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VOL. l.] WINNSBORO, S. C., WEDNESDAY MORNING, DECEMBER 11, 1867. [NO. 2
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"Father, where Is our Jamie to night
Jamio so bold and gay ?
The twilight shadows, are falling now,
Why does he stay away Y
Janile is handsome and manly too,
And he will be good and great;
But, Father, why is our darling boy
A-staying away to late ?"
"Our noble boy is a child no more,
lie has grown to man's estate ;.
He has gone a courting Minnie Gray,
The reason he stays so late;
For her golden hair and eyes of blue
flave stolen his heart away,
And he goes in the holy twilight, hour
A-wooing sweet Mlinnie Gray."
"Why does the maiden lure him away,
Now we are growing so old ?
And we have shielded him all his life,
Our love has never- grown cold;
The mald can never love him as we
Have loved him all his years,
Who have led him along the path of life,
Sharig his smiles and tears."
uil, N0l, remember long years ago,
%t))en I wos 1:1 ndsome and gay,
And you a umiden so fair and sweet,
That youl stole my heart away,
I had a tather old and gray,
And a mo'thier kind and Iruo.
Who loved tme ,ondly ill my lit
But my heart went out to you."
A blush crept over her withered cheek,
ller eyes 4hione clear and mild ;
No lunger she chided the lovely maid
For winning away her child;
She thought of the long ago, when she
Stood close by her lover's side
Iln the little church, and the man of God
Made her a happy bride.
President of the Unted States
To the Two Houses of Congress at the
Commencement of the Regular Sea
sion of the Fortieth Oongress.
Fellow-Ciizens of the Senate and House of
NO UNION NXISTS.
The continued disorganization of the
Unio to thich the President has so often
called tile attention of Congress is yet. a
sutbjec. of profouindi and patriotic concern.
We may, hIwever, find some reliel' from tit
anxiety tu the reflection that tile pmitful
political sittation. lt1hough b0e'o utrie1
by ourselves, is not tiew itn the experience
of nations. Polit ical science, PerhapiIts 1s
highly perfected in our own time and cont -
try as in any other, has not. yet di-wlosed
any means by which civil wrt's canl le
absolu-,iAy prevented. Al enilightenled na
lion, hiwever, wnhii a wise and1 blteniceit
Consitution of free government, nu-ty di
ninish their freqi:ency and mitigate their
fqverity by directing all its proceedings
in accordance with its fundamental law.
When a civil war has been brought to. a
elose, it ;s manifestly the first m inerest. and
duty of the Stato to repair the injuries
wliolh the war has inflicted, and to secure
the benefit of the lessons it teaches as fully
and as speedily as possible. This duty
was, upon the termination. of the rebellion,
promiptly accepted, not ontly by the Execu,
tive Departmient, but by the insurrectionary
States thmIerselves, nnd( restoration, int theo
first mhomient of peace, was believed to ho0 0s
easy and1( eertain as it. was itndisrensable.
Theo expectations, however, thten so treasona
lbly and conlidently entertainod, were dis
tappointed by legislation frotn wvhi:-h I fr-lt.
constrained, by my obligaiionts to tile Con
stitution, to withhohl miy as-tnit.
it is therefore a soturee of profouind re
gret, that, in eomlplyinlg with the obligation
imposed upon the President b~y tile Consti
tution, to give to-(Thngress froma time to
time information of time state of tihe Union,
I am unable to commutincaste any definite
adjustment, satisfactory to the Anmerican
people, of the questions whichl, since the
close of the re bell ion, have agitated the
public mind. On the contrary, candor
compels me to declare thlat at this time
there is no Union as ottr fathers under
stood theo term, and as thley meant it to be
understood by tus. The Utnion which they
establlihed can exIst only where all the
StaJe re represented in both Houses of
(l., s; where ono Stalo isas free as
another to '_reg'ilate its interntal cncerns
according to~ite own willl and whlere thte
lawvs of the central government, strietly
con lned lo matters of national junrisuhiution,
apply wkth equal force to all the peoplo of
every section. That such is not, the present
"state of tite Union" Is a meltacholy fact ;
tnd we alt muist acknowledge t~hat the
restoration of the States to their proper
gegal relations with the Federal Govern
.mnand wit a one another, accordling to
the groatest blessig whion~ God, In his
nation it becomes our Imporativo duty to
,consider whleter or act it is impossible to
,.ffect this mtost desirable consummation,
r ats UNION A ND oO.NSTIT UTION INS5 PA nADn ,N.
*?rhe Union and the Constitutlon are
inseparablo. tMa long as one is oboyecd by
,il parties, the other will be preserved, and
if one is destroyed both nmst, perish togeth.i
pr. The destruction of the Constituion
will be followed by other and still greater
calamitIes. It War ordaIned niot onliy to
form a more' geffect union betweon the
St ates, but to. "estahh jsstioe, insure do.
miestle tranquIlity, prov i. foe the common
defence, promote the genral welftare, and
-nsor the blessings oflberty to ourselves
pdour posterity." Nothing but inplicit
shedience to its requirement, i14 #11 ptarts oif
eb country will accom hish these great.
pn4e, Without that ol lene, we can lo
o th toal osakneotss, fpnoseiy,
fin-l extinction or popular freodom. To
save our country frout evils so appalling
as these, we shjould renew our efforts again
VoNsITUT1o:AL 1tEUCoNs'ritUCTioN A DUTY.
