l icba~ tn, or to throiv tem ol' their
gtatd. At a given signal .leall was to
sitam rapidly in and calpture the ship.
A eaaiiiaom ball sent. sercaning acr'oss
the island was to be the signal for the
u p) risoners to rise and overpower
their guards. Sandusky was to be sacked
a d T'loledo, Cleveland and Ibl'falo were
to sutller a like fate. The prisoners were
to go to Cleveland and from tait point,
stealing horses wherever they could,
lash across the State to Wheeling, W.
\at. .1hitt Ctole failed, andl(1 SO did the plot
1) capture Jolson's Island(l. .eatll at
last saw thle gameu was up antd startetd for
Itle islaindsa. The boat was uirgedt fo
wardt at a terrilic rate. Sile stopped long
en'iou'h to landit her catini anid crew
ad thlin pirtceedted to [he Canadtiain
shitore whtere she was s.tmt to thie bottom.
Alaniy of thie islanuders, fearful that the
p lot woldt succeed, had, diuring the day,
tdesitroyed muichi of their pIropety. Thte
texciteiment which ntext daiy followeod the
txposure~ oif thie plot wa~s wonderful, iand
fotr the time11 overtopped115 the Presidential
camlpaignt wich wits then at white heat.
Th rene nionthis later Hleall was cap)tured
near t.he Siuspensiont Bridge, at Niagara
FIaills, anid ltocked up. it was discover'ed
that an attempil lt was being maide ttol ie
thle turiikeyv, .3,00 hatlivinug been otll'ertd
hanii toI re ease H eallh. Thte prisoner wais
then'i placeed ini contneent att FJrt
Lafa hyett t. One ,J. 5. B1 rady itapete
for IBealhl iat his trial. The defendntit
was charged with being a spy; with at
temp1t ing [to wieck ai 1Alke Shotre tratini,
for the puirpose o)f robbery, anti with [lie
It'lonioius seizure of vessels. Beall's de
louse wits wecak, lhe adlmitting very muchi
iltt was5 charged against himi. One tf
thei feat uires of [t ecase was a mianife'sto
lirom. delferson Dlavis, declining that the
:a;ts oin [lie border weie committed by
hiis torders, andt shouild be recognizedl as
lawful iacts of wrart. Reall was decliared
sa etc, the prisoner was tordereto ( lbe
a'eiien ted (n overnor's .Isliandt, te resi
deneno of the late (Generai Hiancock,
I;; chnr 16 his The niight ibefore
the dy setfor i dath, itall wrtitea
ttouchiing ltetter to his brotheri, mi wvhiich
h' clahametd [ithat e was unaauro (If havt
ing ( toiji It ii any crime iagiinst society.
ganiteda ititesp ite uiitil Feblruary 24,
whitni the 1prisotnnr was executed, without
shiowiing te slighitest sign of lear.
Thle p lt per'iliunig to the shore wiis
truiastted to latjr C. 11. Colec, who, the
heti try to, concail his purpo~tste, wans ligur
ig as lt a titil-,ts ti-,loi merhanvt.
I i it stp wias tto obtai ans itode
tion to they olle e, os of thili ii ,
Tis idotneg, iie r 11t wasn esy nud
muone lyny hT'iihpo,tdlh.tcr
we"r awy in vtllig s n-n t psamth
eviein Xl, hning aterilo s da li 't'i'ethi
emt'fetl pader and the nerscless,
the' mostielesgatnt sutpp r ti chIicis
wroet ind ias, and nogusts were loeei
morle oallyr wenertaned.r nit'
Fo ~ppr atime everything wnt5 smpr o
them. 'The wine hadl been drugged and
wlieii by this means they had been rca
dored helpless, a signal had been arrang
ed to notify 3eall that the time for the
attack had tome and everything was
But in the meantime Cole's actions
and movements had been so closely
watched that suspicion had grown into a
certainty, and in the very Inoneint of
success ho was arrested by order of the
commander of the Michigan, Captaint
Among Cole's accomplices in Sandus
hy was a woman named ''A uie )avis,"
who was a ''most cal)tivatilg creature.''
In order that he might make good his
escajpe at his exanlttion, Cole impli
cated some of the most lroulinclt citi
zens of Sandusky.
For some1 time Cole was held as a
prisoner on board the N ichigan. le
was tient removed to the island, where
after petitioning a nunlber of times for
pardon, he was transferred to Fort
.Lafayette. In September, 1s65, lie w as
granted a release, and is now supposed
to be resident in Texas.
Onto the island there camne during its
occupancy about 15,000 p risoners, ltost
of wlom were exchanged, while otlers
took the oath of allegiance. Two, Car
bin and McGraw, were shot in retalia
tion for executions iii the South. Nich
ols was hung as a desperadot aid Ia sp)y.
