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SWEET SIXTEEN, to
Dear lady, when I look at one of
So lovely and so loved as you, s
From whose young life has not yel gone i
T'he rose's blush, the mernit:g's dew,
I sigh to think of all tho years
Whose fading menories rise between b
This and the Limo when, long agoj s
1 lost may heart to Sweet Sixteen.
l'rnlo as they may of wiser thought, sl
Of cooler blood and steadier brain,
Of earnest wisdom, dearly bought
ly anxious caro and saddeing pain
In all the years Od Times can bring, i
In all tho longest life has seen, c
There are no hopes, no joys, no loves, a
So sweet as those of Sweet Sixteen. i]
Ani though the ocharm may wear away,
An roses fade, and dews exIatle ; n
'T'hough glossiest looks may turn to grey, '1
And fairest checks grow watt and pale,
Yet who onn doubt those dearly loved, r
In lands of mortal eye unseen
11oyond the stars, shall all regain
'Tho ansel lues of Sweet. Sixteen? d
Message of Governor R. K. Scott.
After congratulating the General b
Assembly pro. ton., upon the inaugu- 1
ration of a Nogro.government in lc
South Carolina, Governor S. runs
over the same ground as to debts and
taxation as his predecessor in the 8
message printed in our last issue, sug- u
gests certain changes in the Jtidioiary, It
a re-division of counties, removal of all t)
political disabilities+, care of the State 0
louse, Penitentiary, Jails, and Asy- .
lum ; recommends moderate salaries, it
and thus treat lof such matters as are 7
of Iore general interest :
Civil liberty and the education of a
th nasses are insoparable. t1
The safety of a freo State rests upon O
the virtue and intelligence of the peo- o
ile, and it cannot preserve the one a
without cultivating the other. All
republics of wh ioh history niakos Imen' a
tion, have owed their dcelino and fall e
to the corruption of the people ; who, t
having bocome unmindful of their e
rights and duties through ignorance, a
became the pray of demagogues N
through choice. In a country such as e
ours. whero the humblest citison, if I
worthy and well qualilled, may aspiro e
to the station of the highest, and
whore the hard-handed child of povor
ty and toil may become the chiof
magistrate of the republic, the ditfu
sion of intelligence among the masses
is noV only a measure of public justice,
but vitally concerns the public safety.
The Government of the United
States has been so mindful of the imu.
portance of popular education, that it
)tas already given 70,000,000 of acres
of publio lands, worth at least ninety
millions ($90,000,000) of dollars, for
the establishment of sohools and col
logos in the States and Territories of
the Union. I would, therefore, earn,
estly recommend that the provision of
our Constitution upon this subject, he
carried out in Its fullest extent, and
that as thorough a system of free
schools shall be established as is con
sistent with the present taxable re
sources of thme State.
I deem it proper to add, that satin
factory assurances are given that Con
gress will, within a brief period,
umake a liberal grant of public lands
to this State, for thme creation of a per
mnanent comnmon School Fiund ; thus in
a great measure, relieving our people(
fronm thme burden of taxation for that
spoecial object. I respectfully suggest
that you will memorialize the eon- ~
gross of the United States upon this I
sul jeot, and solicit the grant referredI
to at the earliest possible day.
Article 10, Section 8, of the Con
stitution, provides atthero shall be ~
keplt open at leaat six months in each
year, one or more schools in each
I respectfully recommend that the C
General Assembly will provide by e
law for the cstablislunont of at Least
two (2) schools in each sohool distriot
when necessary, and that one ofesaid
schools shall be set apart and designa- '
ted asi a school .for colored childreoti, a
and the other for white chIldren, the' '
school fund to be distribusted equally C
to erch class, in proportion to the f
inuber of ohildren in enoh between I
the ages of six and sixteen yearse. I.
deem this separation of the two races '
in thiepublic schools a matter of the' E
greatest imnportando to al blasses of tl
our people. Si
Whlilo the moralist and the phiilan4 Li
thropist cheerfully recogniises the fact I
that "God hmath made of one blood all b
rlitions of nmen," -yet the statesmman 4.
legislating for a political society that r<
embraces two distinet, and in some Il
ecasure, antagonistic races, in the u
groat body of i tseloctors, must as far it
as the law of equal righats will permhit, til
take oogniaance of eisting prejud ices
among both. In school distriote; o
whore the wvhite children may pro. L<
lionderate ini numbers, the oolored c
children may be oppressed, or par. .1
tially excluded from the schools, sa
while the same result muay acorue to tl
thme whites in those districts 'whore il
colored children are in the ma'ority, ii
unless they shall be segiurated by law e
as heroim recommnendod. Moreover, v~
it is the dclared design of the Consti- o
tution that all classes of our people a
shall be oducated, but not to provldb I
for- this sepairation of the two races, t'
will be to repel the masses of thre
whites from tihe oducstional trainingi
that they so much need, and virtualli a
-o ivo to our colored population thie(
o roluh benefit Wour pbbljo hools, I
L46 us, berefore, recognise fis its 1
they arand rely upon time, and ihe
*t , tIhnaflue . me of popular projd-i.
died that may exist among the two
races of our follo.oitiens..
