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OFFICE COURT HOUSE SQUARE,
gwe -promyt -aH-cnticn to ?II business
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Browning & Browning,
ATTGatSEYS AT LAW,
?RaKGEB?KG C. II?, Sea.
SJ-xucot.? 1. Bnowxrxo.
A. 8\ Bfeiowjsrva.
tmAXGFJUJftCL, S. C
1^. W. BILEY
lefence In Fork of* fStf&rfo,
. Lh BUSINESS FXTnUSTBD vfll be
raapUy and c*refuLj e -.tided to.
Do You Want
IF YOU WANT
WHERE YOU'LL FIND
Any and Everything.
B*T 2 tf
>WHAT PLEASES THE LADIES
if HEELER k WILSON SEWING MA
They ean be had by calling at Mrs. Olden
4er?Ts Millorery Establishment.
J. T. SIMMONS,
juae *S~-8s& Orangeburg, S. C.
J. Wallace Cannon,
jhTAB JUST RECEIVED A FRESIf SUP
ilQUOnS, OIGARS, TODAC?O,
CANNED GOODS, CANDIES,
AH of tha above goods a.e offered at
f?tlCEB t* suit the present tight times,
?ft 2$ )873
[Fbom tub Ruiial CArolimian.']
Plough ing at the Orangeburg
County Agricultural Fair,
Ilnving attended all three of tho
Oraogcburg Agricultural Fair plough
ing matches, so far, I have noticed tlitf
evident lack of preparation by tho
agents of improved ploughs to show
fully tbeir merits to tho public. It is
not only a passive iujusticc to the in
ventors, owoe'B and salesmen ; but it is
nctually giving the champions of tho
country grasshopper ploughs (Floppcrs)
the opportunity to crow.
Many intelligent, well educated,
successful planters, havo ucver used an
improved plough, and sonic of our black
smiths aver, that they can make a
plough that will turn under grass a."
well ns the expensive improved kind.
Now have Collins, Briuley, A very and
others been manufacturing and selling
for thirty or forty years at prices rang
ing from five lo twenty five dollars,
when our knowing neighbor can make
art'cles that can do the work just as
well for two 7 If it is so, it. is time we
were convinced. Ii' it is not so, then
will the Agricultural Societies stick a
pin there, and For next year invite
special competition from the pincy
woods chops for a good round premium
in money, und appoint a committee that
have ploughed, (not sat on the fence
and looked on) with both, and all kinds,
to decide?I think it will tell. Another
matter?a lawn of sandy loam is no
p'uee to tost any plough The agricul
tural grounds here, afforded a tolerably
difficult field for this year, though only
in sandy soil, but with god coat of
Hillen crab grass?unfortunately no clay,
pea viiyes, ur tall broom sedge.
Prcseut, the throe gentlemanly
agents, representing the Collins, Brinle.y,
and Awry ploughs. Superintendent,
crno/aifCtees, und seyor.il snnornum,T;,-ri'.1.*'<
! afro lookers on ; the plougliiiig appeared
to be a mutter of n>A much importance
The two horn ploughing, wunt off
very well, -with the exception of a few
mistakes of the ploughman, a colored
carpenter, who knows no more about
?plough ing then he ^?es about the use. of
?a pen. helped by the different sugges
tions of almost every one on the ground.
The first furrow (of six) was turned
very well, of coarse; the second was
turned back against the first, tumbling
most of the first buck where it came
frem ; the soil ami clods of the second
falling in behind the plough. The pair
of tbird furrow slices were leTt standing
on edge, ns <ln;y could not well be turn
ed over the upheaved clods of the second.
The difficulty would havo been over
come if tho first two slices had been i
taken-thin so ns not to fall back, leaving
a clean furrow for the othorc.
The one-horse ploughing by Mr.