'la% me the process of restoration seeims
pet'eCtly plain an11d "itmple. It Conisists
melCI'ly inl It flititful atpplicatio of' the in
Constitution aind laws. Theexecution of
tlie lit ws is not nowy obst rumet el vr iprosed by
ihlysia.l oriCe. There is no1) iUtary or
Iaer nrecesi.y, reatl or prel d, whichi
Canl prevent obedience to ith 'Ilsiitition,
cither Nortit or Soniuh All the rights and
aill the obligation< ft St ates timid immnlividuamls
can he protectel and1.1 enlforcel by imeanmms
porfectly consistent, with the fitaninalt iii
law. Time courts miny be every where opni,
and, if open, their process would be imimu
peded. Crimes Against th United States
caln be prevented or piunished by tihe proper
judicial authorities, lit t manner (-ntirely
practicable and legal. There is, thereforo,
no reasiion why tihe Constitution Should not.
be obeyed. unless thoso who ex3mrcise it.
powers have determined that it shall be
disregarded and violate 1. Time more naked
will of' this Government, or of some one or
more of its brancles, is lho only obstacle
that cain exist to a perfect nnion of all the
On this momentous question, and some
ot(lie measmres growing out of it, I have
had tie misfortune to dill'or from Congross.
and have expressed my conviotiomis without
reserve, though with becomaihg defernce to
the opiniou of the Legislative Deeprtmont..
Those convictions are not only unchanged.
but strengthened by stibsequetui events and
further retlertion. Tie tranm'cendent i
portanc of tie subject. will be a suificent
excue for calling your attemntion to sotme of
the reasons whicmh have so strongly intiu.
enced my oivn judgment. Tihe hope tiaxt
we inmay lI0 mially concur in a mode of
settlemeni, consistent at Once with otir
true imtRests and with our sworn duties to
the Const'.mition, is too natural amid too jttst
to be easily relhnquished.
It is clear to miy approbension that tie
States lately in rebellion are still members
or tie National Union. When dlidi they
cease to be so ? Time "ordinances of seces
sion," adopied by a portion (in most of
tieni a very smal portion) of their citizens,
were mere nullities. If we admit now that
they were valid and elfeotual for time pur
pose intended by their authors, we sweep
fromt under our feet the whole ground upon
which we justified tie war. Wore those
Sttes afterwards oxpelled from tie Union
by time war ? Time direct contrary v:as
averred by this Govermnenmt. to be. its lpt
pose, mind was so understood by mill those
who gave their blood amid treasire to aid
ini its prosecution. It 0:at1ot, be taiut a
succesrul war, waged for tihe preservation
of tie Union, had tie legal <.'fact of dissolv
ing it. Tie victory of tie nation's arms
was not time disgrace of her policy ; tie
defeat of secession on the battle field was
not the triumlith of its Imwless priciples -
Nor could Congress, with or' without. hlie
consent of tihe Executivedo anything which
would have time effect, directly or indirectly,
ofseparating tite States from each other.
To dissolve time Union is to repeal time Com
sittion whicktholds it together,and that is
a power which does not belonmg to any
department of this Government, or to all of
'iis s so pinin that it iias imeen acknow-,
ledged by all branlices of lhe Federal Gov.
ornmient. The Execuitive (my predecessor'
as well is myself) and the heads of all time
Departments have uniformly acted upon the
principle that tihe Union is nvot only imulis
solved, bmit indissol-)blo. Congress sub
miiittd il an amendilment of tie Constitution to
be ratitied by tie Somitiern States, and
acicep1tie-d their a1ts of ratification as a neo.
essary and lawful exercise of their highest.
function. If they were not Stntes, or were
States out of the Union, their consont to a
chamngo in the fundamental law of tihe Union
would have been nugatory, and Conigress.
in asking it. comminitted a political absurdi..
ty. Time Judiciary has Milso given the sol.
oein sanction of itsautlhority of ime samine
view of ile case. The jutdges of tha Su.
preme Court havo included the Scuithrn
States in their circuits, anid the'y aoV co-i
stanitly, in banmuc andm elseowhere, exei'cisinig
JurisdlictIion which does not be'lonmg to thIemo,
uness ihoso- States am'o Statles of m lie Uni
If the Southmerni Statos areu co-mponent
lpmits of thme Unioni, thle Conistitumt ion is thte
siupr'emm law~ for thmm, am it 1im forial the
o ther' Sinmtes. Th1ey aro' cound to obey it.
andut so are wen, Thei~ righnt of limo Feherml
Gomvernmment, whmichm is clearl antd tmnqtut
tiomnale, to emfnfoce time Conmst i itt in ttponm
themm, Iiplies time corrmemlativ obln it.ig;ttin omn
ourm par't to observ.e its limit-t rius anid exo
emute its guamranmties. Wit hut. mime Constitu-i
tionm we are nothtinmg; by, throuomghm, timd
unmdor the Comistitution we mre wiat it taakes
us. We mamy doiubt thme wisdom of lime law,
we mnay aot approve of its pirovisions, but1.
wvo catnnot violate it muerely occauise it
seems to confine our powers witini hirmits
mnarmower titan we cotuld wvishl. It is not a
questiomn ot inidividuail, or class, or sectional
imntorost, amuchl less of party pmredomintancee,
but of duty--ofhighm amnd muacd duty.-.
wihel we are all swornm to per'for'mm. 1t we
eannot support, time Constitution with lime
eimeom.fuil alacrity of thmose whvio love amid
believe in it, we mutst give to it at lonet. tihe
fidelity of pulio servanits who act, utnder
solemnim obigations aind commoatnds whmich
they dare not disregard.
