Newspaper Page Text
Tuesday Aforning, May 12, 1866.
Up" T. l. SU.:in, Esq., is the
sole agent for this paper in Charleston
The best Systen, of Mental 1hilototphy.
Under tW caption will be presented sub.
jects relating to phrenology. The assent
of many of our readers to the fagt; or
at least to sone of the facts, nAna their
known Interest in the solence of phronolo.
gy, induces the introduction of tnis depart..
neut in these column.
It cInnet be donied that the sciencen
of the mind whence emanate, nil that
makes man great here, should be the
chief of all sciences. But that high po.
sition of it should rot bi characterised
by the perplexing mysteries thrown
around it, but by its ilhuininattion and its
practicability to the iffirs of lie. For
examiple,. why does one man excel an
other in the study of asironomy, or of
painting, of music, of - matheimatics, of
mechanics, oven when both are subject.
ed to the same rigid training ? The
most prodigious effort to get an answer
to the'inqniry from the schools will in.
evitably be baffled.
Nothing can exceed the subtilty with
which they have treated of mental phe.
nomena,'and yet no ibor among all the
sciences has resulte in such barren
fruits,-not to the laborers thiemselvee,
however, but to their disciples.
Suppose a man to undertake teaching
a people ignorant of it, the science of
agriculture with a view to their practic
ing it. He goes into an elaborate ex
planation of the constituent elements of
grain and esculent roots. He tells them
that by the laws of affinity certain com
binations produce a grain called corn,
which by the laws of vegetation will,
when brought in certain relations to
earth. air, water anil heat, prodce a
vigorous plant that will reproduce its.(lf.
No one will deny that. his study of the
chemistry of plants will do him good, in
training his mind and enlarging his
store of knowledge. But if he leaves
his hearers just there, he will be sadly
disappointed if lie looks for a successful
application on their part of his instr-c
Now this is just where the schools
leave the mind of man in its ef.
forts to profit by their science of its phie.
noma. They speak learnedly of the
elements of thought, but that grand
truth that the immaterial of man acts ab.
soltitely and explilsively through the
material, is left clear out of tho connt,
and its absence is attempted to be sup.
plied with a subtle theory dhat, like at
ray of light thrown into a volune ot
darkness, only makes it doubly dark.
Indeed their efforts arc what Sir IsaAC
NEWTON'S would have bieen had he tnn.
dertaken to advance the science of as
tronomy by investigating thme rntunre of
gravity instead of its effects. So: the
Schools have ndeitakeni to explain
the nature of mind, of spirit, aind the
conseqnence is they ha ve run into all
kinds of extravagances of Idealism and
Materialismu. The one seeing the ab
surdity of the other, to avoid it. ran into
ate opposite extreme. Phrenology goes
into neither, but steers a middle course.
The Trial of air, Davis,
There are some indications that Ji:F
FER8ON' DAvzS will befo long be
brought to his trial on the ebargo of
treason.- No event can engage the in
terest of the South more than this. It.
is said thmat l.is ehtof.point of defence
will be based on the subject of Stiate
Rights, and the prcerogamtive grantted
every citizen of a State to eaistain the
cliolal action of such State.
In oth,er words, the whole.sa~ of the
matter is, that Mr. DAvis will .BRen his
defence upon the principle thaE.the al
legiance of the citizen is first to'his,
State, and then to the National Govetn.
We do not attempt to predict, but, we4
t'o argue that if Mr. DAv1ate tried lie
skil be opnvicted of treesen. WVhother
upon Lite U. r- I han
claracterimg tlib revolution.ry party im
Th.era0 no dotnb v can in
tilmt Stroig and so, q g to I b
draitro,i the Contitrit a
offSeto t1 above 241ce,
argument as will be drawn will suffice
to decide the jurors in the e caui. Abd
the argiment,will. indeed bo-s(o*fraWe:
thit'while even & friend of Mr. DAVts
must papse-at its bearing! ie could igt
give it bis sanctiou bevnse,. from the
elementary opinions which entergd ino
tihe formation of lite Constittion, and
from the irregular constructive adlininis.
trationi of the powers granted in that in
striment, ho could not condemn a mah
A)r treasoln when' he might be; doing a
thing to condenn himself.
