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The Fairfield herald. (Winnsboro, S.C.) 1849-1876, August 29, 1866, Image 1

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VO4. -A
VOL.1] ~~WINNSBORO, S. C.2 WJVEDNESDX1. MO1INING ,AJUT2,~6.[O .
THE
'AIRFIELD HERALD,
IS PUnBISnED wEKLY BY
Vir1i1(tr Desportes & Co
Terms.-T'an l[IRALD is publlihed Week.
ly in the Town o' Wiisboro, at 93.00:ii
Vareabky t aduance.
.Oy- All traisieit advertisemetits to bo
imid inl advan.:o.
Obituary Notices and Tributes $1.00 per
1118 PillASLPIIIA NATIONAL CONMEN
T10N,
Aduriens to line People of tihe
Unkited Statesm.
A DEMAND FOR SOUTHERN REPnEsEN
TrATION IN CONGRESS.
The following is the address issued
by the National Convention, lately
held in Philadelphia, to the people of
the United Sates:
'T. the People of the United Sttes:
Having iet in convention at the
Vity of Philadelphia, in the State of
Pennsylvania, this 16th day of August,
186(, as the representatives of the
lpteople in all the States and Territo
is of the Union, to consult upon the
condition anld the wiants of our com
111on clouitry, we address to you this
elau tim on of' outr principles, and of
he onIaal purotiises wo seek to pro
- mei0et inig of the last
ion, in the year 1860,
courred wh ich- have
r.,ae cof our internial
-nivi the llnite(d States a
ug the lntis of the
- i. Our ( overnentcut Itas passed
thtmnghl the 1k.. siitdes and the perils
ol'civil war-a war which, though
mainly sectionlal in its Character, has
nievertheless decided political dih'er
ences that fromli the very beginning of
the G overniient had thireatened the
unity ofour national existence, and
has left its impress deep and inen'ace
able upon all the interests, the senti
ments, and the dost iny of the republic.
Whlile it has inflicted upon the whole
country &.overe losses in. life and-in
prop ,erty, and has imposed burdens
wiich must weigh upon its resources
for generations to cMe, it has dlevel
oped a degree of national courage ill
thle presence of national dlagl~ers--a,
capacity for military organization and
achievement, and a devotion on the
part of thle people to theo form of thle
government which they lave ord ained,
and to the principles of liberty which
that Govornment was designed to pro
mote, whichi nist confirm tile confi
dence of the nation ill the perpetuity
of its re ublicau institutions, and comn
mand tie respect of the civilized
world.
Like all great contests which rouse
the passions and test the endurance of
nations, this war has given now scope
to the ambition of the political par
ties, and fresh impulse to plans of in
novation and reform. Amid the chaos
of conflicting sentiments inseparable
from such an era, while the publio
heart is keenly alive to all the pas
sions that can away the public judg
mont and affect the public action ;
whilo the wounds of war are still fresh
and bleeding on eithier side, and fears
for the future take unjust proportions
from the momorics and resentments
of the past,-it is difficult but an im
perativo duty which on your behalf
we, who are here assembled, have un
dertaken to perform.
For the first time after six long
years of alienation and of conflict, we
have comle together from every State
and1( every section of our land, as citi
zens of a common country, urder that
4 flag, the symbol again of a common
glory, to consult together how best to
cement and perpetuate that Union
which is again the object of oar comn
mon love, and tihus scure the bless
ings of liberty to ourselves and our
posterity.
TIlE INTERESTs OF PEACE.
In the first placc, we invoke you to
remiember, always and everywhere,
that the war is ended and the nation
is aga in at peace. The shock of con
tenlding arms 110 longer assuhils the
shuddering heart of the Republic..
The inisurr~ection against the supreme
authority of the nation has been sup
pressed, and that authority has been
again ackniowledgcd, b'y word and act,.
in every State and by every citi'zeu
within its jurisdiction. We are no
' * longer requiredl or permitted to regard
.or treat each other as enemies. Not
only htave the acts of war been discon
ttinued, and thte weapons of war laid
id~te, bult the state of war no longer
* exists, and thte sentiments, thte pas
sions, the relations of war havo no
longer lawful or rightful place any
wthcre throughout our broad domain.
WoT are again p)oople of the Uinited
* States, fellow-citizena of one country,
bound by the duties and obligations
of a common patriot ismi, and %lhaving
necithior rights nor interests apaiA fromt
* a common destiny. The duties that
* devolve utpon- us now are again the du
I ties- of peace, and no longer the duties
-of war. We have assembled hero to
take counsel concerning the interest!
of peace ;to decide hiow we miay most
wisely and effectually heal the wouda
the war has made, and perpetuate the
benefits it has secured, and the bless
ing which under a wise and benign
Providence, have sprung up in its fiery
track. This is the work, not of pas
sion, but of calm and sober judgment;
not of resentment for past offences pro
longed beyond the limits which justice
and ieason prescribe, but of a iberal
statesmanship which tolerates what it
efnimpt prevent, and build its plans and
hopes for the future rather upon a com
inunity of interest and ambItion than
upon distrust and the weapons of
force.
POLITICAL RESULTS OF TIHED WAR.