OONOunP.es5ONALa PLEDOES iniRUDfATPD.
The constittional diuty is not time only
00e which requtires thie Stato to he restor'ed.
There is atiotiher consideration 'which,
timough of minor imiportance, Is yet of
g.... weight. On time 22d day of Jmuly, 1801,
Congress deelmired, by almost untanimoums
vote if' bomth itlosos, that the wamr tshoulid be
conmducd solely for time piurpose of pro.
serving time Unioni, aind umalataining time su.
promacy omf ime Federal Constiitution and
laws, wni thout impauring time dignity, equali
ty, and rights of time States or of indivl
duals' and that when thuis was done, time
war shoutld cease. I do not say that this
deelaration Is gorsonally binding on those
who jlied i omhking it, any inorme than In.
dlvi dual members of Con'gross are person
ally bounrd to pay A publIon debt, created un
der' law fom' i11hle they voted. Dunt IL was a
soletnn, piublid, officha1:pledge of time nia
tional honor, and I cast L Imtglra upon
what grounds the repudiatIon of It, is to be
jutshtiod.- If it, be sak4..~t.at we are nmot
bomud -to keep faith vtflk re)%elu,- lt't it be
remembered that this 'proni de wa ' not
nalo to tebel4 only. Theti .nds ' of trei
moe in tie 86ith were drawnh (lur atnd.
ard by it, amidhunredi of tltisamnus in thi
North gace these liies in the belif'th.t' It
would be carried out. It was madfi ett the
day after the first great battle of time war
had been fotught and lost, All patriotic
andA intatelinmt. men thlen aw the naeehhltl
of giving such an aisurance, and believed
that without it. tihe war would endl in disur.
ter to our cause. Having given that assur.
01nnc in the extremity of our peril, the vio.
lailn of it now, in tle day of our power,
wouild he a rude rending of I liat good fail I
which holds the moral world toget her ; ui
counit.ry would cease to have itty clain upon
the contidence of 1t1in; it. would inake the
War n0t. only a failre but. It fraud.
ii~t)Ns'uUCTIoN ACTs UNCoNsTITUTIoNAL.
Being sincerely convinced tim. I I hiese
views are correct, I NA mid be unf to.hiid to
I ny dty it' I did nlot rec-ononend~ thle repeall
of the Acts of' Congress which place Ien if
tle 8o04hern States under (he doinination
of miilitary ima% i ers. 11 calim retleciion
shall satisfy a majority of your honiorable
bodies IItlt t0 Acts referred to are not only
a violat ion op the iional taithi, but in di -
reel conflict withli tile Constit:tion, l dlare
1101 permit iiyself o doi;bt ihnt you will
immediately strike them from tho statute
To demoustrate the iunoutitutional chur.
acter of those Acts, T iied du no more than
refer to their general provisionis. It mubt
be seen at once thalt they are not. authoriz.
ed. To dietate what alterations shall be
1mde in-tlie Constitut ions of tle several
States ; to control the elections of State IC
gislators and State .ollicors, members of
Congress and electors of President. nnl
Vice-President, by arbitratily declaring
whc shall vote and who shall be excluded
front that privilege; to dissolve State Legis,
latures or prevent them from asseniblitg:
to dismiss jidges anid other civil funtioin
aries of tle Stale, and appoint others with
out regard to State law ; to organize and
operat e all tile politic .! iachinery of file
Slates ; 4) regulate th whole administra
tioi of their donet ic and local alRit ac -
cord:ng to the ineie will of strange and ir
responsible agents, sent aniong them for
that purpose-these are powers iot grant
ed to the Federal Govc-;nent, or to any one
of its branches. Not. being granied, we
violatr our trust by assuming them as pal.
pably a1s ivo wol-I by nuting in the face of
a positive interdict ; for the Constitution
forbids is t4) do whtoever it does not allir
matively authorize either by express words
or by clear implicati ki. .f the iut hority
wo desire to use does not come to us t brough
tle Coititutliont, we can exercise it o.ly
by usurpation, and usitrpr-ion is the no-t
dangerous of political crines. 11y iit
orime, the enemies of free government in
nllages havo worked out their designs
against public liberty and private right. It
leads directly and iimli(liately to the c ah.
lihlnent. of absoiute rule ; for undelegated
power is always unlimit ed and unrest rain
The Acts of Congress in q-uIet ion are not
oily objectioiable for their ismmption of
utigranted powet, but inany of their pro
visions are in conflict with tlo direct pro
hibitions of tile Constitution. The Consti
tutlon connanis that-a llopublican form of
government. shall be guaranteed to ill the
States; 1li1t.hat o )orSOnI shal be deprived of
life, liberty or property without <tie pro
cess of law, arrested without ta fair trial be
foro an impartid jury; lint ti privilege
of habeas corpus shall not ihe denied in tiitne
of peace ; and ilat no bill of altaindershall
be pissed, eveni against a single iniohvilual.
Yet the systemi oh treasiures establishled. by
theqe Aces of Congress does totally subvert
And destroy tlie form, as well as the sub
stance of itepublican government in tle ten
States to which they apply. It binds them
hand ainl foot in aboolute slavory, and sub.
jects bheta to a strange and hostile power,
more unlimited and more likely to lie abused
than any other knowii amnong eivilizel men.