One was shot in an attempt with others
to scale the stockade, with ladders made
of boards taken lrom their quarters.
Ono, by one of the guards, for getting
over the ''dead line.'' Two hundred and
twenty died of disease. One, a Union
deslerter, was shot, and six, including
Major Styles and Captain (lusnan, for
refusing to take the oath. Lieutenants
McBride, Robins and Cole, togethcr
with 11. B. Esteps, a Union deserter,
were also shot. The prisoners remain
ing September 7, 1 80l5, were sent by
order of the war department to Fort
Lafayette, and the island was directly
abantdoned as a military post, the dis
charge of both prisoners an d troop)s hav
ing been constantly going on from the
surrender at Apponattox.
Till: ('F 1Fi.: i. '1':TIS ili. tgIl;.
.\u InltereMlnth_ tirn '1'hnt FollomerI Ihe Fall
(1 rcrn an Art'cie by Oi'n. llnke in Autu.t Bivounc
on the F.ill or itichlaond.)
It was deterlinled that we should re
sume our march that night for Washing
ton, (la., one or two days' march dis
taut, and orders were issued 1by (leneratl
Itreekinridge that we niove at mi1idnight.
About It) o'clock 1 received a message
from (lenral IreckinriiIge that he de
sired to see ihe ilumediately. I went to
his quarters, and lie iiformted Ime tlutt
tlh treasure which had been brought
ftrou Biclmltond was at the railr 'ad sta
tion, and that it was lecessary to pro
vide for its removal and t.ransportatiotn.
lie instructed ae to p)roculre a silulicieit
rnumber of wagons to remove it, and to
dctail a guard of fifty men inder a ield
ollicer for its protection. lie further in
formed me that there was between $500,
0Ot) and ;000,000 ini specie lie did not
know the exact amnount--the greatte, lart
gold. I must, he said, personally super
intend its tranisfe'r from the cars to tlh'
wagons. This was not a very agreeal e
duty. ] rep)resented that if no one knew
just what sum of money was tihere, it
would be rather an nl1Ieasalt
responsibilit.y to impose on the p arty
who was to take charge of it. 1 would
have no opportunity to count it, nor
possible means of ascertaining whether
the entire amount was turned over to
Inc. lie resloided that all that had
been considered, and bade me proceed
to obey the order. I detailed fifty picked
mnen as guard, and put t hiem iunde Icioma
mnand of Coldonel Thieophiilus St cele and
four of miy best suibalterns. .1 obtinied
six wagons, and, proceeding to thle sta
tion, b egan at once the task of remnoviing
1.t was ini charge of some (of the former
Treasuiry clerks, anid was packed in
muoniey belts, shot bags, a few small iron
chests, and all sort-s of boxes, soin of
them of the frailest descriptioni. In this
shapc I found it loaded in opien b ox ear1s.
I staltionled sentries at the doors, and,
rummaging thriough the cars by thea
faint light oIf a few tallowv candles, gath
cred up all that was shown mae, or' all
that 1 ,coIuld lind. Rathier miore than ani
hour wVas consumed in Inakinig the trans
for from the (cars to the wagolis, and1(
aifter the latter h ad been01 starlted oIl andkc
hnad gotten half a mnili' away, L Ait. dJihni
1k. Cole, one of the olliers' of Ithe guardi,
rode up to me wit h a pine bo~x, whichi
may haive held .92,000) or .'3,t)0) ini gold,
on the pommlilkel of his saddlle. lie lad
remained after the others had left, and,
ferreting about in a car which we thouight
we had tIlo roughily searched, haid (dis
covered this 1box st ucek in a eornetr imid
closely cove(red up with ai piece (If sack
inig. On the next day, G eneral ireckina
ridge directed mie to increase thle giiai
to 20) 01e and1( take charge of it in pier
soIn. I suggested that inste'ad (if compoils
inig it entiirely of meo fiom mybigade,
it. should bie conistit uted of let ails froini
all five. 1I thouighit this ihe biist plan to
allay any little feeling of jealousy that
mliyh t arise, kind insure1 ai ni>ri peirfet
vigilance, as I felt pers~uad ed thI at thI ese
details wouildl(l 1 calrefuilly watchl each
oather. 31y suggest ain was aop teid,
Ne(arly the (entlire guard was kept. coin
stanitly (Il (duity, (liy and niight, anId a
mlajority (If the whole escort was gener
lally about the wagonsli at every halt,
closely inaspecting tIlie guard.
At the Saviannaih River, Mr i. Da)ivis or
dered that the silver coin, annanlliting to
one hiundired and (eighlt ori till thousand~ll
dllars, lie paid to the troops~iMIl in i partial
dischairge (If the arrearils (If pai~y dui e I hem1.