In the next place, we call.upon you
to recognize in their full significance,
and to accept with all their legitimate
consequences, the political results of
the war just closed. In.two most im
portant particulars the victory achiev
ed by the National Government has
been final and decisive. First, it has
established beyond all further contro
versy, and by the highestof all human
sanctions, the absolute supremacy of
the National Government, as defined
and limited by the Constitution of the
United States, and the permanent in
tegrity and indissolubility of the Fed
eral Union as a necessary conse
quence ; and, second, it has put an
end finally and forever to the exis
tence of slavery upon the soil or with
in the jurisdiction of the United
States. Both these points became di
rectly involved in the contest, and
controversy upon both was ended ab
solutely and finally by the result.
'rl% nmonT OF IEPInESENTATION.
In the third place, we deem it of the
utmost imporianice that. Ole real charac
ter of the wtr and tihe victory by which
it was closeil should be aceurately tm.
dersiood. 'Tie war was carried on 6v
th.11 Governmrain, of the Uited Statei ii in
ialmttenan11ce of its ow. aiuthorii v, ned
ill defelce of its own * exist enl.e., b>in of
which were im e naced by Ith II er.
tion which it sought to suppres.. Th.
suppression of that insurrection accom.
plished that. result. 'Iit Governmen.
of the United States maintained bV
force of' arms the supreno ai horit y
over all the territory, and over all 1h1
States and people within itsjjurisdiction
which the Constitution confers upon it
but it acq-iired thereby no new por
no enlarged jurisdiction, no rights of'
territorial possession or of civil authori.
ty which it did not possess before the
rebellion broke out. All the rightful
power it can ever possess is that which
is cotiferred upon it, either in oxpress
terms or by fair and necessary implica.
tion, by the Constitution of the United
States. It was that power and that an.
thority which tho rebellion sought to
ovarthrow, and the victory of the Fede.
ral artms was simply the defeat of that
attempt. The Government of the Uni.
ted States acted throughout the war on
lhe defensive. It sought ontly to hold
possession of what was its own. Nei
ther the war, nor the victory by which
it was closed, changed in any way the
Constitution of the United States. The
war was carried on by virtue of its pro.
visions, and under the limitation which
they prescribe, and the result of the war
did not either enlarge, abridge, or in
any way change or affect the powers it
confers upon the Federal Government,
or release that Government from the
restrictions which it has imposed.
Tihe Constitution of the United
States is to-day p)recisely as it was
before the wvar, the "supreme Jaw of the
land, anything in the Constitution or
laws of any State to the contrary, not
withstanding ;" and to day, also, precise
ly as before the war, all the powers not
confe:rred by the Constitution upon the
General Government, nor prohibited by
it to the Sttates, arc "reserved to the
several States, or to the people thereof."
Thtis position is vindicated not only by
the essential nature of our Government,
and the language and spirit of the Con
atitution, but by all the acts and the
language of our Government, in all its
departments, and at all times from the
outbreak of the rebellion to its final
overthrow. In every message and pro
clamra-t'on of the Elxecutive it was oxpli
citly declared that the sole purpose and
object of the war was to maintain the
authority of the Constitution and to
preserve the integrity of tho Union f and
Congress more than once reiterated this
solemn declaration, and added the assur
ance that, whenever this object should
be attained, the war should 3ease, and
all the States should retai'mr threir equal
rights and dignity unimpaired. It is
only since the war was closed that other
rights have been asserted on behalf of
Otno department of the Gbneral Govern
mont. It hae been proclaimed by Con
gross that, in addition to the powers
conferred upon it by the Constitution,
the Federal Government may now
claim over the States,. the territory and'i
the people involved in the insurrection,
the rights of war, the rightof conquiest
and of confiscation, the right to abro.
Igate all existing Governments,- instltu
tionis and laws, and to sub ect tite' terri
tory congsered' anti' itw haIbitnts to
such l'aws,. reantu dhprivatiOhe as.
thme legislative departments.of the Gov
ernent may see fit to impose; Under
this broad' and sweteping claimil. that
clause of the Constitution whieh- pro.
vided that "no State sliMI,; without Its
consemt; be deprived of its egual' suff
rage in, the Senate of th-e United$ae?
has bean annultred' anid' teun States have
Aboon, refused, and are still refused, reg.
resentation altogether in both branches
of tho Federal Congress. And the
Congress in which only a part of the
States and of' the people of the Union
are represented has asserted the right
thus to excido the rest from represen
tation, and from all share in making
their own laws or choosing their own
rulers until they shall comply witlh such
conditions and perform ench acts as this
Congress thus emposed maity itself pro
scribe. That right has not only been
assorted, but it has been exercised, and
is practically enforced at the present
time. Nor does it find any -support in
the theory that the States thus exclud
ed are in rebellion against the Govern.
ment, and are, therefore, ,recluded
from sharing Its authorit.y. ' hey are
not thus in rebellion. They are, one
and all, in an attitude of loyalty toward
the Governmant, and of sworn allogi.
ance to the Constitution of the United
States. In no one of then is there the
slightest indication of resistance to this
authority, or the slightest protest against
its just and binding obligation. This
condition of renewed loyalty has been
officially recognized by solornu procla
mation of the Executive Department.