It tramples down all those rights in which
tle essonce of liberty consists, and which a
free government is always most. earefin to
protect.. It denios ihe habeas corpus and
Itho trial by jury. Personal freedom, pro
ptly, and life, if issailed by the passion,
the prejudlice or tle rapaciity of the ruler.
have mo see ny whatever. It has the efree t
of a hill of nittainider, or bill of imilns and
penalties, not upon a few individuals, btl
uipon whole masses, including tlie inillionis
who inhabit the subj.oct. States, and even
theip unborn chil4ren. Tso wrongs, be.
ing expressly forbiddeln, cannot be contstitl.
loonally itflcte uc opont any portiion of our
pmeopule, nto miatt en hows they may comte withI
in ourii jui dsiit ion, an inlio mtiter w ldhee
they live in States, Territories or 1)ist riots.
UN R E AsoN AuiLs PUNsitax ONT or TH SOuThf.
I hiave ino desire to save fromi the proper
antdjutsi consequences ottf heir great riet-uu
Ithocse wh-Io eingaged in rebellion agaitnst. the
Governmrenit lihit as a mnoie of puniishmte-.it
thle imiasures undern coinsiderat in art te
amt unireasonmable that could be itveted.
.\iny of those peopule atre perfectly inino
eenit :manuiy kep1t thtolr fidelity of thle Unilon
iinmtint ed to thle Inst ; tiany wsetcie.icapabile
of iany legal olfene: a large pro~port ion
eveii of the personsi able to beat- iarms, wore
fored into rebelliion against thieir will ; and
of those who are guilty withI thioirownt con
senit, the degrees of guilt are as variouts as
th le shaides of their chauracter anid temper.
But these Acts of Congress conifouind themi
all t oget hot ini onie conmnnon d->om. Indis
cr1Iiiate vengeance tiupon all classes, sects
and ptarties, oir upon whole commiunite, for
olfencees commit ted by a portion of them
against the governmneits to which they owed
obedience, was comminon itt the barbarous
ages of thie woild. it Chtristiatnity atnd
civilisation have mnade such progress thait
reeourse to puunishmrenit so cruel and tun.litt
would meet, wIth the eondemtnation ot all
unprajutdiousd and righit-ndinded mtetn. The
punitive just ice of this age, and especially
of this coutntry, does rntl. oonsistin siripping
whole At ates of their liberties, atnd reducinug
all their people without distinction, to the
convdithon of slavery, i. deals suiperately
withI enohi indivliual, confnes ltsntf to tihe
forms of law, and vIndIentes Its own purity
by ian impar-tial cs.uminationi of every Case
before a competenut judicIal tribunal. If
this does ntot satisfy all our~ desires witht re
gard to Southern rebels, let uts console outr
selves by reflecting that a ftree ConstItution,
triumphiant in war and unbroken in peace,
Is worth far miore to ts and our c hlren
than~ the gratification of any present fool
D~isPoTIsM EsvRR ItALTs.
I am awar~e It Is assutmed that this systeni
of governmenat for the Soutthern States Is
not to be perpetual. It is true, this 16111..
t ary govevnment Is to be ont'y prouislgnal,
but it Is through fthis temporary evil that ta
greater evil Is to be made perpetual. If the
guarantees of the OCnstitutilon can be bro
ken provisionally to servo- a femporary pur
poso,,and In a part only of the coutgry, 'pe
camn deetroy them everywhere and for all
time Arbitrary i6easures oftetn *hatige,
but they genrm71y change fdr.-the wore. It
is the curse of despotIsm that, I6 has ne
battIng place. The Inte#rmitled exercIse o1
its. power bring. nto settee of security to Its
subjeats fr (bo cha n never keno.. what
i401 Upon whic. he an. be adhmittod
to citizenship. I 1e must prove, in addi
dition, a good moral ebaracter, and tlius
give reisoniable groundiI for the belief
that lie will; be faitihful to tLe oldigations
which lie assumies as a cilizen of tho
Republic. Whero a people-tho source
of all political power speak by their suf.
frages, through the instrimientality of
the ballot box, it must be carefully
guarlied against tho control of those
who are corrupt in princi1.os and one
Imices of free institail ton, for it cm only
become to our political anl social sys
t em .s s fe conductcr o'f b'."nkhy popubr
se!tilnent, when kept fret! frtom demoriali.
zing infitellees. Cont ro 'l, iitroligh
fraud and uuripation, by the designiiing
anarely and dispolmin nmiBt inpivilably
follow. lit the hand of the patriotic
anid worthy, our Government will Ie
p eserved upon 11.0 priniciples of ie
Conuisl itatioin berited fron our fll hers.
It follows, therefmiue2 thit i'n aditLIing
to the balha box a new class of %?oters
not qiualified for the exercise of the ele-.
tive franchise, wo weaken our system
of government., in-stena.d of, adding to its
streigth and durability." "I yield to
no on1e inl atiachinent to that rule of gen.
eral suffrage wh:ch distiiguishies 0or
policy its a nation. Bi theroe is a lin,ii
wisely observed hiiher-to, whlieb1 m1dAI
the ballot. a pivilege ani3d a. trinwt, a1
which requires of some chrases; a I lii
suitablo for probation anil pr1epuration.
To give it indiscrimintely to at new
Class, wholly unprepared, by Irev iOuis
hbalts aid'oppertimilAie,. to perform the
trust which it ieminids, is to degrade it
and finally to dstray its pow( r; for it
may he safely assumed that iio political
truth is be'ter esta.nlished lin i that such
inidiscriminate and nillembriacin exi en.
sion of popular suffrage nist. id at in.1t
In its overthrow and destiuliomun.