This, we believe, vill be' thel nit.of
Mr. DAvIs's trial. It being tihi fist
trial of tihe kind, and the convictibn 14
ing based upon a doub(ful ground, Mr.
DAvis will be banidhed or pardoned,
nnd then will be grafted on the Conti.
tution an aniendment precisely defin
As for treason itself, there caln be no
dioubt now of tho definition of it con
tained in tihe Conptitution, but it is the
loose practice of constrinihg the Con.
stitutionl inl the past that would indnco
rt jtistjniror to gire the benefit of that
laxity to the arraigned.
Our Early Politicol History.
It should not surprise any rensotnaible
man that the South and North diiffered
widely in their respective constructionm
I the Consituitionls, and that snch di
versity o' opinion shionild gradually
widen the breach betweeni them that
'ounld, only be Closed ip with blood.
Governor R ANDOI.'n, of Virginia, who
was nl of the neiblers of the Conven
tion which framed the Constitntion, de
dined to pit 'his 'namo to that iiFtrni
menit. Among the reasons given fk r
his counrse os al publip representative,
conitained inn a letter froin him to the
H1onuse of Debateof f Virginia, written
in Richmiondi and dated October 1Oth.,
1787, are the following :
He wanted Virginia to take the ini
tialive, and hoped sine would be second.
ed by a majority of all the Statet,
1. "Ia causing all nnbignitius of ex
"pressmrni to be precisely explained."
2. "In drawing a line between tie
"powers of Congress and individual
"Siates ; and in defining the lorner.'so
"6;l. to lt:1%ve no1 clashing of jurisdictigns
"nor dangerous disputes ; and to pre.
'vent the one froin being- swallowed lip
'"I)v the othor, under cover of general
"words, and implicatior.."
Now it is a fact that some of the
ablest, men in the Convention fetred
that State governments would swallow
up tine general governmient. In tine
counrse oi a debate on t.hc qunestion
whiether the national legislatur~e should
:onnsist of two branchnes or of onne, Mr.
IaorsnSO wino took tine firat, said in the
:onirse of his remarks,
"I apprehend thne grea,.est danger is
"fnrm the enceroachmnont of tine States on
"the national government."
Aind when Mr. WrI.soN, or Pennsy I
vania, said "let us: try to ,degignate tine,
powers of each'-that is of States and
af general government, Mr. MADISON in
hnis reply stated that
"To drnnw .tine line ,between theQ two,
"is a diffilenh tak.' I believe it cannot
''be donec, and t,heref'ore I anm for.a gen.
"eral governnmnt,"-and by a "general
governient Mr. MADDISON ineant a
~trong federal Ltverinment," as 'he else.
whore oxpredses it,
Ott tine qunestion~ aa.to wihethner or not
each St,ate abnouki have an.eqiual-vote in
the Sonante, as they hind done itt the old~
Congrdss, Mr. Mainson who took thq
"Thi 'great .danger to our genersl'
"gover.nr.n, is the .great Southrn&Va4sd
".Northrn inbterests of the Coninnt b&p
"ingq opposed to each otherA Look te th.
'Wotei i,n COongtes. amnd tuosep( %4p
'atand divided by the geogabhp~
"co0unrtry, rnt accordiog to the 0 (
heln States.' we * 44
- iepoiia histor of a f
Statp~i is4 copuan wd uilllhmnttf
nothing less than war could destroy. that
interest. The preot
ongresa seblind to facts.
e j On FdAy morai 1
nth dr chee t
a ' skyana a chaing -At
mosphere. The main incident of the
Isty' iertaiment wns,a dinner, sump.
