Newspaper Page Text
Tbe Governor Favors Compulsory Education for the Young Cbil-j
dren of the State and Tells Why
B? ALSO COMES ??T
;.^r H i;- : , . - :..*A; /V ill?f:fcSi
An Appeal for the Better Education of Teachers-State Educa
tional InstituMon^^^ Soldiers? Homer-The Dispensary
Xaw Dealt ^
State Militia-'-The Confederate ?ec^ds^eals- ^ /
tricting TJtrged-The Forests, Tbe World's A
Fair and The Trusts.
Gentleman of the General As'sernbly: j
The organic law of tho State makes
it the duty of the.chief executive to lay
before the 'general' assembly at .each"
annual session a review of the different
departments ?f government, arid to
make such, recomrhenddtlons and sug
gestions as may' seem to him wise and
The past^year has.been a remarkable
one in many respects. Many stirring
events have marked the record. The
tillers of the Boll in many sections of
our State have not had the usual re
turns for* their labors, and with many
of them the br?sent year is going to be
one of sacrifice and self denial, and
yet they are looking hopefully to the
future and hot complaining. The de
velopment and progress of. the State
in manufacturing , enterprises goes
steadily forward. I sometimes fear that
"these enterprises are being built up,at
the expense of the rurul districts. It
has been largely among the owners and
piliers of the soil that the: sinews of
strength ih our State in times of peril
and of . troubl? have rested. The
strength of. a State and the natrlotlshi
of a people rest with the home owners.
Whatever Can be dohe by wise legis
lation to encourage home owning will
be so .much contributed to the patriot
ism of our State and to the stability of
Since your last session the nation has
been boweel 5c*.vn licncutr. the weight
of a grlevloUs sorrow, caused by.,the
dastardly blow which struck down its
chief executive, : a blow aimed not at
him but at you and every law abiding
Citizen of tho land, and at th? free
government of which b,e had been
chosen by the American people as-the
head. It was a blow at organized so
ciety and the victim was only an in
cident. A sentiment which gives rise
to an act like this is one of the dan
gers which threaten our nation. And
yet, at no time has the stability of
our fprm of government been more
clearly shown ~\han at this critical
?)eriod, for the life r\f no one man,
lowever exalted and beloved he may
be. is necessary Jo the continued pros
perity and welfare of the people, and
th? fair treatment given the murderer
b?t "served to show, to his .associates
the efficacy and the dignity, and the
necessity for tho preservation of that
Jaw whlc1 ho sought to ' overthrow.
Within ic . past year three of your
otfn men. ^tira-rilon. E. B. Ragsdale.
of Falrfield;*'Hon. G. J.' Redfearn, of
Chesterfield, nnd Hon. J. B. Bates, ofc
Barnwell?-have been called from; their
labors here on earth and-have gone to
Join the innumerable hosts on the other
V)There will be many matters of .im
portance to command your considera
tion, and in nil questions coming before
you, you should always bear in mind
tho interests ?of the pcor.ie, whose ser
vants you are. To this end you will
have my'aid and co-operation.
' There have been two lynching.'; In the
State during the past year, both of
which are to be regretted and would
have, b^r-. prevented If possible,. but so
long av( fiends in human form, continue
td conhr??'. outrages upon our women
they may oxptCl swift and summary
justice, and I dtfubt if, emergency
courts or any other remedy will stop
th? administration of such justice when
It.Js known the right fiend is found.
The only way to atop the punishment is
to atop the crime. -...'
The following statement furnished by
the State treasurer shows the condition
of th? finances. Of, th? State at the close
of the fiscal year, December 31, IflOl:
Cash Rec?lritS- fOr Fiscal Year Ending
' i December 31, 1901. :
C?Bh balance. Dec. 31, 190?..S 626,912 05
Back taxes . ....- 6,325 75
General taxes 1900 .. 589,368.58.
General taxes 1901..
Income tax...,.-..'; ...... ..
Fees, onjce Secretary state..
Incorporation f?es... ...
Annual ineurance license
fees .. ;. .. .. ... .. ..
Graduated ; insurance license
fees.. .. ...... .. .. .. ..
Privil?ge fertilizer tax .. ..
Loans (borrowed on notes of
governor and treasurer) ..
Insurance sinking fund.. ..
State permanent school fund
State special - school fund
(dispensary) ' . .. ...
Clemson bequests (Interest
on deposits)... ;. .....