TO A FitICANIZE TIL SOU Ht IS 1)ANi:Nt
I iepeath i expressn or Ily w iIl10n
Iess tojuini any plain within the scope of
our constitutiion a ihority which prtu:n
ises to better the conditioi of I he igro
in cle South by encouraginutg imaliolry,
enlightaening their miIbd', imp:iroving
their mornils, and giving protection 10
all their just rights as freedmen. 13u1tL
ithe transfer of on political. itheri Inee
to them would, in my opinion, he an
abandorment of a dulty which we owe
li'Q to the memory of our fathtl:'r i ind
the right of our children .
The plan of putting the Soiluherin
States wholly, and the Geineral Gove~rn
nelt, partially, iuto t ie s of Ile
groes, is proposed at a timlie. puilyailY
unpropitious. The foundolt ous of soie -
ty have been brokeni up by civil war.
Industry must be reorganized, justice
re-established,cpublic credit maintlied,
and order brought, out of confiusioi. To
acComplish these ends would require ill
the wisdom and virtue of thi great, imen
who formed our inistitutins originally.
I confidentlv believe that. their do.cend
ants will be equal to the atduiotitu task
before them, bit it is worse than imd
ness to expect that negroes wili perform
it f(or us. Certaiiilv we ought. iot to
ak their assist:nce until we despair of
Our own comp:te:cv.
The great diffurence botween the two
races in. physical. mental and mortal
characteristics will preven% an amalga
madon or fusion. of them together in one
homogeniious manas. If the inferior oh.
taiins the ascendancy over the other, it
will govern ithl reference only to its
iterests-for it will ;ecogmnie nto comn
mion interest--and create suich a tyran
niy as this continent has ne ver yaet wit
nessed. Alreatdy the negroes a inifli
enced by priomnisea of confiscation nand
tpluder. They are ttaught to regard as
an enemy every white man who hais
any) respect for his own race. If' thi.s
continues, it mulIst become wVor'si ai:dl
wvorse, until all oirder will be subverted,
Iall industry cease, and tihe fertile tieldls
(of then South erowv up into a wvihdorneuss
Of ail the dangers which our nattion hais
yet. encountere~d, none are equ~al to those
which must result from~ the sutccess of
the euffort no0w makinag to Africansizeo tho
half of our country.
EXt'ENOE OF~ NSXnnf G#ovEJNMENT.
I would not put ccensiderations of
money in competition with juistic eand
right. Bait thle expenses incident to
"reconst ruction"t under thin srstem
regard as thie intrinsmr wvrong of thin
mieasuiro itself. It hasu eost inucountedi
millions aliready, and if pitrsisted in will
aidd largely to lthe weight of' l~taation,
already 1oo utppris5vo to be bpoire
witlholt jawt. Comiplaiant. and l may fimaIOy
r'eduice 'ii TJreasuiry oh thbe natio to lai
condition of hbnkrulplcy. We umet not,
delude ounreelves. IL will irqairei a
st,-ong staanding armiy, ai. i' pr'oba~~y
more thian two iillioins of dollars per
annum, to mahinitaim t.be supremaoy of
uegro govternments aite~r they are estab
lihed Tho:sum timus thirown away
WOUkd, sitproperly usedi, firm a sinking
fund large 'enottgh to pay the~ whole
nationaT debtin less than g~fteen y earad
It4Wyalh' to h'ope that negroes will
mitisil their necendeincy themselves.
WVithout military pewer they are wholly
incapabile of holding in subjctlon. thje
white people of the South.
THE I(>NR AND INTEREIST OF 'TtIE
I eulimiL to thei jitilmont~ of Congress
whtetheer da publio mmy not -be injuari
busly e~a4by a system of measures
bika this '4Vth onr dabt anid the 's ast
more they will be called upon to endure
when its red righL hatid is armed to plague
them again. Nor is it possitile to conjeo.
turn how or where power. iurestrained by
law may seek its niext victims. The States
lhat are still 'ree imay be enslaved a' any
tonent ; for it' the Constitution. does not
protect all, it proteols nonek
It is manifestly and avowe'dly the object.
of these laws to confer upon negroes the
privilege of votinig, and to disfranchise
such at nuiher of white cit izeis n will. Kive
tie former a clea-r miajorily at. all elect ions
inl the Sout0ern States. Thia, to the minds
of' some persons. is so importit inat a vio
htion ot' the Comst itution is juist i liable its a
mneans ol' brinlgi ng it about. The morality
is always falso which excusen1 t wrongi he
Cinnise it proposes to accomplisha a tiirah.!e
entd. We are not. per icitil to (1o evil thiat,
gool may come. But in this case the emd
itselt' is evil, as well its tlhe means. The
subiugation of the states to negro ('mina.
li-m wV ulil be worso than the military des.
poliiit mu d re which I icy are now siffering.