Te concentritioio11 or aSu api
1 upon one product and that, too
ctremely liabl8 to tIne varyidg b
da of the sea sbh and the worn; as
tardod the agricultural prospei4ty' 8
South Carolina, and of the entire,
uth. The true safety of the farner
os in the cultivation of several. prot
acts, so that although the. season may.:
a unpropitious for one, ho may pro
irvo the other. le should not .itmi- n
to the unwise merchant, who om.u
arks his all, though uninsured, in a 0
The inipolicy of concentrating so
ergo a portion of labor upon cbtton,
istead of dividing it among mixed
rops of corn, wheat, potatoes, &c., '
ud the products of the dairy, is lest t
lustrated by the following facts, P
rawn from the census of 1860, and c
he report of the United States Corn
iissioner of Agriculture for 1866. k
'ho cotton crop of Georpia, the om
ire State of the South, in 1860, was b
01,840 bales, .yilding .littt Mnore
Tian thirty millons($30,000,000) of
ollars ; while the >utter of NOW '
ork in 1865, one of the sevoral pro- P
ucts of the dairy, was estimated at 9
xty millions ($60,000,000) of del,.
rs. Yet the census gives to Now P
ork but 470,914 farmers and farm t
Lborors, and to Georgia, including
hite fartnera amd farm. laborors, and
ily the. ma/es oftie slates, 316,478
orsons onga od . in. aggioultur.-- n
hould the female slaves be included, a
corgia would have actually hid a 0
rger number of. farm laborers than
to State of Now York. Besides : th'o i
thor dairy products, milk and choose, 0
rid the multitude of smaller products
r the farm, the principal cropms'iakce
value an astounding aggro ate. "
hug in 1864, the cori crop ot' Now ?
ork was estimated at $38,000,000,: 0
to wheat $25,000,000, the oats at
30,000,000, potatoes at $19,000,000,
nd hay at $90,000,000. .luoluding
to minor cereals, the products of the
rehards and gardons, th e production
f beof and mutton from pasturage,
nd a great variety of miscellaneous
roluots, the currency value of the
grioultural productions of this one 0
tato, in the year, was far greater
in the money retu'uns of any cotton
rop ever produced in this country ;
nd the gold value of such products i
ould be greater than the gold value r
f half the cotton crop of 1860, the
,rgost over made in the 1Uited
Tno grand results are not due to
ny superiority of soil or' climate,
bove our own, but to a properly di.
outed and diversified system of labor
Lnd to superior agricultural imple
nonts and farm economy. The aggro
~ato product of varied agriculttural Ia
tors must always exceed in value the
cold of any one staplo, howevor v4st
ild well organized may, be the system
if labor applied to it, for markosue
iess in the production of that ono 1
vill lesson its price, by an undu ie
noroaso of the supply over the de- i
The mntroduction of improved niple
uents of husbandry is a matter of vital I
aiportance to the farming intorests of
ho State. With the aid of proper ma. t
hinery and tho proper use of fetilizors
ur farmers will be enablhil to cultivatp'
larger area of' land and to cfdtivate' it
ioro thoroughly thani underitho former!
ystom wvhen they cultitvated a very lim-n
These considerations ' become all the
nore important mnview onho aet,. th~
ni South Camrolinimj there are four millions
4,000,000) of acres of land impr e
rhiho there are nearly twelve ini I ie
12,000,000) of acres ununmpotted.- The
ocent discovery of vast. bedr uf
hate of limo on the banks o( the bhi~
~y, near Charleston, will cnable u~~t
nrich otar worn out lands with that
iost, valuable fertilizer at a comparative
,' small cost. Largo shilpmnents of this
*rtilizer' are liow being hiade from.
ihtarleston to Northevn' p9rts, 'Shleh ~
tight be manufactured .here, and sold
lIoaply to enrich the peer lands of tour ~
I invite your attention to Section 9,~ e
Lrticle '10, of the Gdnatiti Ion'," eick ~
irote Liq .eaqr 2:iaset'6ly tQ r -?i
ide (or the establishelint . 9 an;Agru
ultural College, upens the basis set e
>rth in the Act -of Congressp ofuily 2, a
862,, providing for tho 'ehdomen, of, .e
tgiricultural Collegeu iin 'tto o 'eoral i
taLes.' The Act ; providea 'tlat ogch
lato and Territory shall'receive -thirty
'ionsand '(3 060) Avt''e of pblic lante
ve that it may liaye rali-JUa
inden its prqoxisipp SS n 'rna will ~
o entitled to elevent hundred and twenm4
i-five pieces - o.r-i -norea-eaeh ,
~presenn i N og
ir per acre, or one hundred and oiglt h
Thi ssuipnmy boloeuted in ahyStdo~ 4
r Territory having pialic lanids subloet'(
saly~ at QneflollAr' Ana Mitf~u i
ants ($l'.25). praci'r.eli Te .do .,
rovides thattieo nioney arising for t le
sie of such scrip ."shall -be invested by I
io State. in publio - stocks, at not "less
sa loaper cent. isito est, l nd thy 1
>an fres g bo :M*M~thei,
dhero the leaing objeote'shall be, with-.
nt-excluding s0:u6ht80o and'/dlassidal
Eudies; of mill(4r9 til, tb hbudh a
'raichs r~ tr i'ftt' 4
nd the Meohaiiq.Ars," .