JAQW.4nd.raoierale, to a,company of
gentlemen fron. which the round sum of
*95, was r. alized. During the. day the
ladies were unflagingly engaged in re
inircing the depleted array of viands, in
learing the debris and. preparing for the
store vigorous night attack. During
the day, also, the faney articles received
a tasty and opportune accession from
At an early hour after dark the com
pany re assembled- and for two (r three
bours the hall continued throng(d with
visitors. his night witnessed a repe.
tition uf the incidents of the night pre.
vious, the same bustlo snJ animation
of movement, and conversation, and
merriment-the vendors at the tables
Serving the reetiperated dishes as b.fore
all the various' departments perforrng
their prescribed functions while we re
marked that the raflie lists c'rciilated
even more liberally, and the noise re
ceived an audible reinfor-.ement roni
the voice of the auctionedr, vending cakes
and other arteles.
Oin Saturday it closed. The exact re
turns havo not beeni made. but the gross
proceeds are estimated proximately at.
about $1,150, and the nett profits at from
M50 to $700, asuccessful result in view
of the stringency of the times.
To the ladies who inaugurated the
scheme and worked it to its succe a-ful
resilts are richly due the gratitude of
all interested in the acconplislhnent of
the latudable object of these effort,..
For over two months past under their
exeellent organization. they have devot.
4 d.heir time and atteition and tnst.'e
zealotisly and cheerthlly to the prosecu
tioii of thie enterprise and have succeed.
ed in establioking a substniltial fund
upon which to baso futirro oollections.
We cannot close without adverting.
though iiaderuately to the assistance
contributed by the radies of every other
denomination and faith in our communi
Iy. Though noi. primarily involved,
theso ladies united in most unselfish
and active co-operation. From among
t.hem we could designate the names of
some of th1- most effective and siccessfal
vendors at the tables, also of several
who came from the country to contrib
ate their personal supervision and skill
in the various preparations. We are
sure these generous amenities aild cour
tosies are duly appreciated by the prop.
In this coniection we cheerfully pub.
hli tho followving notices:
Mrs. A. Latta, and the ladies of
Yorkville--who contributed to my ta
ble at the fair will acce*pt my thanks.
The Ladies Aid Associationt acknowi.
edge a doniation from Mr. Jas. McEli
roy of $10
Our association will give a. Concerd
on Friday the 22d of Junue.
Mase. C, L ADD, Manager.
The war gre w ont of prmncip1es not
wrong in themselges, bus. wrong in their
aipplication. Tihe North rallied around
"All men aro oreatddeejtal," 5ad ther&
ror, oontend for the .iright ot golf-govern
TIh. South raise fte q ,
"We have the Jg of !(-government,
beo&un.e all men drrat eqima.
Partyism in th~e T.nited States has
not contended so tpu4 fqge ~9htitu.
t.ion as it.lIas forditepeculIiar tenet,s. It
has insiated less upon enforeihg the Con.
stit.htion, and vmorb op0ui ewVf 'ng th ose
tenets. TIhe copase e~d be'been that
t,he C ngtitg J ftool nml.
15 vltto party rather ikatfunda,
uiental law of thEIs,*4 e"
'Hence the bro~I fus erous and
MgWahiihout gtheb war,
seIpt its, each Aaqn (et mpWnprinui
p1es rigt im' 10h M t drawa from
the Declaration of Indepeiindnce, and
,not from the CoW00tj11.
And the same n*gnanimity should
onate dhe vi0oPi's,linstpad of that
vipdiotiWe, rag wih chpr4cterises
them. Aceir position is out and out
pliaraskical. They have dered, anvi
why not we ; we have discarded forever
our error, and why not they thoirs.
EX-Governor Brown's Argr,ment on the
We publish to-day from the A ugusta
Constitutfonalist*a part or G.v. DROwN'S
argument before the U. S. Circuit Cturt
in the District of Georgia. We will
continue it until all is reproduced. The
argument is one well worth reading.
As a defence of constitutional law it is
unanswerable. It establishes beyond
contadiction the unconstitutionality of
the test oath. When read, it ought to
be clipped out and put into the scrap.