The laws of the United States have
been reopened and Federal taxes im
posed and levied, and in every respect,
except. that they are denied represoita
tion inl Congress and the Electoral Col
lege, the States once in rebellion are
recognized as holding the same position,
as owing the same obligations and sub.
ject to the same duties as thm other
States of our common Union.
It scoms to us, in the exercise of the
calmest and most candid judgment we
can bring to ,lie subject, that sucli a
claim, so enforced, involves as fatal an
overthrow of the Constitution, and as
coiplete a dest-ruction of the G(overn.
iment and Union, as that, which was
iought to be effected by the people and
States n aried mnsurrection against
tlei hofh. It cannot escape obsIrva
iioi that. the power thus asserted to ox
lu(de certain Stats from representation
is made to rest. wholly in the will and
discretion of the Congress that. asserts it.
It. is not. made to depend uipoii any spi
cified conditions or cie cumst.ances, nor
to le subtijec' to any rules or reglt.iions
wI::tever. The right i-tttri nd ex.
etc,. a abshitifte, Wilthoil, q ifit'ieni tion
or restriction, not coafined to States in
tehollion, nor to States that have rebell.
ed ; it. is in the right of any Congress
in formal possession of legislative author
it.y to exclude any State or States. and
any portion oi ti people thereof, at aiy
time, from representation in Congress
and in the Electoral College, at its own
discirtion, and until they shall perform
such acts and comply with such condi
tionts ae it may dictate. Obviously, the
roason for such exclusion, being wholly
within the discretion of Congress, may
change as the Congress itself shall
change. One Congress may exclude
a State fromn all share in the Govern
ment for one reason ; and that reason
removed,the next Congress tmay exclude
it for another. One State may bo ex
cluded on one gaound to day, and an
other may be excluded on the opposite
ground to-morrow. Northerp ascendan
cy may exclude Southern States from
one Congress; the ascendancy of Wes.
tern or of Southern interests, or of both
combined, may exclude the Northern
or the Eastern States from the next.
Improbable as such usurpation may seem
the establishment of the principle now
asserted and acted upon by Congress
will rendor them by no means impossi
ble. The character, indeed the ver'y
existence, of Congress and the Union is
thus made dependent solely and entirely
upon the party and sectional exigences
or forbearances of the hour.
Wneod not stop to show that action
not only finds no warrant in the Oonsti
tution, but is at war with every princi
ple of our Government, and with the
very existence of free institutions. It
is, indeed, the identical practice which
has rendered fruitless all antempts hither
to to establish and mairntain free gov.
ernments in Mexico and the States of
South America. Party necessities as
sert themselves as superior to thbe funda.
mental law, whicha is set aside in reck
}ess obedience to their beh'estt. Stabili
ty, whether in the sexercise of power,
in the administration of governmnent, or
in the enjoyment of rights, becomes im..
possible ; and the conflicts of party which,
uinder constitutional *governments, are
the conditions aind means of political
progress, are merged in the conflicts of
armsto, which Lihey directly and inevita
bly tend.
It was against this peril, so conspic.
uous and so fatal to all free governments,
that our Constitution was intended es
pecially to provide.- Not only the sta
bility, but, the very existence, of the
Government is made by its provisions
to depend upon the right and the fact
of reprensentation. The Congress upon.
which is conferred .all the hegislative'
power of the National Govern ment, con
slsts of two branches, the Senate and
Hlouso of Representatives. says the Coan
stittniiot (atiQle 1,. secitton 2),- "shall be
composed of members choseir every see-'
-ond' yea~r'by the pogle of the several
States.' Not only is the right of repIre.
sentation thus recognized as possessed by
all the'Statis and-by every State: withs
out restriction, qualification or; condition
of any lkind,' but the duty of. choosing
representatives is inmposed-upon the poo
plle of each and'eiver'y Statu- alike; with.
out d1~inctioni, or the authority to make
or upon any grounds wiatover. And
in the Senate, so careful is the Constitu.
tion to secure to every State this right,
of represenlation, it is expressly provi
ded that "no State shall without its coni
sent, be deprived of its equial suifral',ge"
in that body, even by en amndIInt, of
the Consti tution itselr. '\Vhen, therelore.
any State is excuded from such repre
sentation, not only is a right of the State
denied, but the constitutional integrity
of the Senato is impaired, nud the valid.
ity of the Government itself is brought
in question. But Congress at the pres
ent moment thus eoludes from repre
sentationl, inl both branches of Conlgreis,
ten States of the Union, deinv jug themt
all share In the enaicit t of laws by
which they are to be governed, and all
participation itn the eliction of rnhers by
which those lnws are to be enforced.
In other words, a Congress in which
only twenty- six States arc represented
asserts the right to govern, absolitely
and in its own discretion, all the thirty
six States which compose the Union
to make their lavs and choose their n.
lors, and to exclude the other Len fromt,
all share in their own government until
it sees fit to admit. them thereto. V Imt
is there to distingmsli lie power iIt.s
asserted and exercised from the must, ab
solute and intolerable tyranny ?
EXTnAVAGANNT CL.A IMS OF CONiiES.