I would also myite. your-eatnint
he general act of Oon ofsu-~&1864
00) acot ii661i~ each Sta.
,tn ecs n suggest - tlat jyout
nenoria ie Congress to extend- the a
PATK I tt) Iin nI0OUI AND
A tes:naf > er d t
tfeedsI rf at
u i* us; wh lt't vo r
Auld not hm NYm1 :)rAuffgcturq,-and we
Mould not havo commerce; thoy will r
Land tgethuV but they wi1u stand i
gother .like jpilas, the largest in the r
mntre, rd ,ALata.. ogriculLure." Agri- c
ulturo is indeed the life of a nation, its t
cry - existence - deponding upon the t
nnual prodtibtion of its soil. In view s
f the vital importance of this suhj.ct, J
nid of tio vat amo\Ia.3of arable land in t
to State' now lying wild and fallow, or
t best poorly culdtiated, I respectfully
iggest f.iii hehsAltgo-dihut e att crnting a i
rate Boaird of Agrielilturo }tall inigra
on, to consist of at least thrioo ca:pabile .t.
Orions, ono of whron should be a iracti- I
Al Chemist. I
This Board should be chnrg 'd with
1e duty. of' investigating anid maikinig
lown to the entire coiitry the agrie:! -
Iral resources of iho State, and should
o required to make an annual report to
to liogislatre, unbody the results of
icir labours,~id reconinuulid sueh im.
rovements as they may deem necessary
I the system cf cultivation now lrac.
ced among ofr peop,; nid such im
roved agricultural mnaclinery, as to'
mn may seem most proper, together
it the gute: al d elde of Using1 tpr
li- *a. .'They 10ho id 11160 st forth he
LI ractions that our soil andelinnate and
itneral resources lill-r to the tlrilly
ricliturists, nlchanics and iinors of
tr rtier 3tates, and to: those 'of
uopb .. 'ZIhy; shoubl also. present tat
les showing the cost of hiving, the rates
fswpgps, the nunnber and class. of..mc.
itueiqs neded in the several Cantiues,
l'e rie of land, and tern> uon,
i ft'can be rented. Their. i polt
ould o fbiurnished to the 'rndes Joi
in, of this country and 'srope'.
This information, if properly distrib
d, will, I feel asslred, start a tide of
lingratIon that will flow into a.d great.
iennich the Stato. The Germaii and
'rench grap6.growers will fimd in our
pper tier of Coities a soil anld clonate
a genial to the grape as their own vine.
dd hills, bamtg precisel on tihe same
arallel of laitutdo as tie 'great wine
iaking districts of Spain and Portugal.
'he Swede and .the D.lane will find a4m- c
le scope and verge for their talents for
lining in our gold and iron and lead
)gions, yhilQ cVqntho IHolhiandor; m-vy
xercishi lis' cnmiing in drainig the
iarash lands of our low colntry, whicb
C t)ptgr get..altost, for the asking. Our
ivc'tgab6upuding wit -noble fails, are
uhling ' to waste, hmlt 'they shouild
osopni1d with. the hum of. tthonsatld$ of
usy :;pindles. TPhese mlvite the manufa116C.
arer of the North, who will ind lhbouir
monlg is abundant ad cho-.p, and may
ook from his own door 111011 fields
vlite with the cotton that, supplies his
According to tile eighthl census of Ihe
Jailed States, thero were nine hundred
d oighty.se'en (98i) miles of railroad
-,South Cirolina art the ciQao of the
spar 1860, built at a cost'oftwenty.two
pillions three humdred and ei'htyfi v.
6391% ; .95,000) c(~linlg..
S" ilhf .ti-rosting t~o absole)o.that
he ,iCharleston anai laibutrg road was
he firdt passelgerl 'ailway constructed I
n th. Uited State 1. wa c omme
d ill tile Sprl'inghof .,1p9g and six (0)
miies were con )letJ d in tllha'. year. I'.
s a. noteWorthy fact; 01hat before 'the . pse
>f locomotive was eftablishied ill Great
3ritian, o' they'ei-e ~kniovn ill tile
Jitod States, tie directors of t~his road
Letermined, unider the advice of their
nlginlei ' H~otio' Allent, to make
hem exclusi vely the10 moivye power.-.