We especially urge upon our young
men to read it. wibh care. They should
not think because they do not intend
studying law. that t here is no advnntage
in such readi.g. Every yonag man in
onr country ought to be educated in
constitutional law. For from it is de
rived all the powers exercised over them
in whatever trade or profession i tl(.y
follow.. And our comiary ains been
ruined as mnuch for the want of kinowl
edge of this kind, as from a.ny other
cause, it not more thn any other. Ex.
tremists North ndt South were a law
unto t.hemselves, and their followers
were educated in this Felf-made Inw,
Mid ruin, disaster ani death followed in
The Crescent Mothly.
The May ntn)er of this periodictl
we have seen. There is a story-nov.
filette-from the pen ot Miss CLAHA V
DARoAN-1idndaUbledly tho best sho has
ever published. Tho plot opens. pr .
gresses and closes with the most natural
ease. Indeed two words wi' describe
the story very compreheiisively, it is
natural and complete.
The Crescent is pub}ished in New
Orleani by Mr. W. Evitmx, at $5.00
per annum in adrance. We are re
q'ested to open a subscription list
which may be found on our table where
we will recetive tho naies of those who
desire to aid in establishing and elevat.
ing Southern Literaltire.
Sherman denies having burned Columbia.
Hampton proves conclusively that ho did.
But H11npton ptippens io bo a Sotthern
man. Here is evidence from tie other side:
InoRToN, Oto, May 9. 1806.
Editors Commer?eitd: Oil reading your ar
tiele in .the .Commercial, ot th 8th, a. to
whether Sherman or fiampton burned Co
lumbin, S. C , brings to mind an incident
ihat occurred here at the tine Sherman was
resting his grandarmy at iavannah. It was
underiood.that he was to march through
South Carolina. A petition was drawn tup,
auddresse'd io him, (and It was signed by
nearly all who saw It,) regnesting him, i'n
case be marched througih Sa Cavalina, 'o
desolate the wh,oe State by tire amnd sword,
as far as the rules of war would alluw bim,.
I knmow not whether the petitionm ever roach
od thme gallant, soldier or not, but it, s&
that I.e'need shrink from not hing ho did on
i,bp piarch. I heard the opinion expressed
a hundred times at that tme. ihat every.
t.inig in South Carolina should be reduced
to as hes, and her chivalry 'compelled to
wander, beggars over ihie face of the earth.
Yours, &O., .. .
Sherman "need shrink from nothing ho
did on the nmarch." Whimt a confession!
ROCx SArLT.-On Petite Antie Island,
in the Southern part of Louisiana, there
is a bed of rock salt coveritng one hun
dred acres, which. dturing the late wva,
snpplied nearly the wvhole of the trans
Mississippi district. Twenty one millions
pounds were taken from it in three
r,onths, yet it Is reported that but a
very snmall portion of t,he deposit has
beetn cut awvay, Immediate steps are
now taking to develop the mine.
SOr.ID MArTo:.-The Commercial
Bullejin, j,reply to a correspondent of.
fering to rend! "soinething to fill up
"Thap's just what we want. Sup.7
pose you t9wore. ):owv with aim
roasting piee ef. bipf. and ab
The Bnlletia tb%rsfrom ma lhtrs
in thjus p1,ring. 'toid n Wtiut
The "hymal" (a uItin the
"ermog t i% oh)
lates 5 t tp
TEL E.GRA I PiC.
Confirmation of #he Masslere.
SAN FRANCISCO, -May 1G.-A letter
frcn,a Charles lHam*lton, <1itted William'.s
Fork, Arizon., 'April 30th, seems to.
:onfirm the massacre at Fort Goodwil.
fio states that the massacre occurred ten
days previous, and that of the two com.
panies of regilars, the third battalion of
the fonrteenth regular regiment, con..
sitiug of one hundred men, only seven,
escaped. The remninder were muirdhr..
ed and scalped. The Apaches renpedUa'
r ch harvest, carrying off arms and am.
mimition, commissary stores, &u. A
number of supposed friendly Indianns
were admitted into the fort and surprised.
The( tribe of Indians called Huolapes
had murdered one man and committed
other outrages in the vicinity of Wil.