Nor do these extravig:nt and iji: t.
claimis on lie part of Coingress to powers
and atthority never conferred iipon th
Government by the Coostitutio-n. find
anly warrant in the!'tnii- t ii s or eXCtuISs
urged oi their behalif It, is alleged,
First. That the.e Supes, by the act of
rebellionii aid b vohmiarilv withdinw
ing their mai .ers from (on res, f"r.
fited tin-ir righit to re!prese4nltation, and t
that thwy can only r-etivie it .1:iin a
the1 hlands of t.be sulpre'nle legislvny. all
tiority ,of the Goveru I n),I its own
termiiis tIand at. its owIl discre.t ion. If rep.
r('senliatiOl in Coligi's n alid j 1i i 11ittif'i
inl Iie Goverinmnuit w\ere simplyt11 piivil
egos con 'erred and held by favor, ib1i:,
stat etent. m11iglt have tle inerit of pla.si
hility. -But, representation is uder the,
Consitution not. only expre.-t:ly recogiii
zed as n right, but is imposed as a duty
and it is essential inl hoth respec;s to the
existence of I ie Governmnn. tid to the
manuinanco of its atithoritv. Inl' Iiee
Governments findamental nnd essential
rigahts cannot be forfeiied, exeopt agaI st,
individuals by the process of' ]:iw; nor
can constitutional duites and obligations
be discarded and laid iaide. The en
joyment of rights may be for the limi
suspended by Lite failure to claim them,
nnd duties may be evaded by the refusal t
to perform them. 'Ihie withdrawal of (
their members front Congress by the t
States which resisted the General Gfov- t
ernment was among their acis of insur- C
rection - was one of the means andl ien- e
cies by which they oight to impair lie I
aurhorit and defeat the notion of ihie
Goucrrnent ; and that act was annulled o
and rendered void when the insurrection t
itself was suppressed Neither the right c
of representation nur the duty to be rep- 1
resented wats in thie least impaired by
the fact of insurrection ; but -it mny have t
boon that by reason of the insurrection t
the conditions on which thie enjoytment
of that right and the performance of that
duty for the lime depended could not be I
fulfilled. This wns, in fact, the caso. I
An insurgent power, in the exercise of f
the usurped and unia wful autlhority in i
the territory under its control, had pr'o- I
hibited that allegiance to the Constitu- I
tion and la ws of t~ho United Sl ates which t
is made by that fuindamenial law thio (
essential condition of represen tat ion in
its Government. No mnn wvithnin the I
insurgent States was allowed to take i.
the oath to support thin Constitution of <
the United States, and, as a necessary<
consequencen, n10 man can lawfully rep. j
resent those States in the councils of th' 1:
Uinion. B1ut this was only an obstacle Ic
to tho emnployment of the right and to 1f
the discharge of a duty-it did not annul t
the one nor abrogate the other ; and it '
ceased to exist when the usurpation by '
which it was created had been over- C
thrown, anid the States hind again re- (
sumied their allegiance to the Constitu- f
tion of the United States.
Second :But it is assorted, in sup- ~
port of the authority claimed by thne f
Congress now in possession of power,
that it flo'ws directly fronm the lawvs of t
wvar; that it is among the rights which I
victorious war always confers upon the I
coniquerors, anid .which thio conqjueror ~
may exorcise or waive in his own dis- t
crction. To this we reply that the laws 1
in) ques9tioni relate solely, so far as the t
rights they -confer nrc concevned, to '
wvars wagedl between alien and indepen
dent nations, and' cani have no place or
force, in this regard, in a war waged by ~
a government to siuppress an insurrec- ~
tion of :its own people, upon its owvn I
soil,- against its iauthority. If we had (
caliried en successful wvar against any
foreignt natnon,. we might thereby have
acquired possi54ioni and jurisdiction over' I
the Boil of the Southern States, limtit
0(d only by our own Conistitution.
Q ur laws -wore the nlly national laws
in force' upon it.- 'Tho Government of
the United States was the only Gov- I
ernmnent; through wvhich those Stiteos I
and their people had relations with i
foreign. nations, andgits flag was thle
-only flag by 'which theoy were recog
nizpd-or known anywhere on the face
of'the earth, Itn all; .thse respects,
and iti all other respects involving na-1
tional interests aind rights, our posses
*ainn wns nori'aot and complnte. It did jI
-~ ~~ I nVOCOWLI
(if thie United Statc...
2. Thnt, so lio . s hi neb. ar1
thsie of loyalty--) lIo)n. (!. h m
forml in aill thei r p alall co;MeI lu
)%,(uirtements li<i ,X tho( .Co , ion:
lawe- we ha=0 101 oe.<
thei conformlit.y'n a nio
nud opinions to our ti
3. That ve havi o it : t 6 i -
trut tie purpos-e (itr 1e'ail ,'
pI'ole of tie Union to pr M rL VA -
feuid, under all contiankai,; nod by
whatever mencis imy 1 rquOrd, ik
honor and its wol'are.