imol1riodii"'steemt1 locom~otiv; enhled Llhe
vir. N. Ej Ntiller, of Chiarleston. Up)oni
110 Charleeton anid [.[amj.burg road was
ratroduidd in- i83'1, f6r' t ho firstilt nw. onI
ny railroad in' tub Wo~1d, tlhe imlportant
rrangQ1etnrti fcir (4) whettleItracks
ar locomoatives, cand long passenger
Thfad~ytoatqt are tleig~nra to
ranting in men01 #f tdechanical genliul,
vit tOcP1i t aL9lc o Ire test,
sontha Card hit, thbiongh1 the first to
1itial~o a raiI a spyhe11. , la~as pros(cu.
od jt p4y ' il1tx~~ ent1.ov.rr
lid tho resources of' her soil. WhoJ~i fa..
ility with which railroads- can be built.
a .5ithr Ottro - i ns 6 tr h v
han any of ,qualql1~u3gtJp in. thle Ui1d~
Itates. ' I \vod~d'rcmmnendltio e ster
thjese gpehkt dnd benefient pdbpc
~toieys by the Statcio'di may
e consistent vlthle. proppr. imainlte.I
Ia3icO ofbotherijnpportant. .pnli0 inter
ste. A t tile esame t~ime. .4ha# 'railroad j
o hiio should be generously, but,.I
houkl be enacted to regiulate their itarife -
f'char oa fot''.ffdiglltsl and pessengora,
ifb oth o' thof :y 6j1 reas all casties
IV &i1'iYoggqssiyo jtfs end~ check fhe
.'%T~hie Ihts #Ridga.Railroad;.Comnpany
if Sonth'Cava~W~as eh'art ered, by 4he
Jgcfft'i4'of this State In 1A5i ;a ut
~ava pvrtted the prosecntion of theo
r6yk itiun it.
Tlt1t g IQ VI.~ is far experildd
atiid collars #,6,
0) dollar*1 Th6 additional) am~ount
eqiMt 'it is stated' the
es lieer ton.Already oon~
mount of one million thared hundredand
cn'thouisand dollara (1uti OO.n)
'Thepysel , bonded debt of the Com.
Watkg wtwo hundred and thir
y thqu n ollars ($230,000), spoured
7 a tnorgage on. the road and .its rune
ung stek.: Mr. J. V. Harrison' Presi
lent of the Conipany, states in a recent
tport tltt he has made of the condition
id prospects of the Blue Ridge -Rail.
oad Company that "all that is expected
f the State is that she shall guarantee
he bonds of the Company for, any,
hroo millions of dollars, to be issued in
uch sums and at . such times as the
rogress of the work may require. And
hat the Stato shall provide for the
avietit of'the interest on the bonds
liilo the road is being built. For ex
itple, the Coipany could perhaps ex
ied one million of dollars a year for
lireo y}eats ii which liile the road can
' completed. The Stintt woul provide
>r interest. on $m1,000.000;
First year $70,000
)econtd year 1 40,000
Tird year 210,000
b Iliat by an x pinndittre of four hin'.
ired auid twenty thouzsid dollars, to be
aised by taxation in three years, this
rent enterprise would be secured. The
ktte would have ample security for her
uaranty. A first morlgage on t lie road
hus eligibly located, costing X7,500.
00, with-a debt of only three mil.
li view Of tLhe great conimercial im.
ortaine of tliq Blhte ridge Railroad to
i sections of. Lhe State, and of the large
mount of its stouck that the State nb
eady holds, I recommend that your
onorable bodies will. take itto your
arnost consiieration the expediency of
urnishing the company such timely
id as will secure its speedy cmple.
''he Ilue Ridge Railroad when coi.
doted will give us a direct connection,
pon the shortest line, with the great
West, with ill its iniexliustible supplies
,f pork, beef, corn and wheat, and will
bus chcapan many of the necossaries of
ife to our peoplli', and at the same time
urnish a valuable outlet for our own
roducts. 'hie city of Charleston is the
earest of all the Ailantic ports to the
reat States of the West, and by the
unstruetlon of this road the wealth of
lnt imperial region will be poured into
Site may then cast ofd' her widow's
reeds, and become again the "Queen
Jity of the South."
1 will hereafter submit for the consid
ration of the General Assembly a plan
t State hid for thjis road, dif'ering some
vhat from. that set forth by its Presi
tI1, based upon the proposal of the
tist conpeteut railroad men.
TilE 1 iiniM.\EN'S nUIltEAU11.
The assistance rendered by. the Bit
can of Refugees and Freedmen to the
>eople of this State, has been most time
y and ,valuable. W hio it has cared
or large numbers of destitute poor, who
roim physical infirmity or otherwise
vere unable to labor, it has at the sameo
ime'iado judicious advances ofprovis
ons to our planters, secured by liens
ipon their crops, without which ad van
:es, thousands of laborers, now usefully
inployed, would be necessarily idle,
md thousands of a,.ros of land, now
caring abundant crops would bo lying
mttilled. It has ntot only beent the chief
>rganizer of lao nteState, during
li paust two years anid a half, by super
nsing tihe execution of equitable con
raets between emplloyers and employed,
inforcing the rights of both, but it lhas
naugurated and sustained a wide spread
mystoem of schools, that, havo been open
o all withlout distinct ion of race or color.