Carpenter, and coadjutor equally skil
ful. Mule walks in the furrow where
he has been used to go ?plough follows
?a the' furrmc as a matter of course
Mule is hawed to the left on to the fand,
where he is not accustomed to walk, by
a dozen voices. Plough shrots to tho
left?shoots to the right?clogs is
jumped out by Carpenter, the way he
does with floppers, skipping a few fect
every time. Plough dips down again,
and is well shaken up from side to side,
as would be done to one of the rofrac
tory little Carpenters who might mlsbe
havo ; the plough, of course, making
, corresponding littlo p itato hills for
eveiy shako. At tho close every ont,
was fatisfiod, for every one had a voioo
in it, and there were spcciuions of nil
kinds of ploughing. Supernumerary
No. 1, is ambitious to plough. He walks
on the left of the plough ; Bupcrnunier
ary No. 2, suggests that ho should turn
over refractory soils with his foot;
supernumerary No. 3, insist that plough
man should walk in the furrow after
tho plough ; supernumerary No. 4, Bug
ge?ts thut he straddle his legB, go on
both aides, and so comply with the
views of all.
A word on tho pott Her. A sharp
knife merely prosfod against your fine
cloth coat will not ou>, but cm a dull
one, slightly drawn lengthwise, will. It
is tho same with the coulter. In solid
sward, the revolving coulter will, un
doubtedly, cut well; but with a cotton
like bed of crab-grass, on a sandy loam,
it will either roll over or press in the
most of it, to ho gathered by tho plough.
'1 ha height of tho beam from the sur
face, of the .soil, of the large ploughs,
only keeps them from clogging badly.
I Tho sliupo of the Watt plough is differ
c-nt ami it luoka us though k might bo
superior in this respect.
All the ploughs on exhibition were so
skilfully got up and so excellently shap
ed, that 'twould bo difficult eveu for an
expert to choose, much more so for a
novice. If p.-otry, and the plough might
touch finger tips, I might write?
"Oh ! I could bo happy with cither,
Were to'ther dear cliurmor away."
Coming down a fotv notches, we may
notice the Watt and Uixo, (both iin
scoured ) They should uot have been
brought ijito competition with the
polished Brinloy, Avery and Collins,
and other ploughs. 'Tis not doing all
pnrtics justice. Like the countrymen
at the village frolic, the good qualities
arc there, but under a cloud. No doubt
nine out of-ten would think differently,
but as a breaking up plough in trashy
land, 1 sli??ld prefer the Dixie, the
weight ?being a little objectionable?
next the Watt. As to the small ones,
they arc all good and beautiful, and I
beliove when only one is used, the
purchaser is always prejudiced iu its
Looking over the price list handed me
by the courteous representative from C.
Gravolcy, of Charleston, the cuts of tho
'?Universal Plough" make me think it
the most promising investment to one
who is short of money. Drains cau ccr
taiuly make almost any crop with in
dustry and the differont parts of this
changeable Brinloy plough.
If I may be permitted, I would sug
gest a long and a short wing of saw
binde steel two inches wide to attach to
the right side of the piece marked No.
11, thus making a hall sweep throwing
only one way.
Oae word of the inside Fair. Tt is
evidently^ a double leap. The feminine
department, including awvetmeat^ and
animate and inanimate, was, as -villi
Adam, a temptation., an illusion, and a
?jn v.?t ifi'MiLinr_i. ? '
ffiibto with some bolts of homespon, n
home made lioinespuu shirt, and one or
two pairs of socks, stockings, etc. ; full
two-thirda oJ' the remainder was? occtl
pied by tho bJ/ovlerle nf femininity
??Hands OfT the Articles." Your cor
respondent has hid his masculine fingers
under his coat tails for very fear, ami
walked through tho sea of crochet in?;
gone mad aid tho froth and foam of
sewing machines, cogitating what pro
portion the labor of all this would bear,
to that of the contents, of tho single
table of simple but useful articles, con
tributcd by open extra sensible women.
But writing up the Fair is left, to
abler pens, though this will be added
The persistent efforts of the Past Master
of Orange ?range, P. of H., who is
also the President of the Orangeburg
Agricultural and Mechanical Associa
tion, aided by several of the directors
has at last broken the shell which en
cumbered the Agricultural Society
chicken. It i. now downy hut it is to
be hoped that it will soon be able to
feather its own nest with plumage of its
Mi L. BALDWIN.
Orangeburg, November 3d, 1873.
The Execution of Mnjor Andre
Tho following sketch of the execution
of Major Andre of the British army
who was hanged by the nook in obedi
euce to the award of a court martial
held in West ehester County, New York,
about 1780, was written by an "eye
witness," a man who looked on and saw
tho terrible drama consummated.