Lieutenant Cervantes, of compainy A,
with twenty-six men, attacked the Apa.
ches forty miis east of Camp Lincoln
about March 24th, killing twenty two,
and wmi,iding five aid capturing t,wo
The same day it party was pl-inning
licet t of the Liberals.
SAN FRANCISCO, Mny 10.-Tho Im..
perinal CGnsul has received official de:
patches,.va Acapulco, amnouncing that.
the Liberal, after their defvat at
Michoacan. endeavored to rally, bit.
were_ suppressed anm comph-tely roue d..
The oeipalion of Tarristora by tihe i.
perials is officially reported.
WASHiNOTON, May IS.-In thm1
S'nt!lle, to1-day, Mr. Sumner .pre.lentedV
the petit i'i of sundry colored ci:izens,
;lskinlg that Ihe second clause of the
pending constiintional ameniment bo
strickeii out, and ono substituted for it,
declaring that no Congr-s.mon from tihe
Stom It be allowed to at. in the House of
Repr-esentatives who is not chosen b)y nt.
least half the loyal men, withot:t regard
to color. He also presented a petition,
for the trinl of Jeffirson Davis by a
court-martial. In conntection with itis,.
lie said thnt the trial of Davis nt. Rich
nmiln, at. tile present line, would be onn
of thos. great comedies which woul
hereafter excise tihe derision of the
world. The. petition. wits referred to.
the Committee on Military Affairs.
Tile business of tHie House, to.day,
was mainly confined to the coisideratiou,
of tile t:x bill.
"To the Ladies."
At a recent. dross ball, given by tle ultra
fa:4ionable of lnris, Asia was represented
by a 1issinn lady,'whose hair, arins, and
dress blazed with the light of diniouds..
lHer entire outfit cost,$80),000.
At a ball, at the Duohess of lojano's, in.
Pal-is, recently, heor stster, tile l'rinceess ot'
St. Elia,,appoaredl as thle press, in a robe
oarvered wyith tile pages and titles of' severaL,
journals, printed Oin satin.
"uv"OF BwNNss-Th fij's cor
reslpondenit of' thle London Tele r~t es:
"The 0one great object of may ad iNton in
Paris is the bonnet-Its evo--.chmanging
shape, Its splendor., Its disappearance and
its 'dark days of nothingness.' What do
you thin1k bonnets were yesterday ? Not -
cepe, nor tulle, nor silk. nor satin, nor
velvet, nor strawv. No, nothing butt flowers,
Ssaw one ladyv pith a beonnet of dashes, and
aohrwho had on her head a handful of'
lilies of thte valley, festooned with greena
riobon. If' It really Is anything, a bonnet
can scarcely be less than a few llos of' the
valley, whIch at Florence routld cost half at..
Paul, Another lady had a wreath of wall
Time Princess Bimeski Korsakcoff has made
a sensation I Many people opver:hteir4$ of
lier before; but she Is,'-nsvertheless, the
wife of Prince Korsakoff, Ivho Is,wip*obably, .
of ltussIan affRnities. He-Is 'Inly very 1,
rond of having bi. wife.~ - R gorgeous
dIsplay, nd,. lt.kefor her a dress.
costing hio uitlhfo* -.equal to about
6400.000O in gold - . Idh she appeared
-a the grand inn leeently given by
Nap@loue itf State. I. lronyn de
Lbu bttous dress enabledt her to
i NAI~ he G reaL Empress of
* ben' earifully elaborated.
potritto te empress now ,preserv
intfylce.Thme skirt was of'
.,et, -etabroidered with silter and
AgUo irlU10tif *ur'of the Slberiasn mar
tis. The train *as only -thmree yard(s in
en hjr%b s' for suich ani enormous
ou~~y,J4nthis glori Ons robing was on..
u peda a veil of old Venemiarnlace, which
o'endedkfom the cap.
General Pi I ~b een sentenced to bm
lo.; hue. con
1* I.in: Aodh. will pr",
el bad:about it.