As, however,, the civjl functions of the
aeare being rapidly resumed, I have
ptformied Major-Gqneral 0. 0. Hloward,
.gmmilssionerc of the ~ureau, that, it may
>0digpeiised with ats an institut~ion in
.his rate, immrediately after the civil
>licrs shall have' been elected in the
state, and sh'aill enter npon the duties of
.heir 'respective offices. The se~veral
fustices of the Peace can dischargo the
luties that are nowv performed by agents
fthbhiirean. I have, howvever, re
luestedl that our people inay continue to
'edlvo the benefit of the School Fund
f t~he Bureaui as long as the saie is dis
mesed i the-several Sot herni States
or the benefit, of the poor.
VSPENSION OF THEl. .wit? OF~ HIAnEAS
I iniu four ttttention to Section 24,
A rticle 1, of Ihe Constiitution, wuiolh
leelates that the power of suspending
,bellase,.or the execution of the lawh,
ihlneeereli exercised but by the Gent.
iral Assembly ore by- authority derived
herefroni; to be exeisedi in such par
icular cases only as~thaGeneral Asbem-~
>ly shall expressly. provide for, -W hilo 1
atisfied that, tloer-is no -orgalligation in
,ho. State, having foi its ohject, resist.
ico to thbe laws an~d constituted author
ties, yet.prudenice would; suggest that
,htGeneral Aesembly-shotuld authorize
.he Governor to enspend the writ ol
'iabar corpus %hen in cases of rebellion
>ruivasion the public safety may require
,"or wyhen from~ serious local distur.
neflo, t-he due coprso of lawv uay be ob.
tracteg. I wouhld also recommuendt~ the
assngea o fan at, fro41ting that when ni
>arjy jS;/chargdd wvth crime in any
hunty, and it sahmopI' appear upon
lipper sworn test uiotny, that justice will
int- b done the 8eti 1pol)jha trial ,oi
aid party in the (count, ''wleroin, $
1mite wap alleged ti lhave been commita
od, hat theti tlh, i tab~sall be entitled
.o a change of venue to the nearest adja
ient County whereinj'ustio-oan be done
Joth.to the Stat,. h a qvised. It
!hod iasc bepo tit county
'rm'whicoh sch o~~g oriosojs 1igd
~ijS~lf o'fthe, . h..be requir.
dto pay thae , cleoote of hbe
ORGAW.lWAWION.OP TJJE MIL1TIA,
1lito Nur attotlod to Anttlo 13
if th#Ciitneti~n $roviding' for the
>rganirzatlon of the militia of this '5 ate.
&. well regnlated militia bain~ ecsary..
to the security .of a free State, I trust
that the Gune'al Assembly will tako
action upon this important subject at an
early day. I am assured that the quota of
arms to which the State may be entitlod
according to tho number of her organic.
ed militia, will be promptly furnished by
the War Department, upon the trans
mission of -thu pIOtper reguisition. I
respectfully request that the Governor
may be authorized to make requisition
for one-half of thoso arms, in the pattern
of Springfield rifle, in general use in the
United States army, and for the other
hull in the improved lreach-loading
Sptingfield rifle, now being altered at
%t the United States Arinnals, from the
new pattern of muzzle-loaders. 1 sug.
gost that ih General Assembly shall
deignato by lawv the depositories. for
As asooi as the militia shall be organ.
ized and eqluipped, the military forces
of thu United States, now in the State.
pursuant to the itWconstruction Acts of
Congress, may with propriety be dis.
pensed with. Although that force has
been of great value in extending needed
protection to tihe people, yet the con
iinail presence of the mil it ary, is a re
proach t.' a Repulblican State. Our
government miust rest uipon obedience to
law, nii upon tslit willing support that
the ciizen should give to ihe institutions
tha, protect him.
The several Military Commanders
have issued general and special orders
during. the existence of the Provisional
Goverment of the S t a t e, which
1 recommend that you will declare of
binding force until ropealed or rendered
inoperative by acts of tho General As
sembly. The orders referred to relate
to the collection of debts, the stay of
proceedings in the Courts in certain
cases, and the relations of landlords and
tenants, &c. It will prevent great dis
turbance and inconvenience to many of
our citizens, if the operation of those
orders is continued until they can be
substituted by the necessary laws. In
deed, the Supreme Court of the United
States has decided more than once that
military orders, issued pursuant to an
Act of Congress, for the government of
any domain acquired by conqust, con
tinuo in forcepcr so as law until formal.
ly repealed by the regularly organized
civil government. TJ'ho decisions to
t hich I refer, are found in 20th How.