Andre was a subject of Groat Britain,
an officer commissioned by George HI,
and an aid do camp to Sir Henry Clin
ton. As such, ho was commissioned a
spy by Clinton, to negotiate with Major
General Benedict Arnold for the sur
roudor of West Point, thou tho strong
hold of the American army. Ho was
detootcd, tried and executed.
Two things elicited iu behalf of Major
Andre unsual sympathy. First, his
youth, for ho was only twenty nine youn
of ago whon ho was hung; and second,
his extraordinary, manly personal beau
ty. Prior to his boing arrested and
tried as a spy, ho had mingled in the
more aristocratic circles of eoloui.il so
ciety, nnd had, prior to tho breaking
out of the Revolution, boon the pet and
idol of our American belles. Tho us
sociatious ho had formed rendered him
one. of tho most populur young English
men a all the colonies.
'I .ras that time,' says the narrator,
'an artificior in Colonel Jcduthun Bald
win's regiment; a part of which was sta
tioticd within a short distance ^f* the
spot where Andre suffered, Qiuo of
our uien (I beliovo his natno was! Arm
strong) being one of the oldesj, and
best workmen at his trade iu ujo regi
racnt, was selected to make his Jcoflin,
rhich he performed, and painted! black,
agreeably to the customs in thosojKimes.
At this time Audro was confined ?1 what
was culled a Dutch Church, j^^tual 1
stone building with only one di?^aud
guarded by six sentinels, Whin the
hour appointed for his cxecutifon ar
rived, which, I believe, v*as 2 o'Kock p.
M., a guard of three hundred mei were
paraded at the place of his confi*omont.
A kind of procession was fortined, by
placing a guard in singlo file Vm each
side of the road. In front were a large
number of American officers , ^f bigh
rank on horseback.
These were followed by | i wagon
containing Andre's coffin; then A large
number of officers on foot, witl ? Andre
iu their midst. The procession, m >ved
slowly up a moderately rising j hill, I
should think about a fou:th oi'*a mile
to the west. On the top w&s a field
without any inclosurc. In thfis was a
very high gallows, made by seating up
two poles, or chroehcts, and TnYiying a
pole on the top The wa'on t^ftt con
tained the cohiu was drawn di<r-c:iy uu
der the gallows. In a short ttrjnq Andre
stepped iuto 'he hind end of thjf' wigon;
then on his coffin; took off, his v,at' a,,f'
laid it down; then placed lAis bauds
upon his hips and walked very! upright
ly baok and forth, as far as t??o length
uf his coffin Would permit, at (t,ho same
timo casting his eyes upon yhe p ile
over his head, and the whnlrc scenery
by whi<:h he was surrounded f He was
dressed iu what E should cfell a com
plcte British uniform; his ?'lt w,,i
the brightest .scar.ct, faced '<?" triuimcd
with the most beautiful jijt?n- His
underclothes or vest, and ij^^v8Jj;;r<J
'bi'igll"t'"i:uil. ' llo ha l a long xiiid Tea i
tiful head of hair, which agreeably to
the fashion, was wound with a bl ick
ribbon, and hung d iwn his. back
All eyes were upon lion, and it is n ?t
believed, that any otfior of the British
army, placed in his situation, would
have appeared.better th in this unfortu
'?N ?t mauy minutes after ho took his
stand upon the coffin the execution >r
stepped iuto the wagon with a halter iu
his hand, which he attempted to put
over the head and around the neck of
Andre; hut by a sudden movement of
his hand, this was preveuted. And e took
off his handkerchief from his neck, u l
pinned his shirt collar, and deliberately
took the end of the halter, put it over
his heul, and placod the knot directly
under his right car, and drew it very
snugly to his ne.ek, He then took from
his coat pocket a handkerchief, and tied
it over his eyes. This done, the o fieer
that commanded (hi- name I hive for
gotten) spoke iu rather a loud v dee,
and sai 1 that his arms must be ried
Andre at once pul ed the handkerc lief
he had just tied over his eyes, nnd'lrcv;
from his pocket a secjnd ouc. anl gave
it to the executioner, and then replaced
his handkorohief. His arms woro tied
just above the elbows, aud behind the
back. The ropu was then made fast to
the polo overhead. The wagon was
verp suddenly drawn from under the
gallows, which, with the lengt h of the
ropo, gave him a most Lrcm.mdous swing
back aud forth; but in a few minutes he
hung entirely still.