It was believed before-h:and that the pLop1le
would endure any amount oT military op.
pression, for any length of titme, rather
thani dtegrado themselves by subjection to
the negro raco. Therefore, they have been
left withunt a choice. Negro suffrarn was
eslablislied by Act of Congress, :d lie
military oflicers were commanded to super
it el hie process of cloting the liegi race
witih the political privileges torn froin whi.e
The blacks iml th South are cititled
to bo well andun hmaIIIONely governied, a1ndl
to have le protection of just hinwS for
all their rights of person and pronet.
if it were praiclicablet at this time togive
them a governmenut cxcliusivelv their
own], unidr wich they might mangiro
their own alfhirs in their own way. it
would become a grave question whetiher
we ought to do so. or whetber common
hu:nanity would tiot require us to save
them from tte.selves. 3u, inder the
circumstances. 1lii; is only a speculative
Point. It is not proposed muerely that
they sh-ill govern tienselves, but that
they shall rule the white race, make and
adiminuister Stato lawst elect Presidents
and members of Congress, aind sh tpe,
to a greater or less extent. the future
destiny of tho wholi country. Wold
sneh a trust and power be safe in cuch
UNIVERS. SUFFRAGE DESTnUCTIYE.
The petliar q alities whieb slonuld
cliaraterize any people whlo are fit to
decide upo thlie ma nagemient of' public
aihirs for a great State have 4.ildom
been combinod. It is the glory of
wlito mniltu to know that. they. hJOY had
I thesitquailide..i&At'l t ntu , .. *to
build ipon this continent a great poiti
cal fabrie, and to preserve itu stabilioy
for mtore ihan ninety years, while in
ilvery otcher part of the world all similir
ex peimenis hmve failed. Bitt if aty
tLing cll bo proved by known itcts
if till reasoning npon evidence is not
abandoned, it nust be acknowledged
that in the progress of nations negroes
ivae shown less capacity for govern
ment that any other race of people.
No mdependett government of any form
has ever been siuccessfil in their hands.
On the contrary, wherever they liave
been left to their own devices, they
have shown a constant tendency to re-.
laIpse it,to halia rism. In lie ,3onthern
States, however, Congress has underta
kon to confer upon them the privilego
of the ballot. 11itst re eased from slave
ry, it way be doubted whether, as a
class, they know more than their ances.
tors how to organize anl regi!te civil
so t.y. Indeed, it is admitted that the
blacks of the Soua~ h are not only regard
less of the rights of' propeity, but. ito itt..
- tedly ignoriant. of public allhirs that, their
voting enna cotnsirut in nothinig more- thanir
carrying a hallot to theO pie wh'.te they
are dir-cted to deposit it. I needl not. ro
indi yon that the extrcise of the elec
live franchteliso is lhe highest attribte of
an Amnerican citizen, aiml that,- when
guided tby virtue, inatelligence, patriotism
andi~ a proper appreciitin of' our ftee
nitntt iuons, it tonittei~s the trite basis
of a dlemocratic form of govertnent. in
wvthih the sovereign power is lodged int
thn bodly of the people. A tut. art:fi
ciailly created, not for its own sake, bit
suly as a meanus of promiotinig tiw gen
eral welfare, its infiuenenen fot good must
tnecossaurily diependl upon the .d~-eva ted
chairn(eter and~ true allegiance &f the
elector. It ought.t ihere.fore to be repos
edi in none exgept those who ire fitted
imornlly and menially to admainister i.
well ; for if conferred tupon persons whto
do tnot, jutstly estimualt its valute, anid who
are intdufferent as to its resutlts, it will
onily servo as a meats of plactiing powver
in the hands of' the unprinucilhed arnd
ambiit ions, arnd must eventuitIe int the
complete dlest.rutct~ion of thiat libert y of
which t-t shoutild be the mtost, powerful
cor.servator. I havo therefore hereto
fore urged upon your atttention the great
danger to be a ppprehtended from na un-.
timuley extensioni of the elective franchise
to any new elitss in our coutntry," espe
cially whecn the large majority of that
class, in wielding te power thus placed
in their hanids, .cannot be expected
'correctly to comprehend the duties and
respotnsibilities wvhuioh pertain tosufrage.
Yesterday, as it wvere, four milhione of
persons were held in a condition of sla
Very that had existed for generations;
to daty tI.y arcs freemnen, an'd are assum
ed by law to be citiseas. It cannot be
prestured,.fromr their previone condition
of servitude, that as a clast', they are as
well ipSrnaed as to the nature of, our
Government pa the intelligent foreigner
wis maked br laud the home of his
choice. *In hbe esase of theo lat ter, nei
ther a ,'sidentt' of ave years, and the
Sknowledge of our institions which it
gives, nor attaohotnt to the istinciples
of the Constitution, are the onty condi.
prvate inte:tsts whioch ar e comnplicated
with it, VO Caunot be to.? cauticus of a
policy which illighi, by possibilitv , im
pmir the coniidence of tho world iln our
(ioverinment. Tit confidonce can
only bo ietained by carefuilly inculcntinau
the principles of jist ice aniit honor (i
the popular mind, and by tie most Rer.
pulous fidelity to all our engi g-mets(1
of every sort. Ayi), serious breach of
the organic lawv, persisted in for a cow,
iderable time, cailot but cr(-tte fears
for the stability of our ilsittittons. I ba.
bitual violhtion of prescribe) rule.s,
V w; iv e b1ai our3s(i(es 1 obserluve,
must dem1oralizo the po p. ( )lr- only
st:ai J of civil duty beiing :t at
nauI , i, tho s.heleuichor of our poli i
call Illralit y is lokt, t.e imblic e->scienlco
swinigs from its l1oorimgs am2(1 yiilds to
very impulse of pas..ion al interest.