ard, page 276, -case of 10ugeno Leitens
dorfer and Joab Ilouhgton, Plaintiffs in
error vs. James J. Webb ; and the case
of Cross vs. IHarrison, 21st Howard,
p. 66.- The former of these two cases
was brought up by writ of error from
the Suprene Court of tho Territory of
Now P Mexico, the lamter came up by
writ of error from the Circuit Court of
the United States for the Southern
District. of Now York, and action was
brought to recover baclk dues paid at
the port of San ld'ranoisco, California,
upon the demand of an officer of the
army, who was acting as collector of
that port under a military order In
both cases the Supreme Court of the
United States held that .the executive
aui.ltority of the United States proporlv
established'a Provisional Governmenr,
wMich ordained laws and instituted a
judicial system ; all of which continued
in force after the termination of the yar,
and until modified by the direct legisla
tion of Congress, or by the Territorial
GAovernimnt established by its authori
Although the case of South Carolina
is not identieal with that of New Mex
ice or the Territory of California, yet
the samne principle of expiediency, would
appear to be involved in all, and the
SaR1BO wise poliOev reilires the mainten.
anice of many existinig military orders to
bridge over the transition period that
mnust intervene between the cessation (of
the military government and the enact
ment, by the Ge-mral Asseinibly of the
statutes nece~sary for' the regular uadmin
istration of the State in Its various do
An incident oecurrcd thuis morning full of
poctie justice. lLr, S4am Utoklerson, an
excocdingly black gentleman of color, as.
r,..ld McGregor Mackey, oin the pubi1lic
stroofe In the presence of a large ummber of
p'eople -of all conditions, and all sorts of
political beliof.E Mr. Dickerson, whose Ian
guiage on Iho-oceasion was muoh more forcd
blo - taa chaste, .subjccteod Mackey toe a
torrant ofocoarso abuse, which the historio
muse is abnirost toinpied tui repeat. -The
dramatic propriety would 'have pechb dom
ploto, if Diokerson had only done whatt lie
threatened, and actually thrashed: him.-.
IHoi poignant would have been the reiloe.
then to tephilanthropio Mapkey, as lhe
winced under th~e lash, .that . the, spirit erf
manhood, whbich he, as a member- of the
pruty of groaf motal ideas, -had contributed
to raise la the breast of the l6ng oppresed
African, should have muado .one among its
earliest essays on 'his own unfortunate
briek and shoulders; -
The eld'or Mackey, liko Mf f'. Oargery, is
decidedly don the rampago," It.' ''cporfcd
that he made a speech this ovenhig to his
adhierents', in which he savagely denounced
his'odpponenta, 'and wrought hhmself tip io
5su9h a plich of fury, that lio a1litst did
what ho asserted the Oarolinians .would do
to..morr'ow-if lisa elootion shouild be announo,
0(d, that Is foamed at the mouth.
ScRaTrcHEs I? fnssa.-----W1h paru.
fectly clennf wvith onst1lo sortp) and
warm water, thon Applyg while warm,
.au olntmoiht ofujngowvdor mixed with
sWeet cfoam ow ' I~" b'uttbr, totm
on trial,otr.rorswoly, dcoonn xu$s;
a pply every smorning,<i after washing
clelugan olnntment 'composed of a tea,
spoonfM of lied~ with ap niuoh. -am
[ Amedcan-Stoc owten
Feo:nales 4e'gt 11~~ kia'd
their way into tho watch maldng buai
Bneikil of Bnuj. (R. Stuart Faq., e
fore the Immigration eetingiat Winne
boro, Fairfield Distriot, July 18, 1808,
Mr. Stewart said
Mr. Cbliiruan--Whilo gentlemen are
.signingf heir nanes to the roll of the Socie
ty, I am retquested to address the meeting,
and I do so willingly, because this is the
onily public mcasuro7 in which I have et'r
taken enthuslastio interest, deeming it best
as a rule for one of my profession to leave
public speaking to thosowith whose calling
it is more consonant to address the public.
NEED O POPULATION.
Some ignorant people seeilg how qiffletilt
it is for the present population to live in
comfort, cannot .se how increasing the
number of people will help the case. They
forgot, that the greater the number of in.
d'ustrious people, the greater the produo.
tion of all the comforts of life and the cheap
er they become: that we will have larger
crops and a greater variety gf.productions;
that our stores and muanufactories will multi
ply, and while thero will be mbro.work of
every kind to be done, and greater demand
for labor, the wages of work will purchase
miore. Now by the conus of 1800, the en
tire population of Fairfield District was but
twenty-two thousand, but . if Fairfield was
as thickly th tied as Belgium, it would num
ber about. three hundred and eighty thou
sand inhabitanits. If it were as thickly set
I led as li'gland, it would number over three
hundred thousand people. If as thickly
nettled as Massachusetts, it would number
over one hundred and fifty thousand inhab
itants, anl if settled as thicly as eveu Now
York State, it would number near one hun
dred thousand people. Now it contains
twenty-two thousand, and the negroes work
so much worse than formerly, that we may
say, that fifteen thousand working peop lo is
about our poptulation. It is evident, there
fore, that Fairfield District could sustain
twenty-five persons to every one person
that it. now sustains, and that it could sus
tain ten person to one of the present popu
lation in the greatest comfort.
INUltn:A~s IN TIH VALUN Or LAND.