"During the a hole transaction he
appeared littlo dan mod; but his conn
tonuuoe was rather pale. He remained
liauging, I should think, from twenty
to thirty minutes; and during that time,
the chambers of death were never still
or than the multitude by which ho was
surrounded. Orders were given to cut
the rope aud take him dowu without
letting him fail. This was dune, and
his body carofully laid on tho ground.
"Shortly after the guard was with
drawn, and spectators were permitted
to come forward aud view the corpse,
but tho crowd was so great that it was
souio time before I could get an oppor
tunity, When 1 was ttble to do this,
his coat, vest, aud breeches wero tukeu
off, and his body laid in a coffin, cov
ered by some underclothes. The top of
tho coffin was put on. I viewed the
corpso moro carefully than I had over
douo that of any other human being
be Ion;. His head was very muuh ou
ouo side, iu consequence of tho manner
iu which tho halter drew upon his neck
His face appeared to be greatly swollen
and very black, much rcaoinbling a high
dogroo of mortification. It was iudocd
a shocking sight to bolvpJiL There were
at this time, standing at (lie foot of the
coffin, two young men ot uncommon
short stature?I should think not moro
thau four feet high. Their dress was the
most gaudy that 1 ever beheld. One of
them had the clothes just takeu from
Andre hanging on his arm- I took par
ticular pains to learn who they were, nud
was informed that they were Iiis servants
sent up from New York to take his
clothes; but for what other business I
could not learn."'
Slock on the Farm.
Cut feed is certainly more economical
than uncut. Whether it is healthier or
otherwise depends much on whether
the horses are allowed t> rest after eaf. -
Indigestion is the cause of more than
half the diseases of horses, and we
should he careful to feed properly and
regularly, and especially to avoid put
ting the horses to work hard on a full
Milch cows should now be giving a
full flow of milk. If there is t*lc slight
est symptoms of a falling off, give a lit
I tie extra feed in the form of corn moal
and bran slop. Corn is cheap, and if
the cows can convert one, two, or three
quarts of meal into milk it will be very
profitable. See that the cows are mil
ked regularly and clean.
Sheep should have their hoofs pared,
and every she -p in the flock have its
foot drevsed with carbolic acid to prevent
foot rot. ])ip the lambs, after the ewes
are sheared, into a solution of carbolic
soap to kill triek. The ewes and lambs
should have the be>t pasture ou the
farm?but lei it be dry upland. Low
land is death to sheep. Suckling ewes,
especially, require constant access to
It iy..... fTii.v.? a. pe.n in . the .field iutrV
which the lambs can enter, and fee 1
them a few oats or other graiu separate
ly Iron) the ewes. It is a great help t>
Scours in lambs indicate that the flock
needs a change of picture. Always let
sheep have access to a little dry hay
They will eat it if they need r, au 1 it
will do them a great deal. Milk porridge,
made with wheat flour and milk?say a
pint of fresh skimmed m;ik and a table
spoonful of flour, well boiled?is a capi
tal remedy for mild cases.
Do not neglect to tag tho lambs when
over needed. Salt regularly, or better
still, let tho sheep have access ut all
times to the salt. They will then never
cat enough to scour them.
Swine are looking up. In the great
corn growing sections of the country
theru is no stock that pays so woll at
present prices as goal pigs, and the
prospects are favorable for u consider;!
ble advance Feed liberally. Nothing
is better than a good clover pasture;
but it is a great mistake not to grain in
addition, ^ave nil the milk for the
young pigs figs five or six months
old get aloug very well without milk ,
but for young pigs, two to four months
old, there is nothing so good as skim
med milk. (live more or less grain in
addition Push tho li.tie pigs all you
can. It will pay. See that all swine
have access to freso water. If confined,
give ashes, salt, sulphur. Keep the
I pens and troughs clear. Dry earth is a
j cheap disinfectant. Use it freely.