If wo repudiate Lth' Constitution, we
will not be expected to Care much for
molre pecuniairy obligations.% The vio.
laton of such a phIge as we mnade on
the 22d day of July, I,861 % will assured.
ly diminish the market value of olher
proi-es. Besides, if wo now ackliow l.
edge thait tbo national dtebt. vai created
inot to hold it States ill Ctho IU-on, n,
the tax payers were led to suippose, but
Io exptel thm Froml it n1111 hand themn
over to ho governle'd by neogroest the
Ino10r:- dty -pay. it m21ny Seem mlluch1
Wa c' . sty it muy .aywm so; fr I
do no - lit, tha. t thisK or aly ar1gullenlt
it f6ai I rejiliittion can be elitertain.,
1 solt", but its inllienCe on some cAss
es of minds II Iy W1:11e b1 apprehended.
The fi nancial honor of a great commer
ial nation, largely indetoled, and with i
l1',piblicanl for.l of governmient adimoin is
tiered by agents of Ith popular choice, is
t thing of' Sueb debe:lte te-XillIr, aid thel
lestruction of i wo ohe followed by
-11eh ti l le1 Cabunity,' thiat- ever'
Ilue paltlIiol lultit destro to avoid
whatever mig;ht expose it to the slight
''he,! great intert of Llt count ry re
I',te immilediate rcl f i t h211 1ese caillet.
men . 'Busine in the Somth is para
lyzed by a senlse of general ilnsec.rity,
by the teror of confiscation, auid the
hcad of negro suprimacy. The Soith
,ill trale, tron w tli It he No th would
ware denved a great pro:.t, under it gov.
M11e11Lt of aw, sti l Ianguisives, and: enn
lL'vv(er be reViVed until it, Ceases to be,
Fetered by the ibitraly power wlich
111(es a its opertion" 11usd. Tha2t
'0' count ry - 11t! i 2i st, i 11111 111a re
ionr as the world ever saw--is worse
han lost, if i11 be not. soon placed under
|be protectioi of a freo i' 'lst ittition.
Inste tlf being, asi it ought to h, a
:oirce of wealth awl power, it wvill be.
Loll an intto.irable burden tupon. the rest
of tile flatioli.
THlE l'olT I nVOIC.
Another 20agon for ietracing out- steps
will out(lelOSR 1)0 woIn by Congress in
the h1te mnanifestationi of pulic opinion
upon tislwi subjet. We live in a con.
tr-y where the popular will always el.
forces obedienc.e to isel f, sooner or later.
Its vaill 10 think of opposing it with
an1ything short of h-gal aut hority, backed
by overwhehming force. It cannot havo
esca'ped your attenlion that from the
day on which Congress fairly 111111 for.
mally presented tle proposition togov.
irn the Southern State& by military
force, with a view to the u1ltiiate estab
lishment of negro suprenac, every ex
pressionl of the2 general sentimen0t has
beeni more or less adverse to it. The
nfl'ections of this gencrationl cannlot be
dleced fronm the inst itutions~ of' their
iancestorij. TPheir determinationi to pre
serve the inlheritnce of free governmen~lt
ini their hands(1 and1) transmtiit it unld!ividedi
1and( unimpaitred to their owna posterity,
is too stron~g to) be anecessfuily opposed.
b~efore that love of liberty and law for
whicht h~e American people aire dis.
tinguishied above nil others ini the
TiHE 12xCU22lvi; POWERSO.
Hfow far the dutty of the President,
"'to preserve, protect, and defondl lie
Constitutilon,''I!E reIire hOBim to go in op.
posing anf unlconIstittional act of Con
gress, is a very seriouts a111 nd imortantl
(fjICstioth, on wvhich I hove deliberated
m1uch1, uind felt extremely anxionis to.
act, has been passed accorditng to the
forma~ oft the (Const itukton by 11he Supremie
liegislaitivye aulthority, and is regulaorly
enlrotlled among the public statutes of
lie count ry. 10xeciiti-vo resistantce to
bi, esplecilfly in times of high party ex..
city., ent, wvould bo likely to produlce
vitlent collision betweenui the respective
aidherenlts of tile two branes of the
Gorenit. TIhiis would be simply
civil war; andu civil war must be resort
.ed to1 only as the last romedy for the
worst of' evils. Whatever might tend
to provoke it shouJld be most caref'nily
avoided. A faithful and conIscientions5
Matgietratn will concede very much to
honest error, and- somothing even to
pairverso mlice, before ho wilk endan
gor the public peace ; and lie will not
adopt forcible measuires. or etch as
might, Iead to force, as long as those
wich are penceable remain opetn to him
or to his constituiants. It is true t~hat
citsoa may occur mt which the l0xecutive
would be. compelled to stand on ita
rights, anid maintain thein, regardless of
all con1segneness(~. If Con gress should
iless all act. whIol is note on lyIk DM1
ble COnldIiet with the Conuttut ion, bi
will certainly, it oarried out, produce i,
mediate sand irrmrAahlG ininret to, the
l.nt, and i tlere b neithm- judicial
reImed y !or the wrong it itiltets, no.
power in the I'opi- to pret tiheme1i.
selves wieH thtii the ollicial aid ot' theiir
tlectel deflender ; if for insitalne'. tho
gistive IDepart ment shoi pas anl
act eveni throtin al the formi of law to
ablbh COa codinlatO deparIt mitelt of Lil.
overnent-mii seh a case the I 'resI.
de mu11 ,:t take the h 'li responsibilitica
of hil oi3ev, and s ave the life of tile na
Lion at all hnaard. Ilie so-called re
const ruct ionl ats thouigh as phliinly unl
coist it1i)inl s Ilny ha1'9 t cnl be imn' -
ned, were not believed to bo within hth
classi hst1 mlen1tioni d. The pC Cple wero
not wholly dtunrmt'd of tII' power of'
sv'f def,.-t'o. Ini all the Northern States
they ,1ti!1 l Iold I liteir h:is the sacred
ri:lht of Ihe ballot aId it. was safie to be
L It, tlii Ii tonue they voilil cino
to) t he rescule (Af their own insmuiou101118
v' g vI inte plersiie to add ti , t the
aippeal to our. connnilon emotituents3 wae
not 1:0henl inl vain), -IId that mly cooli..
d1eunce Il uhii visdom iInd virtlit seeca11
nit to have been imshreluied.