TIhe Quartermnaster o'S(f thle several 1brig
adehs were engaged dinl'g th eiodnor
night ill counIting ouit tIle mlonov, andi a
tjiriing of soldiers surrounded the little
ei n whlere they were dividing '"tIle
pile'' inito thieiir relspective <piiotas unitil
early dawn. The sight (if so1 limeh1 moniley
siieied to bailsh isleep]. My 1brigadec re
reilvedl 332 per capita, otlicers and m nen
p aid th at sum11, and1(, for the pulrpolse, wask
lorn on11 ill ro10 ill oIf the brligaide. On
the neixt day, at W'ashingtoni, I tuIrned
iver the re'sidiue of the( t reaisure toI \l r.
M. II. Clarke, act in g Trielasurier of the
Ciinfederate States, aind experienceed a
feeling of great~ relief.
S/. Kc,iirli. te.lls of a1 dog t hat canl ((ount.
ple have 5seen111 snake that is an adder'.
ALL A1I('T I'iiE: ('IOP8.
'T"ae' Crops in tle stite, the ('ottott Crop, and
the ('rops in the ;nited ttatc.
Tie State )epartment of Agriculture
las received 257 special relorts, cover
ing every county in the Stnte, on the
condition of the crops, and furnishes
the following suinary of these reports:
The unfavorable seasol.s hi Juno and
July retarded the growth of cotton. The
CXCeSSiVe ainns caused vigorous growth
of gr ss, and the crop was greatly in
jured in removing it. The reports of
August 1st show that the plant is small
and poolly fruited. A slight improve
nienat is noticed on some of the red clay
hidals over" condition on July 1st, but on
light, gray sandy soils the condition is
reported lower than for the previous
mtonth. ii some loealities the crop has
sufTered for rain. Theio reports, with few
exceptions, are unfavorable.
'1Te correspondents generally concur
in the opinioni that a larger yield thnan is
now anticipate.i will b rea'lized if the
fall is late.
The condition on the 1st of August is:
Ini ttpper (';roliiua, 62; middle Carolina,
;;; lower Carolina, 73. Average for the
Upland corn, where it has been well
worked and fertilized, is reported in fine
con(diti)1, but iii soie sections the crop
oni guidy lands has been injured by ex
In nniiy places the cr0) on bottoms
was totally destroyed by the spring
floods, and only a part of these lands
The condition is reported in upper
Carolina at. 65; middle Carolina, 74;
lower Carolina, 83. Average for the
The reports on the condition of rice
are generally . fIavorabl(', (xc('pt where
it has been inijured by the freshets. Ii
(heorgetowIn county, on1e of the corre
spondents estiates that one-lhalf of the
erop his beeien (lestroyed. The condition
is reported at S t.
OT I1E1s (1101'S.
The condition of the other crops is
reported as fo'llows: Sorghuin, "'5; su
gar cane, 8.); peas, $0; Irish potatoes,
91, and sweet potatoes, 91.
l otti, in tia' Sonth.
The following is the New Orleans Na
tional Cotton Exclange crop repourt for
the month of dJuly:
ieturins have beI comntplete fron all
I aits inl the elt. anud or revision of the
aereage, baed1 ( n cont11 V 1p r'ts, is cet
p,lte. \luch field work hias 1been1 accom
plished during the mounth of ,lbtly, re
sultiig, however, inl tlae aband(niinenit of
saue lands, which wV"ere bcyond re
deintiini, and the thiniiing out in var i
auts localities of staiids front clemuing up,
but fro-m present indications this abana
donilent is not calculated to alter our
aereage basis. .1erhaps it) seasn>n has
shown to a greater extent tlitai this
the advantages of tllorouglh cuti vation,
for where this lats beein the ci:se the
diflf'reice inl the outlook of the crop is
very i ketd.
(lancing tver thli lt, we liitd tlait
the two Carolinas have ceont inued on the
dawnward scale. Alaluua has made
considetalo iiiprvemnllt. Georgia,
11ississilplai, Lo tuisimut and1( ''eiiessee
shoW somse advance, while Arkansas hits
added greatly to her f'oruelr good coidi
tion. Texas, however, has just about
ield her oWI and1(1 feals are exlressed in
this latter State of a thretened drought.
I11 Snnme localities worms are mentioned.
Tie bulk of the crop (ast of the Mis
sissippl i is, however, backward, and
theriefor 01 epn)1 denit uponil f.voale coni
dlitions fraom no(w tal for' the mahintenanlce
lTe condltition of' thl'es ra lby States is
as fos llows: V'irgintiai, 80) aer cent. ; North
Carolinla, 76; Soth1 Carolina, 7]; (Gor
gia, 801; .1"oruida, St4; A lab amna, 82; Ten
nlessee, 1; Arakanasas, 9)7; Mississippi,
84; Lotuisiahna, 82; Tlexats, 98. Thes aver
alge for1 thle 1helt is 85.-1, asgainst 83.5 last
mlonitIh and 97 last yoear.