Theso would, In our judgment, be
full nnd conclusive iuswvr to ho plea.
thus advaneed for the e:.:2lusion of
thesc States froiml (lie Union. . tlt,t we
say further, that Ilhis pleo rest iuon a
(omlpleto 0 misa pprehensloion or nit unll
just perversion of exisiiug facts.
ru:iIo IN 'ru:1C SOtCIt.
We (o not. he:sitaito l alim tha MIere i,
io seuction of fhe country where the Cont'i
tution and lawi of the 1itv id Sta? es !ind a
more proitpt, and entire oLdienee than in
t'.o8e States nd among th.' people who
were lately in armt'zis lga'mt. th m ; fi1' wilerec
there is less pur)pose or dan4ger of any t'u
tt- fitr atmpt. to overthlrow their autority.
It w 1ould meemy to bie both iatural ndul inevi
abl that in Htates and sectiong co recently
siept by the whlin'!"d of war, where till
the ordinary :1desan ff1e lhods of organi
zed insr have been334 broken 1p, andt ihe
bonds and ilitl'c'in 4 that g~luarallte c ial
order have bveen doyed- where thon
Sands anil tow n t' l hou: aanduj of turlblent
prilt-is have bfil een stw3 en i ly loo' ed fromt I11he1
diFciplino of war, :4id thirown without re
Sonreei or rest ei:;at tipon at d. ,anited and i
ch1wtelie "tociety, a.d whiere the leen nsCel!,
of dere3:tt is wh1 I(o Ihe OVerhrow 1' 1mb111i
1ion and lope.?, en ofvioleiec shoulld
Ilefy for a ti:nle theC imeyrofect dis(cipline( of
law, and excito anew kh fe:.1.s attIl Iot)rio
dings of the, pa1 Ihio ril wiell di.,posed. It
isunqu--st: bly I tI e tht:1. IOc d1 dii u'
hances of this MinL. anampanied by nioro
or lenvioletce, o Will 0oef:. itt they
are conl1 Itie,! 1ire( y t il he 1i3i ns la rge.
townW t' (1ie :the t a atc4, whove differ
enth races atd ol :vre.!N nre b:ouvsiht, muostI
Aloly in cont'nt, :1whore pt A n:ior: and I
resen3tmenis are :3way m t e:n-ily led anid
l'i:inedinto ontbreak :m,d eAVnC thevre. they
a13 416i.3 a'1 in0 I 11, fridij (f 4nti iely and
141411 ir til 1ielitieal agii.it , :as 33f y lfostil-i
ty ll the part of the people to 1111k.e tlth i -
ty of, Ithe' Naiom Government.
JIM. 11ih conUTen i1 mIony ol Whose
bem!t acquaited with te condition of socie
ty and tie state of public ienttient in the
South1--inchiding that of its ereetaie
in this Iyvnin ettlg e lhe f. t int
thle g 1t4assor the SotlhlerI apl n
cop. with as full an~d sincere vubmnission na
dot) 1 th people of the otiera Slales, the re
etab1lishied1 suprcmlacy of the naltinal au
t hority, land are prlmi'red, inl tihe molast loyal
tipirit, and with at v-l ichened alike lef
their interest and 1li prle tc-operate
w'ith other Stat" f3 l -r'ction in4 whitever
may bM neCe-:a'y 1 dWWeI e IMhS,
miaintI1a in the honor 1 anid promiote 3 the welfareo
oW Our common commnCuntry. Ili.ory alfl'ord
10 instant!e! where ia 1,6le, P.) powelrfuil in
numllbers, in re-Sources anud in plublicspirit,
a f er a war vo long in its dulrationl, o de
Structive,in its progress, and soadvCrsC ill
its issue, have necelted defeat and13 its Cona
sequences with so nuch of good faith as
hIas malked he conuct, of I te peo 1 lato
ly in insurrection a4gainst the Unilted
81lale0s. Be03ontd all question this has been
ir;ey due to ithe wie generosily with
wihtheir enforced surrendeor was eet
ed by the l'rein o' the United Statesj
and the generils inl immtillediate comnanii4d o'
thei r arillies, Itand to Ile liiera1 tlleaslres
which were afterward 1taken to re. iore or
der, itralquility 11nd4 .aw to Ithe Sta le0 whe
Al1 had lor the i 1beH etlh r' s. No
teps could have bee1nc- beIler cal cited to
comlu-ud thle req~pect, win Ohe confidea.ce,
revive the pa rii m,: and e,: Ile t pelri a
4n4t and affectionato 1allegiate o4i th pu
pl0 of the outt h to I he (Conlsl i 4it0 1a11fnd
ilaiws of thke Union, tha1 Ihos. whic he1
pelld by tle Pr4i-land 04' She Unied
have beentine impaired ;4313' 1 it' thel people~k of
11h1 Soul~th~ are' 10-1h1y less cordiat31 in th 1irV
alle4gianco 1than4 the~ly we'41 4 14imediaelyi
upon04 the close of thle war.' 1w1 believe34 iI is9
ducto ( the changed3C' tone of1 the lei--~1.4 ivo.
deparlitmtet. of the11. Gener'.t G'overn314nenft to.