Keeping h;i Appearance
"Can't afford it - I known very well
my salary won't justify nie in buying hj
many clothes; in hiring a livery rig eve
ry day, and such like?but you know
one might just as well be out of the
fashion I" said a young clerk who is
pinched iu means hardly able to keep
his head above water, but withal, a sub
ject to all tho exactions of our ''high
toned society.*' 11 is noble independence
his keen Bcucc of propriety, takes the
last dollar (hat he has to (it him out for
the nexl party; yes, and if his pocket
book is ??strapped,':' his role iu society
must be played?he rims on his credit
for another pair of kids. A luw years
of his false life saps his manhood and
brings him to a condition of the most
abject sla\ory. Why will youig poi
Miiis barter away individuality or liuppi
ness and eater in the whims and de
mauds of extreme formal society, when
their circumstances nud common sense
dictate that they should protest against
such folly? We commend the courage,
the manliness of a certain young man
whom we heard say in the face of tbe?e
things; "I won't knuckle to all the ex.
actions of the society in which I move
when I can't afford to do it; I should
really be afraid to appear at tho houso
of my cnploycr. dressed as some of my
young Iriends are, for suspicion would
mark mo down as a thief. If society
won't receive mo as I'm able to appear,
I'll keep out ofit."
Young friends if the money standard
<s the one that regulates the s >oial 'circle
to which you are looking place your
purse and character in the balance, an 1
then'decide whether that is the place
for you. Do not entertain the nation
that y.u can dnw in advance on your
monthly wages, or borrow au occasional
"ten," to pay for ttiis "Cue suit" or that
"gold headed cane," and maintain there
by a worthy standing in any society. If
you would make the most of your ti no
and talents, unyoke yourself; live with
in your means; cultivate an individuali
ty that shall be the outgrowta of the
qualities of your mind; and your charao
tcr thus uurtured under these conditions
will bear the impress of reality and ex
ort the nmst potcut iuflueuco for good.?
Bus incss Moii ih w.
Hydrophobia from a Cat Uitc.
Mr. .Tames Raymond, of Brooklyn, N.
Y., died last week from hydrophobi i
from the bite of a cat. The Xe?v York
Smx says : "Six months ago, while
stroking the back of a cat, the trencher
ous creature suddenly turned and bit
him severely ou the hand. The wound
was dressed, aud Mr. Raymond exper
ieaced no serious inconvenience from it
until last Tuesday. About noon ofthat
day he became sick. He discovered an
obstruction in his breathing* and had
severe pains in the bead. For a time he
was unwilling to believe that anything
serio/is ailed him, b^. he wan compelled
to quit his work and go home, where he
arrived at four o'clock, lie sent for a
physician, who decided that the ailment
was congestion ol the left iuhg. ?ttu
proscribed ibr the patient with that
view. The next morning, however,
when the doctor called, Mr. Raymond
was much worse, aud his symptoms
could not be accounted Ibr on tho hypo
the.-is of congestiou of the lungs. In
quity elicited the fact about the cat
bite, and the doclur was then .?satisljeJ
that he had a case of hydroph ibia i >
treat. This conclusion received a fear
ful confirmation about twelve o'clock.
Mr. Raymond had then a terrible parox
ysui, lasting more than au hour, iu which
he frothed at the mouth, espresso 1 the
greatest horror at everything liquid, an!
required the services of six strong m en
to prevent his harming himself or others.
This paroxysm was succeeded by others,
none of which were so violent. Atone
time he begged Iiis attendants to idea- ?
him for a few minutes, aud as he wo*
thou comparatively quiet, they did a ?
Ho seized the opportunity to rush to a
closet where there was a bottle of laud
anuiu. lie got the bottle in his hands,
but it was taken from him before he
could make any use of it. Six physi
cians were with him on Wednesday
evening and night. They kept him iu
haliug chloroform, aud injected mor
phine epidemically. This treatment
seemed to nlleviato bis sufferings, an* 1
for two or three hours before life was
extinct he was comparatively calm. His
last moments were quito peaceful.
Shortly before ho expired he said that
he would prefer death a thousand tiinjs
tu the agony of another paroxysm:
Whore wo Live.
Insignificant as is the spot we inhabit,
the zone ol life?thc^areu which not
only all that live and breathe nod move
inhabit, but in which all vegetation is
contained?is still more limited. From
the submarine fore.it in tho lowest
depths of the sea, tu the highest altitude
to which tho condor eo.irs, abovo tho
perpetual snow, is but twelve miles?six
miles of air above us, six miles of water
beneath?everything that that baa vital
ity is confined. If tho salamander lives
central fire, the exception is so small as
scarcely to be worth mentioning. The
air presses upon the earth with a force
equal to thirty-three feet of water; and
upon every human body with a weight
of lifteeu tons, which only docs not
squash us fiat as pauoakos booause tho
air surrounds us on all sides, including
our iusides, and thereby the weight is
balanced. To nio^t of ur^ Nature is one.
vast mirage, suggesting infinite delusions;
und even to tho learned man/ thing*
still remain to bo olearod up by slow*
moving seionce in future ages.