4 rsop I a'Jaports l'rsssom 'g \V sht.s:tsn.
Spinig whbeast rturns 115alt the'I c Depart
mlent af Agr'icuiltuire for Augsust 1 show
tal impr)laoeien't iln thle conldit ion iln
Itowa. A snud51 deoclinet inl iscon1sini and
Nebraiska, lild a heavy reduct itan in
lI )kota. T1het ('ase tof dsoteritarat ionl are
dro'tugt andinch iil a igs. Ilout lauls beenoi
ex(tessive in1 mamy d ist ricts tIlsat lIvys
praoduceatlt fatir yiteld notwaithIst iiing.
Ithe I ltrest is ta wo wetk.s sarl ia'r thani
usual11, tn tho spiaality uisuatlly gotod ex..
celat iln s(echonals where a1 heavy loss frosm
blighat hits tocurredot.
ThIea genera'ul averaga of conldit ion is
r'edu5ced from 83.2 to 80. .1. At t he tim1e1
taf lI 11ve st Ist yearl tIle aiverage was1( 86.
Part tat thle Itoss hist. seiaon ocuedsmt after
Asugust I . As th e pre'tstt lrvest is al
readly netaly o verl, v ills impros'(vinag
meIlteoro loialconitionIs Ithei i'hteti
Thie pr'esnt a1veratge is nsi nuty-st'ven foras
lau, insbtead saf inety last. motht. No
less 1lum1 t wenity-Iivxe un lties, eachl pro
dusrisg fromss twti htslu ledi thiousiiatd tt
sane millI~in bsheats, repior't thte ctndti
ne'-otat thatee is an increa0' m foui savenity
a'ighat to t'ighly,'. lTe reducstion inl WVis
('0n15h1 is fraom1 V sevitya-li ve to se vt'nty
hvao; il Nebra'lskai from isighty-thr11( to
eighaty-two, andlt iln Iakoata fraom eighty
hvs Vto ssixty-I.wo. Winste'r wheaat previ..
oulsly hartvestnot rep a t aotd thIis month.
'The ('ottoni iaI lrattuil utY'ered[ from1 wet
wathera ins all thte States; east. taf thse Mais
Sissippji sad ini 1,ouaisianau. 'Te aLverage~
condaitions thas beeni reducsed fromt eighty
six tat tight y-onea.
'The avrg frVir aa igiiis se 5venty
tiva', Norlth _(aroliina sa'vsenty-foursa, Souathl
saxvit, .Missis.ippia seven'sty-ntinte, Louilsi
asia seveiaty-l'iva, 'Texas a'ighaty-eight, A r
kasas~ ameity-six, Tenne51ssee ninety-ti'va.
' htere hal;s baen slighlt itavan1ce in Arkitsis
5(as. Thela tdecline is hea'ivy in thle Carto
Theare ihass bleen a Iheavy diecrea se inl
tte cotnditions of corn since .July 1. TIhet
avasge, wiluch was then iniety-fivse, is
dleclina is isn Illi'notis, \Viseonsii itndt
Sttes west of Ite MNississippil. In i the
l;asern anda Middlle States5 thte condltitionl
niot much(1 exceediing tweenlty-two butsheals
15.r' icre. though future condlitinn navii
increaso or decreaso on tlie ultnilate
Tho average of spring rye is eighty
1'lloro has been no material decliie ii
>ats, the average being eighty-seven.
Barle;y its mainttainedl it s contdition,
111(1 nerri"y an aierlage crp11 is assurel.
'1The0 ccundition <,f 1)UCkwhteat average
ninety-four; tobaeco eighty-two; pota
T1i1E FAJI0'4 "I1.Xi- L etW4."
"ointhIiny:thu Sios Nnm \ntoient I:unertnn'iiO of
(From the l,o"ton 12oTnI )
'These laws wOr Iclrted by1 I the Jh0
ple of the ''.)oiminion of New I lav n,'
m1d ()ecale knowN"I as th1u ill, \aws h)le
raulsc they were pr"inte( on hht paper.