ward'l tem; to the~ actionl by' wthieb' Congre4':s
htasi endeavtlored to supphmt11I and4. defeat the43(
lest oraftion1 ; to their e xclusionI from4 all
par'ticiptiion inl 014r common10 governmen4.t.;
to the withdrawal fr'omi them1 of rightI con13
ferredl and gu.aran~teed by the (Const itut ion,
and4. to0 the eIviden11it'pose of Congreu' , tn
the exercise of a1 usurped'1~( and1 141 u law 1111au
1tority, to reduce thomot fronim tho rank of
fr'ee and equal muember's of a reopublic of
Statle, wviith Iights and1)1 digiii les un11impair14
od, 14) the contdition Of conq4ueredl pro4vincts5
and1( a con~q'uered01 people, in anil tings sub
ordito 1 and1 411sutlbject, to tho will of teir cont
querlorst, free only to obey laws in mfakinig
wyhichl tey aVO 1not, allo0wed 14 1314ha1e.
No peop1)1 has everI yet exilted whoso
loyailty and11 faithil such treal mient, long cott
I 11. innd ould~ not alienato1 and1 impal~ir'. A wt4
thtow mo illionas of Amicans3413 who live int
limo Soulk would 1h0 unlworthIy citizens13 of' a
fe'co coutry, dlOgeneratei son 318Of anly her'oio
alncestry, unfit ever31 to b~ecomno guar31dians of
Sthe igh~t~s and liberties4 herptIthed4i311 t u by
the fath4e'r and4 f'outnders of thiis Reopublic,
If they 001uld necept, with uncomp111lainin11g
submtlissiveness4, te hm4niljitins 111. hui oughlt
to ho imposed iupotn thorn. Rtesoiumont, of'
injustico is always andt oeriywhoe e essetn
tial to freedom ; 31nd1 41h0 spirit wlhch promnpt s
Ithe Slateos and peopio lately 14n inlsul3Clt ion,
but in11ur1gonIs ntow no 1on;.;er, to pro'test,
against, the impositi of uujtust and de-.
gr'adhing condlit ions, make~s 11hem) all te mioreO
woithy to share in the gover'nment. of a
frecom1)monwealhI, and14 gives still firmer
assu~lranice of theo ftuturo power' and1 frecdomn
of' theo Repuli. F or whatiever responsi
bilit~y the Southierni peoplo tmay haive in1cur
recd mn resisting 1.10ho1 auhorily of 1140 Nations13
al Clovernment. and in taking iuptarms for 1it
ovethroW, the~y may ho hol to answer, as5
individuals, befoo ithe judicial tibuna1lf of
tho latnd, and for that11 oor~duct, as8 soc10ieis
an1d organizeod communiltitics, thoy havo al
readly paid11 the most. fearful poilalties 11ha11
can fatll on offeniding States in theo lossesi,
(lie snifterings and hulmiliathlous of unsco
cssful 'war. unt whatever may be theo
guiIltor the punlishmllont, of the conscious an.
ALhors of the insurrect ion,. candor and com..
3mon1 justlee demand thte concession 1that tho
great mass3 of those .#ho b60ca'me involved in
its r'espons4ibility~ hetedapon what (hey be
lieved to 1)0 thtear'duby, in defunoo 0of what.
they had ben ta1uit to believe their righits.
iot need to bo acquired, but only to
so maintained ; and victorious 'war
igalhist the rebellion could do nothing
-lore t1han miintain it. It couM (ly
riidi en te aund roe-.stablish the dipi..
A spreumacy of the Constitution. It
oul neither enlarge or diiiiiish the
nuthority wlich that Constitution
rou!crs upon the cnl a rgemaent or
0bridgient of constitutiomdal powelr
tn be effected only by a'.mendient. of
ie Constitution itself; and iuclh
'ilendi ent can be madO only in the
idodos which the Constitution itielf
4escribs. The claim that the sup
+Cs.4ion of an insurrection against the
overnmnt gives Idditional authoii
t and power to that Governientes
lcially that it enlarges the jurisdic
n of Congress a11nd gives that body
11 right to exclitde Sta es from repre
I1tittion in the national councils,
qtloult which tlie nation itself cal
o10 o authority and to existeice,
'Bins to be Pt. Narlinco Iliko with QIr
[jinciple o: t he Comstitution aid
Athl 1'lblic m y
W'ind : ITSat1 is allgod that, in eer
nI., ui'ia's Ilie Coist it ut.ion of
he United St ate's fiails to secu re ihlai t
I.lite judtice andl imupartial erIpidi
y whith ithe principles of our (Govern
i tr 1 iiqire ; that it. was inl these
impes the result of compromnises mid
onmsosto whie-1b owever ne(ceSsa..