It is a remarkable fact that the value of
real estate, by the census of 1850, was not
in proportion to the number of inhabitants
or the prevalence of manufactures, but in
almost exact proportion to the number of
foreigners compared with the number of the
native population of the different States.
In New England, two out of every sixteen
persons, in the Middle States, two out of
every nine persons only, but in the South
ern States, two out of every one hundred
and ten white persons (nogroes not being
counted) were immigrants, and the average
worth of land was $20, $25 and $5, per
acre. respeoiivoly. in the three sections.
In th1e New England man:ifacturing States,
thlpigivilie population W4..n 180.. more
than fifty more persons on an average to the
square wile than in t le-. MitIdle States, the
averago;pi-de Wefldti rwas titonty. dollars.
1iut in the Middle States, with a far less
average : population, but with, double the
proportion of immigrants, the value of land
was'twenty-eight dollars an-nore, while in
the Southern States, where there was but
ono immigrant out of every fifty-five white
people, the value of land was only five dol.
lars an acre. I was myself astonished to
disaover how invariably prosperity in 1850
was in exact ratio to the prevalence of im
migrants amongst the population. Now
what is your land now worth on an
average ? "Fifty cents an acre," said a
gentleman to me last week, "and apoor bar
gain at that, with negro labor." It ib, then,
the interest of every land-owner to sell one
half, or even three-fourths of his land, to
introduce immigrantst for the remainder, so
soon as. their introduction is assured, will
be worth ten limos as much as the whole.
EFFEOT UPoN THE NEnoEs.
'And I do net doubt, if you put your mon
ey into tli thing, if you'lond' it (foi' you
are too poor to'givo anything) to the Immi
gration Society upon some judicious plan to
be hereafter adopted, the very first effect
will bo, that the present negro labor which
we have, iwill be stimulated to greater exor
tions and greater effiieney, your crops will
be immediately inercasea, and the inc~omo
capital, trade and business of Fairfielhl will
be immediately doubled Not only will
your land rise rapidly in value, but its an
nual income will ha greatly enlarged.
ciiAnIAOTrin A~n 1)wEALTn 0oF IMMIGRLANTs.
But those ignorant or prejudiced on this
i iijoct, imiagino thlat immigrants are an in
ferior'set of pe'ople. The censuis proves
that they are as initelligent in every respet,
as thq formter slavg-holderss and white .peo
ple of the. South, .because' I have bhen
et ruck 1 y the fact, in examining t~he figures,
that, nine out'of' every hnundred in 1860 was
the rat-io of those who could not, read to
thiose who coubtl, both amongst, the white
people of the South and the foreign popula.
tion of the United States. They are then
an educated and intelligent, a sober, indus
trious and religious people, and too, If they
once0 commonce to come, .they will bring
money with them besides. It, is stated on
high authority, that,, so far as the govern
ments of (herpamy. and our own government,
could got, possession of the facts, Ia 1850 the
Geormans alone, who constituted but one
half of the immigrant, pepulation, .were
brinmging over fifteen million dollars of gold
every year with tt~om, so that thu whole
numiler of immigrants, then, brought to us
annually thirty million dollats *in gold.
'They' with bring it here, and they will Intro
duco greater variety In our agricultural pure
suits, for without more and better labor It
With more and skilled labor, we can tri
ple our-incomes In-a for short years. I
know it to bea'facthtinleirsytmO ounty,
North'Caroliria, alone, one 'huhdredd- thou
sand dolhters wa4 ma1e last' yeal y export
ing dried fruit, and 'one mercanIl house
cleared nine thousand dollars. Can we not,
rainnd dry fruit .-here ? -Dr.- Vitter., of
8 c40 leared twelke~lttadlfed Aelsita.ih
,1849, by shipping early apples by railroaq~.
Cannot, we do the samq? I Iknow thptt with
1nanare in bui- tinrivalled climate, agr-ioultu..
ral wonders can boe iforpied. I kilow of
eigity, buahelu of corn beIng mna4e, and two
crops of ha'y hisver than any' majlo to the
acre in 1w 6York, reaped' froit the same
ground th'e very s'ame year,., the soil, thien,
ploubed itp to .manure4, An4 . a, o pf
'turnips aeld frena it in the Ohar~estda trit.
ket .that 1tinther. There' is n(d geloeul ing
Uie inorhtseln 'the value of lantf frem4 ig
system of oplture. In Johngon. Obmium
of ColinonELio you will f1g ~t4t~
the h~Ip lands Ina ui ry contin hye~
wor-th, in large tracts of as Maiy ae a e.
di-ed ao-os, twenty-five hn ned doll'ars per.
acre, anu that iny dollars per acre is spent
every .ear itn btaanring the[0, qed that, they
pay well, they pay maguliiently at that,
JioW iny ofud ttle b'gd to gbt twin
-j~fv hudrd lAv fet hm entireplan.
THHN DIIT PLAN.