They were as follows:
'The (overnor and \1agistrates con
vened in (cieral Assemily arn the stt
L)1em1e powe' uinder (od of this ile
pend(lenlt domliniol. rI'r()on the det('rm i
nation of the AssemlV 110 a pal 5all
No one shaill be1 at (1reennm (r havt\e a1
rote un5less lie is conVerted :ii1 m1,eblr
f one of the churches all:wed inl the
Each freenan sh1:all swear":t by the
blessed (oil to har' 1tue allI'i:mtr(',' to
this doninion, and that .desis is the onily
No dissenter from the essentitl WOr
hip of this (lominiol slimu! he allowed
to give a vote for electin of 1mt,;i strates
Dr any ote11(1' oli0er.
No food or lodging sIm1l be oflered to
No one shall ('rosi 5 r iver n('I the Htll
baithl bu1t athor(Iize /11lergym1in.
No one sludl trav( 1, c'ok vietids.
make beds, swleel ho iuses, eut I I r or
shtave oin the Kahh:ath day.
No one shadl kiss his < rhr childrrn
on1 the Saibathl or last inug d:vs.
The Sab)ath day shal I't;'i im a: -rn>t
Woliever wears 01((t les trii11ltmedl i it!h
gold, silver or hote 1:aeeabo\e 1 shillint
per yard shall be' preseIted 1bV t1e
(Graud .Jurors, and the helectie s h;tll
tax the estate .C:itt).
Whoever brinfgs carls or diee iito the
doinillion shall pay 1. toe of 5.
No one slall eat nli!n e pies, lance.
l)lay cards, or play ainy iltri)iien4t of
Imu11siC except the droni, )imap ti j'I
No gospel mlinister shnut j,in In pl
ill mrriage. 'The ma:gist rat .ay jin
theml inl mla'rriag(', aS lit- 11m:1 di)i it w i
less scandal to ('hrist's ('tiueh.
'hen people refu:s ti ir clii i
COnv'enien'lt mua1rriage:,, the1:415:h 1tra
shall deterninle the p oin t.
A na ivho strikes his wife shall h<
A woinan\ who stri eS her hlh:a,lu
shali be 1n1ished as the :lw (lin-ets.
No man)1 shatll coulrt a 1nod ii perso:
or by letter without )1btainiiing the con
sent of her parents; .C 1iia1tY fi tha
first offeinse; L111 for the secoind, and fi
the thirl, imp1ris illelt dutriing th<
PleIaSlIl' ol the ('ur It.
( ii 131 111ti .
The roofs of NeiV Y'oi are very ilt r
esting. ,llluch that. wioub11 1leV,r Isve
1e11 sulsplectei by a stia"ig)1 in tho
streets goes on ulponl the:t 'rial IplIat iorim
ahove the heads (1of the inasses. I'i iii
the Brooklynl bridge I hmte (1n that
top)nlost str'atum1.01 t he c'it, y 11airly' alit't
with peCOp)le on a tine ltatnilo eVe110.
On one roof were to 1e seen some1 shop
girls waltzing to the iuisic of a t'0ne'; r
tina ill the luinds of a younog manl :' t 1
mi1 the raisedl wall top betwien (I h. IIi
ir wvithi the niellody (It iIir.
Over yonIder were I wo loers, liuol I
place after uo t her were~ to be seen pIr
i(ons wriser tluai their fellows, silkin
Lte quiiet andi 011 conpait tvely 101re air
tbove tihe uproar auit staigimnit aiiu'-~
ph1er1 oif thle lower stories and1 thle strielts.
AX year or twoi 1ag) binlg invihl-i to dini
withi soine (Cub:uis I himd nilet ini thir
treighboirhiood oft thle Cnitra il'',:uI
was shlown1 upJ hy iiw servaiit wher 111 11
youl suppose?50 Tlo the rolofI.
hikuig (very' advaitaige of It h) opII air.
thley wouhl all cookIl, likl o m;u ioii I
inl ai haker's (oven. I found m a If
whlere this fmniily 1:1 h lt IathInd a i
O(rk. An 1.1 111011fraii work:1 lihset I11
grea'ft sheet (If till, iad froim its
white striiped ennivas. ii loin ii --
trop)io ptlanlts, and two i'r thri birdsuh in
rocekers andi easy5 chal;irs and ' 1m e
-iplit (itne inl wilichJ to Io :nI Ii un
11n( 1r1a( and11 5ew. There, in) I e
tIul breeze that.ll Iet. till ibbi n ii Iu;I
lad(ie's all ai thuItIerini, was .( n Ihr
thalit I wioubIt n1) o bas exchn: il I r n
hat was31 served1 i ayht an111I. I :I
hlinigroom inI I theIciy ontu ni ;
i UgtIl \'\n" tIl nin:ilI n IIi la .