. wha the Const itution was formied,
ve are i.> l'.nger coimpelled to sibiit,
mIld fi t, now having the power though
*occessfuml war and just warrant oIr its
,xreise in the hostilo conduct of the
isurgent smetion, the antuna G overn
ncnt of the United States may iipose
ts own cond(ition1s, and mnke the Con
*tit ulion coilfori to all its provisions,
) its ideals of cquality and then rights
X m11:1an. Congress it its last sessiou
>rim)sed amendments to the Constit-l
ion, nlging in some very impolirtait
mrticulars the a uthority of tt Geno
l overnielint over that. of tle 'ye
21 >'tes, C nd r111eduingl: by indlirect.
i. rall I IcIIIse IincIIt tile I'p V I ntIrIVe
loer of thu Stiates inl whih sInvery
Irmiierly exi sted ;and it is claiimed
hat these amelindmnlt'i maly be ml.ade
alid as paris of the originlonstitn.
ioni withouj the concurrence of the
?tv to leig genuly~l affected by
tengl (or miay bc npoe uplon those
tes by thre-fIrtlIhs of' the remilnloi
ig States, a( colo4itions of t hese read
aission to represent at ion in Congress
ud in tile Electoral College.
It is the un nestionalc riail of tle
t;ple of the Llited S:*,tate to mlilke
uehhanges in the Constitution as
hey, up1on11 dIl(ue deliberation, may
cemi expedient. But we inlisist tlnt
hey shall be made in the mode which
lie Consti till ioln itself points out-in
onformiity with the letter anid the
pirit of that instrumient, and with thie(
rinii.ples of sel f-govem ilelt o11id of
ptal rights which lie at the basis of
ur repilicani inst it ions. W We delIy
he right of Congress to ma1uike theC
halnges in the fuadaineital law, with
at the clncurrence cif threc-fourtls of
11 the States, inluing elieally
hose to be imiost seriolsly aIffected by
heni ; or to impose them upon States
r people, as cond itionS of represelt a
ion, or of adMission to :my of the
ights, duties or obligations which be
olng, under the Constitution, to All the
it;ates adike. And with greator cmi
>iasis do we deny the right of any
ortion of the States excludilg the
est of the Staites from any share in
heir councils, to priopose or san~ctionI
hanges in the Constitution whliebl arie
o affect petrImnently their' polit ical re
ationis and1( conitrol, or coerce thec le
itimiate action of the several membhers
C thme common Union. Such an exer
iso of power is simply an usurpat ion;
iist as unwarlranltabloe n e~lm xer'cised
y Northern States as it would be if
xercised b~y Southern, and not to be.
>riitied or palliated by anlytinlg inl
he past history either of those by
rhom it Is attempted or of those upon
dhose rights aind liberties it is to tako.
fleet. 'It, fids no0 wa'rranlt ini the
!onstitutlion. it, is at war with the
unldamiental piiplels of out' forme of
'overnlimela. If tolerated ini One in
tance, it b~ecomens the procedent for
iiturie invionsil of Iliberty anud cionsti
uitional right, depenident solely upon
he will of the party in possession of
ower', antd thuls leadls, buy direct and
cees~ar'y sequence, to the most fa tal
ndl inltolerallo of all tyrannies-the
y'ranny of shifting and irresponsible
olitical factions. It is against this,
he most, formidable of all the dangers
rhich mniace the stability of free
overnmuent, that the Constitution of
lhe United States wvas intended most
arefnlly to provido. We demand a
triet and steadfast adherence to its
Irovisions. In this, and in this alone
1a1 we find a basis of permanent Union
und peao.t~
iFourth : ut it is alleged, in justi
coation of the usuirpnltioni which weo
onden, that the condition of the
touthern States aind peole is not such
a renders safe their reiadmission to a
hare in the Governuschit of the coun
ry ; that they are still disloyal in eon
inrent and purpose, and that neither
he hontor and oredit nor the interest
if a nation would be safe if they wore
oadmitted to a'share in its councils.
Noe might reply to this:
l, That we have no right, for such
'asons to deny to any portion of the
;tates or people rights ox >rossly cont
'rred unon thmn hv the Gmiisitutionm
l'e ani t s' a naiodr I-r I'errIclno as; lnav
b--een Ohe 1,0no vimeu's ued Ihe of
hO t: 1 -, Ith y lc i lt04 iexch ily' uponl
I ~ ki(Us !. ti O en , . I . i id, w ri Y t
ge~ ~ ~ ~~ ~ol 1% "w; I. p'steo ii wh' h
t it oilui 'iI l l. IaIiut'l III
the , I.ihdo l Ueti o f I - i I
Ihn ow o polis lni, commi e v; uti inu, n ar
inl II i d c llnee, in tvy ,h e atn h ia a Yich
g1reat eti-itc tr a n -- te m S
and pljldeo'p whib eall Clin oe in"
yt cno t t hie I ovi e (tQ;ln'1 ofotIhe
htve siere tetil tcre ihau thottwh
i enained in allegiate i O it Contit tin
and Ilaw.3.
These considrit lilon 1ny nohA, ns they
Cerilainly It) no, jusi'y thle action of the
lope othe instirgcu Wtao e e4 ;jut no just or
tenerou., iind viii vrfue to the, a very
cosieabeweight 'n (0 determin11in,';h lie t
oeconduct which he l t olver nt of the
Unit ed S~al es should purano (oward them.
