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HE TRIWEEY ...EWs
By Gaillard & Desportes.] WINNSBORO, S. C., TUESDAY MORNING, APRIL 24, 1866. . [VOL. III.-I.-NO. 6.
TI i RI-EEKLY NEWS
BY GALLARD AND DESPORTES.
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Notes oil the Constituitioll of the United
nlY 1). B. M RI it11T.
The objects of ordaining and establishing
the U. S Constitution continued.
3. "Insure domestic tranquillity." No
ndequate provision had been made in
the )ondl of the former Union to "in
sure" tihe several States aianst, violence
or insurrection. The provision for this
insirmce will be noticed m another part
of these notes
4. 'Provide for the common defenc(."
If the old Union had been continued
muhell longer, it wotild have been a poor
"common defeice" it could havo made
for the States, ifforeigmn enemies had us
sniied them ; and this becaulse the Union
coul.1 not have obtained any credit, it
would have been without strength.
Tho "more perfect Union" however was
to embrace aniple.provision for the com
mon defence, as will appear in the se.
5. "Promote the general welfare."
This object is very general in its nlppli
cation, and has been made use of by
latitudinarians when a pet sleeo of
theirsdid not meet withexpress war
rants in specifically delegated powers of'
the United Sovereignty.
6. "And secure time blessings of liber
ty to ourselves and our posteriiy.'o
This is the sixth ar1d last object for
which the Constitution of the United
States is adopted. "-Secure the bless.
ings of liberty." What a grand objqet
is this I Not simply find out what they
are, but "secure" the "blessings." Not
the blessings of to-day. Posteirity could
not enjoy them. But the blessings of
"Liberty." How vast are these !
These are sterotyped blessings. They
have no ephemeral existence. They
are not sweet to-day aud bitter to-nor
row. But they are the grand dispensa.
tions of the enlightened republican Sov
ereignty, and as this was the kmnd of
sovereignty ordained and established, it
Was iratended that its shower of luiossings
should be secured to, and descend upon
thme framers of the United Sovereignty
and -upon their posterity.
Having now noticed briefly the pre'
amble to,* the Constitution, which sets
forth the objects of its creation, let us
turn to thle body of thamt instrum'ent, snd
endeaver to study it with a candid and
i mpaitial judgment.
"'Sv.o. 1. All Legislative Powers
"herein granted shall be vested in a
"Congress of the United States, which
"shall consist of a Senate and a House
.No doubt the plan adopted in tis~
sectionm was copied froqi the scheme of
epubkecan government as it existed in
ha stm:al Sta~tes. The Constitutions
of all the States had been framed prior
to this, except in Rhode Island and
Connecticut.. The Congress of the Con
federation united feebly and imperfect
ly in itself all the three departments of
the present Government.
When it is known that four months
were takit .ip in the framing of the
Constitution before us, it cannot be
doubted that not only every phrase, but
even every word of that instrument was
carefully, exactly and definitely weigh
ed. This was inevitable from the groat
cantionsness and peculiar sensitiveness
of each State, whenever any measure
was proposed by the Congress of the
Confederation, l st soie flaw might, be
produced in the band of States Rights
that. held then isolated. Nothing then
but a solemn conviction of failure in the
already tested method of the Union,
could have indueed thoso wiso and con
scientons delegates of States punctilious
in principle, to surrender so many attri
biites of State Sovereignty that the
Sovereigity they were about to create
shoul'l be clothed in exactly the 8ane
habilaments that. gave character to each
Su.te, and should be above the Sover.
eignty of States in the powers grant
"All legislative powers herein grant.
el." "P1owers" here means "anthori.
ties." Do not forget that. words were
weigied in the framing of this Constitu
tion. "Granted." If "lent" had been
meant, no doubt it would have been so
expressed. lut the word "grant" wias
.Well known. It is impossible that in a le.
gal decniment those wise men should use
the word in any sense than as is it in a
transfer of property by sale, grant or
conveyance, which is its legal definition.
Jlst ns property is transf,rred, just so
were all the "legislat.ive powers" grant
ed to Congress; and just as suich proper.
ty cannot ho rechimed except by the
consent of the grantee, so too those spe.
cified legislative p'owers (or atUribites of
sovereignt.Y) given bestowed upon and
yielded to uongress by this grant, the
Constitution, cannot be taken back
without the consent of Congress. This
position may seem ultra to those who
have "gone it blind" in adopting the
snlinatei theories of State Rights, but
it is impregnable.