"il ay, mlistIr!" txcimeui I a n iib2',
I 'istreet tInd mhrse a111' well-dre:<
yong 'awh pasiln it m i trt
Th. yioung ma sopo.hithhi.n
mentO m lileyl l i het irou( r it i Ill rl
ici ous tly. I itlil \)l ihkr -. inl
lif iis, don'iil(lt youi Ve) Iit han ngi
Wh y It" Wa n\ot l'opular in south Crolna
nhne Fneti Abott the /;ampaign of '8eventy
(I'. w. I . in The Sunday Newe.)
The "SV( of (irammtuercy Park" was
not ia hvortite iii South Carolina. In
deetd, do far ias there was any feeling on
the siljeet, it. was one of distrust and
av(rSiont. This was due to the manner
in whieh South Carolina was treated by
Mr. I'ihlen in the campaign of 1M76.
3Mr. Tildcn had no expectation whatever
that this State could be carried by
th I )elnorats, ant was averse to the
sir;ig htunt nuoventent. There were
el'etonil votes enough in sight, he
thought, to mautke him 1President, with
Out anny help from South Carolina, and
there is good authority for saying that
3Ir. 'T'ilden had no doubt of the result,
''if South Carolina would only keep
quiet.'' But South Carolina determined
to Inmuke an iereic effort to throw off the
political yoke, and what in the begin
iug semed imp)ossible was, in a short
tiin, well within the bounds of proba
b,i lit v. It should have been evident to
'vterv iispassimnate observer that noth
ing was Ibeyntd the reach of the white
peoltie of South Carolina, united as they
iir, ail aninuted with one purpose
;ad one hope. Nevertheless, Mr. Til
t gave the South Carolina Democracy
inhe c In shoukl(er. This caused consid
ctale irritation in the State, and engen
tiee th le idea of voting for Iayes and
Il:nintto. By this plan a considerable
n hntir of colored votes was obtained
for (heneratl Ilupton, the Democratic
ctundidtte f'or (overnor, in exchange for
wnite votes ftr the Republican candi
date fto 'residetnt. ''he )emocracy of
the Statn felt that. they were deserted by
tIh atlers tnf the National )emtocracy,
:id nintuale the best bargain they could on
tint! C, a\ it oiect.nuut.
Ttwrtis tihe tnd of the canvass Mr.
Tiltnlt st'cnmnd tno realize that ho hnd
nnl a tnirttk.e, antI protmised to coin
irib tlt. the t rnto s 5num1 of ,000 to
1!I I n aoitent in c:Uimpaignn fund. A draft
f,r th i:nnnttuntnit was accordingly made,
mutl wa'; discotntcd by one of the
Ih: :l.sttnit I naiks. M1r. Tildien, how
eve ', faili to prtrvinle for the draft, and
it was tiltinnttly paid out of monney
treird in Suth Carolina. This story
conet'rnling the draft and its fate cones
to nne from an ninpeachalle source.
It will Ie renenberetl that (leneral
h11an iit ii n\ as elected by a majority of
I, 1:, wihile (Colonu'I Simpson, the can
di-lat or I ,itutenltnt-(lovernor, had a
It: jt"rit of only :. '1'he majority for
the lh 1uii electors in this State was
1. It ii; very evident, fronm these fig
,ra that the elt'cttal vote of South
tr,'n; cahl havt, been secured by
\r. Tilh u, if he had sustained the
I t a enwyu if the State in their efforts,
antl lI,l ive tht in inn the canvass, the
ine theyv desired, and to which
thny were t'ntith-d. ( Lhtt he did not
tralizt thiis ftit until too late.
Alte tin rlh-etion it wits proposed to
hs t int of the Ih'publican electors.
Tine' whole history of the negotiations
will probabnly never Ine known, but it
irns t N Ib ie rSt ntbly certaini that one
f tit' ih lt "tt rrd to cast his vote for ''il
tn uil In -tntrinrits ftnr the snum of $50,
ll. Ihw n,f .\lr. 'ihlni's agetnts camie
itt .utI (trolin:t to look over the 1id(1
i Il :i c,"rt:,ii thal utt this coull be ac
t.!ti, Itt the tmotey wins niot
ftintI:tt . nlr. 'Tillent relied upon
1 r tin. In I lt, Su thi ('arolintt go. 'he
ilit:isi l':atnI, in soie wiay, of the
nti tit int I: l inwInh were in progress anid
ier' tnlWii ably airtlind. It is said
that, inhin t lii I i'ectondnl College mniet,
n-t ti tl t I t lh.publie:u ele c toIrS t.oolk in
p t iro ni pocket'~t andn aninounnniced,
tilhe i nnit if :n inn lectr in> veny tntd
t' nnib-t tnr a iny lte'ens ilthannitiynes
an \\'hn lnr. (' . In>weni wins credlitedi
u,i 1 b it . M al I evenits, the
nti ... I ian in . 'in tl .. .an id t .