They accepit, it' not iilit iiatlacrilty, cer'.ain
lv without sullen resentmen g1: t, thie defeat,
111nd ove 'ilow they have tusained. Toof
achnowledge ut a1qui'eu. in ite resuils,
lo 1hemselver, and the cotuntry, which de
feat iavolve.n They no l onicla any
tae the right, iosecede frio te Union;
Iheo l n r assert for any btlaio nai ulo
g' incoeii palramount. to hat whchis ofe to'
the Gueneral Government. They have lio
cel ed Ihoe de-staic ioln of slavery, abolished
it by their aicahI Cost.idutionc, and concur
of whyN h n tie and PeO rof h whole
U nioin in pr-ohi iiing itsi exist once foreverP
1po Cth1Ile 'Oil t o wnhia the ju diction of
'hte Union d iandes. Theyimet eonild evince
I heirv pupoat jiu -;t :w ti lnv umy11 b posi
Ibeand Pae tlo adipt iher domesa tilaws o
the etaged ocadiin of their socioy, and
I oa eiuo by tle law and its tributids equal
ndA imnilia jsicto Ci, to all classes of their
inhbabilantsj. They adimit (ihe invalidit: of
al1 at of- resistanlco (honatiounalauthori
y, and of all dts incured atll lwmpting
its oVUi bow.They atvow, their illiigness'
In iohare ihe burdens oran. dinchargo Uh du
ues and blig ons it which rest upon ten,
in conon WWI ofthoter Shates and secions
'ol' th Union ; a d they renow, Ithrough their
representativosj in thisi Convention, bhy all
their public conduct in every wvay, and by
the most solemui actsj by which States aind
Jiocieties C.a icIldge their waith, their on
bgagtement to boar rUCI fclih and allegiance,
through ill otie to comthe t01Constitution.
of lie Unit'ed Statw a hind ( all laws that
may be nade in pursuanet ce thereof
oieiiac~ to t Lit l)0 It OK OV ICESTORN
Fellow-siountrvymlen, We. call uponl.you, in
uInIt reliance uof your inteligenc and your
ipatriottim to at iUc.:t, with generous and
nguitngt ontidene, this full surrenider
on tihe lpat of t bose laaoly in arms against
your authority, id to share with them the
honor nd reo inown tnat vwat thoo who
bring back i ea to and coneord to jurdig
aiteks. The war just, Closed, with all1 its
sorrow..! -nud disatlers, hias .-ened-n new
Career of glory to file nation it has Saved.
1t has swept away the hosillifies of Senti
mn e aind of inerest which were it standing
mr eiac hito its peneo. t has destroyed 110i
instit, by o of slavery, always a inuse of
Sectional i la striie, and ha1 open
te for our counry thke way to unity, of in
terest, of principle, and ofaction through
all ltme to comlo, It has- developed in bot.
sectionsa moiltary capacity-ain apiiudo
for achiovements of war, both by seaand
laild-beor unknown even to ourt'elves,
la dsal tiiedlo exercise hlcre'tr, un1der.
tunit ed coullo'e, tn imporlt in o'c npo n
the haricir an deinyof thle Continent
and the world. And whilo it has thus re
vealed, disciplitied and comipacted. our p-ow
lr it haS proved to u beond conttoverl y
or dolt, by Ithe cottiae pursued toward
both contenilu sections by foheign powers,
that we mu.,:(1t h(lthe guiardians of ou t on-1
disependence, aind that t h principle; of
rvpublicani freloi wYC .0p11rest cane0 fiond
a1imong tie0 nations of tIS earh no ilenld
or ' defeders bill. ourselves..
iie cll upon yu, theore. by ev'
fonstIlder 1$an biationsoyorownd '~ nli sPe
ryid Cvi'niti netitm th~.'011 nd
teiotian pehiee which11Wi the t ill enot'
fcn'ited shape, thas si war ft'oua whtt e
ieoby the ' ert prevent . l':ie am ri~ieur
Te0 fitie 'is cfl i, L. 'a~ Clintu r. Wl'
c aw1)1 Conlel, are 41' boeteleced iha
trCofa'ecr e dito.perpeue th politnud
biy acludngloial Itirie and eple frctomiv
ihe ustu-palion byl~ which'i'ho liifegitveo po.
er the Govcii'enmehotny aro nowti echd
commo, n thoece~s copl ust powe nicponr'
ni~ugmetd dillconet a uen i'cuhrdrawaIt
ifriom the C nd olition of the Feltd
ril GovrnmentI,' indtenan lossnsion n
ail hea ollii ono sentimt.ts nd preg
tenstonb tse who reow,'in Ia silvmro
fearlinshpith ciilc oaf ferme which w
bac live jut elmovgd. Wo callpny t o111
int etine yourpowe tio event the rfiecr
ronce of soe'tennscndo n alte Stlatesl aWe l
call ponyou sinje toyty onesional Dis-..
lrio s cry Ste, o secue o erlec (ion'of
mayt charateriz i hei'ial sprto, wihl
union r'iotvr rcingItlho )n 0 EVittY o
1sTAora ~hs '(nlieNT ctiI'liEsot Tofo.l
I on'toy n the erctio of ouwrconfero
red upon irte CqotPIinin~,-ohv
Wien .thsshll haveh behendon,uo'
inrtyCII~ te] Contitu if j~itedOUnilted
ein .nton comoed of sopcnh )aratcStte
eac lkeitslf mvig i Aditint ndin

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