Who would imagine upon tho face of
the matter, for instance, that, in an air
lesa world, net a sound could over bo
heard? On the contrary, in still and
silent spaco, one would conoeive that we
might hear a pin drop from the moon.
Hawksby demonstrated the contrary of
this fact iu a memorable experiment be*
fore the Royal Society. He placed a
??lock under tho roceivor of an air-pump,
in such a way that the striking of the
clapper would continue after the air had
bocu exhausted; while the receiver was
lull of air tho sound was quite audiablo/
when it was empty, all was silent.
Aga n, when the air was introduced,
thero was a feeble sound, growing in
intensity as the air grew denser. At
the top of Mont Klanc, the report of %
pistol is no louder than that of a com*
mon cracker lot off at tho level of the
sea. "Above two miles," says' Mr.'
( ilaisher, who, as everybody knows, tt'
an roronaut of considerable experience,'
-'all unise ceases. I never encountered
a silence more complete and solemn than'
in the heights of the atmosphere?-in
those chilling solitudes to which no
tcrreB'.rial sound r.-aches." On ih.9
other hand clouds absolutely facilitate
the transmission of sound. Above c
great city, to a height of from 1,000 to
1,500 feet, there is always a noise, i
"imtueusc, colossal and indescribable."
The whistle of a steam engine is heard
at 10,000 feet, tho noise of a trail at.
8,200, says M. Fla nmarion ; hut Mr. .
Glaieher testified to having heard this
latter when 22,000 feet up in'the air j
the burking of a dog nnd the report of
a gun rise each to 6,000 feet; tho shouts
of a crowd of people, the crowing of a
cock, the tolling of a boll, to 5,000 feet,
and the shout of a human being to 3,?
300 feet.? Chambers' Journal.
A Child Bride.
While wo were in the court house in
Linn last week listening to tha testimo
ny iu the case jf tho State vs. Lade.,
fir abandoning his wife and children, *<
little girl was introduced as a witness.
In manner and general appearance sha
was simply a child, aud vre really
thought ought, on account of hor youth,
to have been spared the ordeal to which
witnosses in a court of justice are goner
ally subjected. The first question ask- '
ed by tho attorney was :
?'Are you a marriol laly ?"
Our astouidiment can be hotter im* -
uginud than d.-scribjd, w'.ten sho prompt
ly replied ;
"How long hive you been married?''
asked the lawyer. \.
'?About two y.-ars."
"Aud how old are you ? "
'?I will be thirteen in Djjeinbor.''
In reply to other questions, she stated
that she and her husbsud had not lived
together since their marriage, and that
she was induced to marry through tho
threats of her father, who htlsxu? mer'
ccnary object in view.
A fter the adjournment of tho court
we sought and obtaiued an interview
with the young lady and her mother to
ascertaiu the particulars of this oxtr-ior*
dinury marriage; Tho maiden of this
child-bride was Christiana Lade. She
w.is born in this county Decombor 3,
1SG0, and was married to Michcal -
Fraukwibh (ago 119), January 1,1872,
being at the time of her marriage only a
few days over eleven years of ag<s\ 8he
stated to us that her father, by threats
of punishment iu case of refusal, ooet
polled her to oousuut to this untimely
unjon, bid ling her undor sovero p?nal
ties to state to tho justice that shi \y.yj
over 12 years old.
A Mahometan's Idea or a Christ
i vn Merchant.-*-Some years ago a
Philadelphia merchant rent a cargo of
goods to Constantinople. After tho
supercargo paw the bales and boxes)
safely landed, he inquired where they
could hi stored.
"Leave them horo. it won't rain u*?
night," was tho reply.
"But I dare not have them thus ex*
posod; snmo of tho goods might bc\
stolen," Baid the supercargo.
Tho Muhoiuedau morcbant burst into
a loud laugh, as ho replioil :
'?Don't be alarmed, thero ain't
Chriotian within fifty miles of hefe.'1*