l r. Ii Tikhn, as I havuie shnowvn, liten lty
intou any int eltctiton. Sounnth Carohn
a' nt h tn vtens woulind hiave given
hhn in nrainn nrity, wiithoutit thet vote of
S nti mi ni it nloria nof wichiii hie wais
rn ibb i t ith Hturnimng Boardnns. ile
bi Inn t i in ople ofnt'nt Stouth Caronlinan by
hh : I tn ne tnnwais themn ait tine timet (If
ib -inn neet'ul strunggle finn denliveramnce
i n I lit'al iit'nitru. 'Then feelinig (of
in pnnnph-t 'um5 wetll e'xprnssedn, fonur
I . ur hv a. it.hun s Coinnnor, wht
ati he thih tnt ilt' political baittlen (If
\\'twn itw tin' trnt wasii notlol( to
i' InT iinupn theIn; )n-moeneny in
(I h indl ( Xtnnnori sidn ntpenily thait
lIte itoIn le hetn with .layardl
hI I n > in w itit uith i n,
hIrn nuts ner innyni dioubt oft .ilr. TIii
d;nabli.v nspcilly~i inimney-ak
n btinSut 'aijmi ine hadi bt
faethit ,atnt :nlnmn ies, for1 thet re'n
In I nmv ivtn. it.re was aliways an
a't I imt T ii tnhtcke nenrvi in ia politi
r r .Is i to inn siupposedn for a
b is ni Inn inn denfraudnned of tine
.( hn r:0i.n Hantockn wonuldt haiv(e
tint ont nntpr irni n of any sort,
ttM w appneah-d, it nnn'cessairy,
thn p7 ph- f tencountry tlace
at Il It wati tint nvniet ioun ith MrIn.
Inh alaite I couraget'~~' tit made' Sounthn
n tno iin'rs tntf Congren'nss wvillinig tno
nt rint iht Eight-to-SnveiInetorial
( n nnna in nn i iill.
Tiwr n hoptetnln fonr South Canrolinan
and I nnis.iana nuponn thnt inistallantion of
t r. I lay, miIaint tetwo't States madotl tine
itr Il; n he ibnnn abnusedi, it shnouldt be
tntmb n td ihat it wasi- duri'ig~ Is termi
If.' t hat it' et niithenti States biegn
in enu. m' heirnrecverny fromn thne ills
hn "tn tIht (ivil war. '.I'here wins
inbnom o impron'nvt'nnn'nt durinig thne
n, inn kn \\'htni Kinig Stornk ganvn
phw jlo m I hog there' wat~s atssura'nie
of eae ni'rdtr, andi the' Southnen
t o:mle forward.nn with am raidinity
iu hini wht w ;upri'sinig to even their cown
lCtni,n nkable .Monrtaliiy.
\ in) :nith s at ll thn Demnornic
- a n t iiih in tr tin'e tPreidn cy nn sinite thec wan,
w i h n'\h n .p ion of' Cleve'thmn, hatve. dietd.
;ni M it(lhm lintd Ot.. 29), 1885.
loit i' uninour nhin'd Peb. 1'2, ISt0(i
n\ odIT. A. I in.nnnins' tdinnd Nov. 25, 15s5.
'T'sr inn mtto Demo'tt'ts living wino
inet btin t:nnlidtesin' forn tin' Vicc-Preal
WHAT CHEiVING GUM DOES.
Doctor. Declare that; ft5 Catse/;~erlous Bron.
chial and Other Troubles.
(From the New York star.)
In the thousand and one shops rrnkled
through the narrow streets of is city,
whore youngsters buy lollipops, where
boys invest their savings in 'base bills
and cigarettes at a penny apiece, and
where the young ladies of the tenements
purchaso the latest yellow-bo gd litora
ture, there is always for sale a' substance
known as black chowing gum. Whether
it is done up in spangled tinfoil, or re
splendent in gaudy tissue paper, or
decoratol with parti-colored ribbon, it is
still black chewing gum. It is made
generally out of refuse gum arabio-stuff
that cannot be used in the apothecary
shops, and is flavored variously with the
cheapest of cheap extracts, licorice, win
torgrecn, peppermint, or, more usually,
one of those poisonous flavorings that"
are compounded from acids. The manu
facturers cut a huge slab of the gum into
quadrangular pieces about the size of a,
domino. In cool weather the bits are
friable and break easily; when it is
warm, they have the consistence of a,
piece of idea rubber.