A tegrop~du iug onehwsioq, .ht friendgs
an tllbe. "Ihis tihir o am
tidn'id a ~erfeet ertity;ad-t ega
qtiebtlon Is;shall wo acooplish 'I aoje
or leate It- to be. doner by our impoyai'~q
'elildren'* I, fer one8 am for' immediese a.,
titadedosi'e' to so;.89th OprolIp;:
stetiedl to tnpleto prospeity in lyn~
time and by may own generation, -'(p
plause.) But one offeditive plan, i, apar.
to meo, has beon proposed. It is the lan of'
a Joint Stank Comm..y wth shar.. if..
ty-Afve dollars each, to be paid In five on
nual instainments Of fve. 4ol ay epoli All
can give alIttl4, or rather lound cut at Inter.
ot a little, and if all of the twelve hundred
white men of. Fpirfield lile part in a move
ment vital to all, a" Company 'witi a heavy
cash capital will be inauguarated, and it
will succeed. Offers of land alone cannot
accomiplish our objet, : or will acomplish it,
;rlowly. Ready inoy, Ir you will combine
and land it, will. Ara I desiroto see this
present generation In. 0atnest about this
matter, and I trust they waji not deter it to
be done, when they are all less able to do it,
by our skill more impoverished children.
Correspende noe Oharleston Mercury.
3Mackey, the apostle of the. new or-.
der, then administered, the .oath, aR(d
after having announced Robert King.
ston Scott, as Governor of this State,
exclaimed, dramatically "God - sitvt
the Stato of South Carolina," whi
upon the entire assembly vith one ae
cord took up the response, and shout.
ad "God save the State of South
Carolina." Others proent silently
choed the prayer, with -different sig.
Tho ' vote on the adtokdstoii~ t d;e
Anderson members was seisowvhat of l
test of the strength of the Macko and
Sawyer portions as the former o t i o.e
ed the admission 'of tholo *moinberm
principally bocauso they wore known
to be advocates of Sawyeri'holection,
It was not a oornpleto.,tc, . hoveyer,.
as some of the Mackey men voted foi
the admission from a sense of justice,
and othcr# friom policy,as the knowl
edge of the fact that this wvas the
ground. of their opposition. had; comA
inonced to do their cauge utch injury.
It is reported to-day that the Mack
ey's are furious with General edatt,
who is now discovorod'to be anfoppo
nent of the election of thegtoatloyal.
ist, and men say, there is Much loud
bellowing, and infinite tossing of dirt,
by these onraged feeders upon public
The little band of Democrats, just
porceptible in one corner, representa
tives of the "former citizens" indicat
ed this nmorniug to the pious loyal
their ttter want of political rogenera
tion, by voting to a man against
the constitutional amendment. Five
members-strange to say-did exactly
the same impious thing in the Senate,
whereat the soul of Cain, in the exer
cise of a spirit of Christian charity,
which dobh forgive all things, suggest
ed to him to inquire of the Senate
whether, as the constitution required
that the Legislature should ratify this
amendment, and as these members had
all sworn to obey the constitution,
therefore these Senators had not per
jured themselves, and rendered it ab
solutely necessary for that conscien
tious body to take steps immodiatelf
for the purification of themselves. It
might probably occur to one lacking
in that intellectual and spiritual illu.
mination which distinguishes the Rev.
Mr. Cain, that as no one'mati is an on
tire Legislature, and as therefore the
obligation of some Ect' to o don by
the body collectively could not possi
bly affect the froodom of the conduct
of each one, therefore-if one-might
after a trembling fashion say such a
thing of so august an assemblage-to
convention had simply made a very
foolish requisition upon the Legisla.
ture, conpliance with which would no.
cessarily be determined by the ehoico
of the individualnmembers at tlie last.
*SHERM~AN AND GRANT.-A
St. Louis telegram in -the ,Chi
cago Thie* of the l0t instant,
says, that as General Sherman
was alighting from a street-car
at the corner of Fourtb; and
Olive streets, in that city, &ast
evening, a crowd surr6'udd
him,. asking .him wht "he
thuh ftenomninki "of
Seymo~ur',and whether h'e would
support~him. Ho replied, "It
is a bad nomiination, anid wll b6
beaten all to pieces1 Grartw*#1
be elected." Voices itthie
crowd repli'ed "W dont Naht
the support .o lyou~eburnesg
"You wanted the hon 'ban
yourself." "You wan4g an
elected, so as to get his pr' qat
the headof the army a ~ .~
*TnE ?Otto1 OF 1 T VI,.."
From time immernoria~lade~t
and arrows have been -~t~e
rically hu'rd edto a
ggtive halls, 1 ek g e
Nihanew and ntu;ly No .
nal weapon. i .i Ooix'
Large, a il sqp
membler'froy tbjepy, ip p
ig to a voa e
o' W19 pp, & pilegd gn
tleans. is hi-nless, sir ! inu tho
extremes( The hlanfd w4 psra
fed. that thr'ow atl e brieia..
A simple rule to ascertail the1
ofth day o.n~hi ~
eottl g''lh 4 the 1
at Lak ihn8 + rarThura