"Shall be vested." That is, Con.
gress shall be put in possession of those
"grante.l powers." Hero is another ir
revocable grant. Not irrevocable, ab.
solutely ; but relatively. In so far as
the severeignty of any one State is con
ceried, irrevocable. But in so far as
the sovereigities of a Constitutional
majority is concerned, not irrevocable.
"Which (Congress) sh-all consist of a
Senate and Houso of Representatives."
The parallel in the two schemes of gov.
ernment,. that of the States, and that of
the United States, is very remarkable.
Without losing their indentity as sepa
rate sovereigns, the States bear exact
ly the %ame relation to the United So.
creignty, that the several Districts and
Counties do to the separate State sover
einty. The Senate in States' Legisla
tures is the representation of Districts or
Counties. The House of Representa
tives in the same Legislature, is the
represenitation of the people of Distriots
and Counties. The Senate of the Uni
ted States Legislature is the represenita.
tion of States. Trhe House of Repro'
sentatives of the same Legislature, Is
the representatIon of tile peopl. of
States. Here is a beautiful union of
State sovereignties and popular mover
eignties for the general good. They are
thus not only mutual helps, but recipro
cal checks upon each other..
"Sac. 2. The liouse of Representa
"tives shall be compose f Members
"chosen every second year by th'e Peo
"pie of the several States, and the Elec
tors in each St.ate shall have qualiAcaa
"minna requis,in for Electors of t.he moat
"numerous branch of the State Legisla.
"Chosen every second year." This
provision is meant. to- conform the
"granted powers" to t4e principles of re
publican government. Not that those
powers are given'and taken every two
years,but that the opportunity is afforded
the Electors either to continue in office,
or to remove therefrom, any of their
delegates who have improperly used,fall.
en Eelow, or transgresed the authority
granted to them in the Constitution.
"The security intended to the general
libe-rty consists in the freqnent election
and in the rotation of the members ol
Congres,, by which there is a constant
and an efftecttal check upon them.
This is the security which the people of
every State enjoy against the usurpa
tions of their internal governments, and
it is the true source of security in a rep.
"By the people of the several States."
Had ours been intended for a "consolidat.
.ed government," and not for a Govern
ment of1 "conslidated powers," then "1o
t he several States" would have been left
out, and it would simply have been ex.
pressed "by the people."
"And the Electors in each State shall
have the qualiflcations reqisite for
Electors of the most numerons branch
of the State Legislature." Here again
is the parallel 'between the sovereign
power that makes the House in the
United States Legislature and that in
the. State Legislature. It is here that
President Johnson plants his foot and
fight !br the right of States to do'
termine the quial ficat ions of i heir voters.
This section shows contilusively that
States deine qiialifiertions of voters,
and the United Siates-iidAJt the same ;
but the pioent lawimakers try to make
the Constnituion reverse this.
flen. Graltt antd the President.
The special Washington' oorre.spon
dent, of the Chic-go Times has the fol.
lowing in reference to the relation9
between the President 'and General
A writer in the Chicago Tribune,
after taking it for granted that t he coup
d'etat will be attempted, consoles him.
self with the belief that Geri. Grant will
be found on the side of Congress and
against the President. Ho is very
much mistaken. Gen. Grant, always
wisely reticent on political subjects, is
more reticent than ever jist now ; but
ho has said enough within two weeks tc
convince all who heard him that he is
the fast and firm friend and adviser of
the President, and that his oily com
plaint on this score is that. the President
"has not gone far eiough." Tho Hadi
cali have mado desperate efforts to
convert the lietannant genera), but they
have not suceeeded.
Washburne has pledged to him the
next presidency, though it was difficult
to find ott by whom lie was anthorized
to do so; but it has had no effect. Gen,
Grant has done too much for the cause
of the Union to be alienated by a party
ot Northern disunionists from the sym.
pathy with aman who is honestly and
sincerely 'endeavoring to give to the
country the fruits of the victories ol
Gettjgqburg, Vicksbuirg and ftichmnond.