It is surprising how much of this
black chewing gum is used. A littlo
girl gets hold of a penny somehow, an'
she cannot get to a shop (Puck enough
to buy some of it. She chews and chews
and chews on it, her jaws working as
regularly and vigorously as those of a
Fourth of July orator. If she has a
wish to show particular favor to her
five-year-old sweetheart, she gives him a
morsel. The young ladies who devour
the yellow bound novels devour gum,
too. They place a fragment of it be
tween the uindermost of their pearly
teeth, and while their souls go out to
Elvira in her prison, or their hearts flut
ter in sympathy with Edgar do Mont
morenci in his attempt to carry off the.
heiress, they don't forget to chow that
gum. Young beaus, the leaders in tone
ment house society, chow it, too; for the
men who make it advertise that it per
fumes the breath and lends the mouth.
the odor of a new-mown field, also that
it aids digestion and clears the voice and
is a harmless anl beautiful substitute for
tobacco; that it is, in fact, a penny bit
of ambrosial food for the gods.
it isn't. The physicians of Amnstr
dam, N. Y., have just declared in solemn
conclave that the practice of chewing
this black gum is most harmful and
pernicious. They have traced directly
to it innumerable cases of sore mouth
Mud sore throat that they have treated of
late. Their brethren o tthe medical pro
fession in New York agree with them,
and not only condemn black chowing
gain, but all chewing gum of whatever
The physician who has charge of the
throat dispensary in one of the largest
hospitaLs in New York said a few days
ago: "Day after day patients, nearly all
girls between 8 and 18 years of ago,
come in here and complain that it hurts
them when they swall ow, or else that
their mouths sting when they drink any
thing warm. On examining their throats
I find the delicate mucous niembrano
marked here and there with little in
flamed patches. In nine cases out of ten
it is caused by chewing grnn."
'Why is the gmn hurtful "
''The flavoring is usually poisonous,"
replied the doctor, ''and by its coinstant
presence, in however small a quantity,
it sets up an inflammation. But the
habit is otherwise pernicious. The un
tiring motion of a gum chewer's jaws
provokes a superfluous flow of saliva
just as if there was always a pinch of salt
on the tongue-and wears out the saliva
glands. (hun chewing retards digestion.
If a woman fills her stomach with water
or saliva she drowns the gastric juices;
also the interminable attrition wears out
the teeth, and( foreign flavor by (degrees
renders the breath more and more dis
agreeable. T1ho p)ractice is bad in every
In ai Ohecwhaltg-egg Factory.
A day or two ago my wayward feet
carried my body into the suburbs and to
a chewing-gum factory. TIhxere I got
somoe idea of an ind(ustry that thrives on
penny sales an(d the remorseless energy
oif American jaws. In the p)laco 1 saw
half a dozen huge blocksof mnarbly gum,
or p)etroleum wax. Each weighed about
01n0 hunditred poundmis, andl was almost
like pure pientelicani stone, dem. to the
old1 sculpI tor's eye and hand. And it was
absolutely clean and odorless. A few
weeks ago( the stuir lay in one of the
huge tanks near the oil wells of 1enn..
sylvania, a dirty, greenish brown fluid
with the consistency of bad mud and the
smell of a glue-factory. Then it was
crude oil, but since thiat it had been in a
turmoil and through "'stirring times"
and chemical pirocesses. FIrom it had
been extracted a lot of kerosene, almost
as much naphitha, not a little benzine,
letnty of tar and a lot of valuable, but
technically named, affairs that are out of
reach. Any way, the gum wax wais left,
andt it was it that I saw, clean as an ideal
farmer's lbed-chamber, and as ordorless
ats a civil service reformer's record. Be
fore it became the chewing-gum of our
friends it had to be melted, Ilavored,
sweetened and ''put up" in fanciful
array. Then the one humndred pound
block would appear in live thtousantd
peniny cakes, andI I am told that five
hundred of these one hiuntdred pound
blocks are used in each week of the his
tory of Columbia, ''tiho geum of the
ocean," etc. It's tough-the fact, not
the gum.-Cleveland PlJaindealer.
No "Oln,mes in (remntloru.
Another thing they manago better. in
Francie. Any 0110 5o fortunate, or uni
fortunate--as the caiso mnay bo}-to dio
at them enid of August, cani direct his
east-ofi coil to bo0 d1isposed of by the
siiimle and1 natural method in one of
four c remuatoriums costing 350,000Of.
Price, 12s., with absoluto t"<ptality, as is
most lftting in the accompaniments of
dheath. There are to be no "classes" in
cremattionl, at any rate. Already artists
and( goldsmnithls and bronze casters are
preparing to surround the now method
with the old picturestiuo anid beautiful
ijsociations, and the Parisians are thank
rid, as they well may be, for the boon
hat is offered them.-Pall Mall (lazotto.
The most serious dIrawback we know of
s a Ily blister between the shoulders.
Never spiread ain Ill report about your
icighbomr untIl you know positively it Is
rule; and don't (10 it then If ho is a greal
Ieal bigger than you are.