It 1A wel. and. publicly known, n tat
e'orit>:14 friid have beeni perti rat i
on the Treryl , an id Ihat, co!')sal lor.
tun-S have boven mll-le at the publlill
Vees.. Ts1 species of cornption h:.4
meresdl, s niicreasing, and il not di.
Iminished! will sol bluig 113 linto totil
Iuni a:A dige.Thej puble credlilors
anti tax-aers re alike i'trested ill aI
hotIest ud11miistration of tho fi nances,
id neither cls will -inug enIdtro tilt)
largo handed robberies of tile recent.
PASt,. For this discreditable stato oS
Ahings there at fe sivl causes. Solo
if tho taxes ire .o lai aIs to pres0l n1t alt.
irresisitible1 tempfitiltion to evaeLI paV
meut. The' great suts which omera
mily will by connivance La t frauds creato
a pressire which is more than the virtuo
of' ii mny can witistand; and there can
be Io doubt that the open disrogard of
the constiituonal obligations uvowed
by some of the hughost ald most itinft.
nti men in the couttry has greatly
weakened tw ioral seois of th5o who
terve ill suborditute plices. The ex-,
eisus of the United SultieS,. including
nIr onv tho pubiC d,.bt, arte morii
]flam s ix times as imI't i they wern
even11 years ag~o. TI Nel.e nd dis
.1 rse i is 4 aiOnlit rinitpres carelid
Iiplervis3ion a wel asii syst elnatic vigil,
IeIC:(. il. mstem, nlever pefe ,d,
xas inlieh d isorjlgin ized byvhv the "Tenturn
>I Ollice Bill," wiieb liha's a1i1lost des
Itroyed ofmeial itecoitability. Tihe
P-resident iny be thorontgiiy colinViIIced
Ahat an oflicer i Ilienable, dishonest, or
mIltdhithfli:d to the Conistitlution, but hun'ler
tie law Which I have nImIiud, the lit
Ilnost Ie cul do is to compliin to ite
9enato, and ask thie privilego of supply.
ing his iilceo with ia better manl. It' tie
S nato be regardied Ra personally or po
liticlly hiostile to the President, it is
natural, and not altogether unreasona.
ble, for Lho officer to expect that it will
lake his part as far as possible, restore
him to his place, and give him a triumph
>ver ilis lxecitive siuperior. The olli
wor has other ohances of impunity arts
.g from accidental defects of ovidence,
,he mode of investigating it, and the
ieerecy of the hearing. It is not won.
lerful that, official malfeasalnce 81101111d
becom1e bold in proportion all the- dehn..
iunnts learn to t!.ink thaemsetlves saf.
L amt entirely persuaded that unider su~ch
r rule thle President cannot perform the
great duty assigned to him of seeing
the~ laws fithflly execnied, and that. it
fisaleslC him mtost especiallyl freom on.
forcing that rigid accountability which is
iecesary to thle due exectution of the
The Coistitutioni invests tile Presi
lenit with anltihority to decide whether a
removid should be mtade in any given
easar ; the act of Congross declares, m~
tibet anice, that he shlil onlly (ccuse3 such
as he sutpp~ires to be unworthy of their
trust. Tile Constitultiont ma)lkes hint
sole judge in tho premiises ; but tho stat
ute takes away his juisdiction', transfera
It Li' the Senato, an~d loaves him noth
ing but thle odious anid sometimes i,
practicable dutty of becoming a pr'osecu
for. rThe prosecittion is to be conducted
before a briburnal whoge members are not,
like him, responsible to the whole peo
pie, butt to separate conlstitulent bodies,
and who may bear his accusation with
great disfavor. The Senate is absolute.
ky without any knowni standard of' de
cision applicable to such a case. Its
juidgiment cannot be annicipated. for it la
niot govern'd by any rule. Tbe lave
does not define what shall be deemed
good cause for removal. It is 'imposet.
ble even to conjeotiure what may or may
not 1we so considered by the SZenate,-a.
rThe niature of tile subjetct forbids clear
proof. if the charge be ineoapaoity,
what evidence will suipport itt? 1Ftdeli
ty to the Oonstitution way be under.
stood or misunderdtood in a thousand
diff'erent ways, and by violett party
tmen, ini violent party times. tinftuithf'ul
ness to the Ooast itution may even Come.
to bo . considered med'toriopts. if th
omooer be aconsed of dishornesty, h ow;.
shaul itbe madeil out . Will it be inforE.
red from acts tunconnected with public
duty, fromt private bistory, 9t from,
general aeputation ? Or mget t do
President await the, ootnrsies' , U
actual tuladneinor in ofligr ~ 1a~
he, in thte mtianti'ne, fisic t. p49t964~
and ip'tereat oft he Natjtsigo is $14i
of men to whomn he aAngg6L giy i.g
tidence? us Ie (qrbear his ipI4t
nntrtil the misehief is done aod Caput be