I repeat that I am very confident the
President has never entertained the idea
of using force to interrupt the revolu
tionary proceedings of the 39th Con.
gress, but they are greaqy mistakes
whlo believe that Gon. Grant ei.ther sidot
with Congress or is an indifferent spec.
tator of the exciting scenes now being
eiiacted here. He and all his staff are
to-day the warmest friends thaat Andrew
Johnson has got ,in the United States,
and nothing hss been done so fart by the
President, nor in all likelihood will be
dotne in future, that has not and till
not meet the hearty approval of the
lieutenant generalh And there is an
other general to whom the country is
not less indebted than to Grant for its
vic'ory over the rebellion--General
Shetinan. Hie has alwa3ys dilejed ftrofi
Grant in displaying a willingneos t
speak'his mind fully.. It is not neoessa4
ry to say that lie endorses all that the
fPresident has done, and favors a good
deal more than thehPesident Ia'likely .4
[From the Yonkers Gazettel
I have always loVed "Fast Men :" not
those who are fat in their n.orals, but. ti
sudden kind, those who think fast, and act
I never know a very slow American wh<
amounted to any thing.
Put a man on an Island, (like great Brit.
tati,) and he will learn how to be slow; it i,
like chaining a bull tarrier to a post, after
a while he will sttaighten the chain, that's
lut on a lIemlspherei, like ours, even mud
turtles learn how to show a good gait.
Where nature sets the example, where
she is vast, magestic, Men soon get. in the
habit of reckoning by, the millions, and a
man aint any iore apt to make a big mis
take; than he is a small one ; there is m6re
game mist at 100 feet, that there is at 100
Fast men. make most of the blunders that
are made ; but they also make most of the
good hits that are made.
It don'L.hurtmny feelings, (occasionally) to
hear thatf a man has full his whole lenigth,
and even ploughed up the ground where he
struck, for then I know lie couldn't have
been standing still, nor hanging on soine.
body's picket fence.
Methusila lived a 1000 years, but I sup
pose he could have scen all he saw and done
all he dial, in 6 years, if lie had lived in Non
I never know a piece of niachinery to
prove a failure because it was too fist; and
who is there, who has ever trned one bv
hand, that has not wept forjoy to see i
rindstote get round 600 times in a minute,
riven by steam ?
Fast men sometimes collide, but experi
ence has proved that it is better for a loco
motive to strike a rook at 49 miles an hour,
than at 16, foriat 40 miles the rock may be
displaced, but at 15 the locomotive is cer
tain to be.
I always did think well of the Connecticut
vagrant who was confined in the poor house
because Ie hadn't any thing to do, and
hearing of a brass wood shoe peg speoula
tion, that was raging butside. broke out of
the Poor House, and made 1600 Dollars be
fore they could catch him.
"Life is short," and this is one great
reason why it ought. to be Fast.
The Confederate Dead.
The Charleston Netus says:
'The Richmond Exanner, of Tues.
day, has a letter from Mr. Thomas H.
Ellis, Picsident of the Hollywood Come
lery Company, from which we learn
th at the number of the dead of tho Conu
federate army buried at H1olly'wood is
11,075. A register was kept, in which
were uoted the name, rank, company,
regiment, and State of each soldier bit
ried. Every precaitjon was taken to
insure regularity and systein in the in
*terments. because it was anticipated
that after the war many removals
wOuld be make.
Mr. Ellis says that there is as mucli
probability of certainty in regard to
identity. or the obtaining any particular
body asked for, among those buried in
the Hollywood Cemetery, as exists,
perhaps, anywhere else under similar
ic then makes the following sugges
tion in regard to these graves: "The
view I have is this: With few excep.
tion, the dead of the army are buried
together in rows, near to each other,
admitting of but a limited number of
walk-ways or avenues. These graves
I would have simply remotilded and
turfed, with a small, neat head stone to
each, the surname carved upon the
stone, and under the name a number,
referring to the number ia the register,
containing all the particulars known or
given, as above stated. The expense
of such an improvment s this is easily
within the control of the ladies of Rich
monde, even in our present dep reseed
conditian, and, with you, I confidently
entrusat the subject to thieih" hearts and
[The Kxasmt'ner had ahetady called
the attention of the Richmond ladies to
There is another great cemetery in
*Richmond, *"4akwood," where even a
larger nubheri Were buried than at Hol
ly wood. The total- number of soldiers
interred in Ribhnd, .%iorng the waV
can not fall mnelb shore of3,000..
Thu gouvHasa litul'3cTrox.--The orders
given by the Preeident te Generals 8tead
mail agd~ . Fulhleaton, ilud sa nspoo t
of the Freedine's Burau, it anaeent~
and its usefulniess.-end i4t etat on by
the'Souttura peoptle. Thhu ilet, be done
*ottside.ot. the Bru,and without consul
tatida with its chief od6er. They will re..
male La the.8euth several weeks.
'* T1he ppfobapssr of JFenian bonda have
'New Head Centre. Their cry now is
oh- My Money ?"
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