Merrill fund from >U. 8, gov
ernment... ..... .. ....
interest, on loans. ? ..
Agent commissioners sink
ing : fund (secretary
state) . .. .-. ...-'
. 50 00
Sinking . fund , reduction
. Brown .4 1-2 per cents.:
Loans; returned;. ..... ..
Interest on l??ns and de
posits;. .. .. .. ....
; Phosphate royalty .. ..
Dispensary, S. C .v.1,968,083 40
Refunds?sundry accounts.. 1,37161
Cash Pay merits for Fiscal year Ending
December 31, 1961. , \
Salariea.. .. .. .. .. .\ ..$ 150,722'93
LeglSlaUVe experia??.. .. .,. 41,06? ?8
Educational, chaHtabl? arid
penal institutions. 301,592 98
Clernson college;. .
Privilege fertilizer tax., v; : 88.139,64
Morrlll turid.v U .. ,. .. .. 12.5Q0 00
Interest, land scrip and
permanent fund.. ... ..
Colored iNor. Ind. Agr. and
Interest land scrip.
State permanent school
H t?te special school f?hd
Completion State house
(paid sinking fund com'n)
South1 Carolina Inter State
aria. West Indian exposi
tion:. .. ,. .. .... ......
Loans - (notes - of governor
. and - treasurer).
commissioners sinking fund
Sinking fund for the reduc
tion of Brown 4 1-2 per
State house contract ..
Investment (S. C. Brown
4 1-2 per cents.).
Erecting . monument
Transferred-to School fund
Interest on public debt., i.
Miscellaneous accounts.. ..
Cash balance Dec. 31. 1S01.,
It became necessary in order to meet i
he current expenses of the State gov- i
minent, lor tho treasurer, by author!" i
y of . un lu t or the general assembly, i
O . borrow .70,000. Thia loon wo? iiego- <
iated-at 4 per cent. per .annum. >f*.r 20 i
tnd 60 days' time and has all beeu paid i
jack.. 3? order, however, to meet the 1 I
nterest -on. the State debt, due Jan. 1st !?
t was necessary to borrow 5.110.000 ad- ?
Utlonal.- Tills action wan made nece*-.
laryby the fact that a very smal? pro- !
iortlon of the taxes had been paid at
:he close of ,the year.
In my message of the last two year*
L'h?ve upon each occasion called your
mention to tup subject of certain
tonds Willed,, by, the treasurer's report,
^?n' ?9 yar.t.of the old debt of the
3tate_t but which are now, under the!
ICt of 1898. no longer funduble by the
treasurer-..without the action ;of . your j
Honorable bodies. From your Journal? |
[ .learn that my message upon the |
subject was referred .0 a.joint commit- !
Lee which reported thereon, but which
rfcpo?t, was.not .adopted by the senate!
md no action takt?n thereon by the
house jof representatives. Tito trcas- ;
Lirer calls attention to these bonda and I
says: -. "I lln.d'pn the .hooka of. thla d?-j
partaient certain bonds uh part of the I
iebt of the.State entered as 'Old Bonds
not fundable (act of lS'JG) Blue
railroad bonds $37*000.'. These .bonds
were issued In 1859 and matured .In 1879.
Hy :?et of 18?G the treasurer is forbid
den to pay, consolidate or fund any
.'oupon- bond of the State after the ex
piratlon of 20 .years from the date of
maturity "of .auch bonds.. . I am-In doubt j
na to .how , longer, to report these bonds.'
If they.-are no. .longer fundable v.hy ;
Mirry;j'thein longer. a? a nart of the j
ilebt of..the State? . But while on the
one hand the'treasurer can.neither pay I
abi-' fund thern, on the other, he has rib
n?thority to. write them off . the books.'*'.
This letter.'.iva.B referred to the attor
ney general;for his opinion, and In re
ply, he submits a . full and .'complete1 ;
opinion, .'cqneludlng as .follpwsi ''I am
aft opfhipnrthat the bonds in. question
constitute an existing adjudicated part
oi'(the^?ebt of" .'the State, und. us stich
can rinly. b? disposed of by some act of
TIvmb. confirmed', In my /opinion and
Views upon the -subject. by the legal
officers qf the 8tat?, I .cannot do other
wise* than repeat my recommendation
of last year, viz.; that th? claim of the
bank to be permitted to r?new and
rund these bonds Is valid arid just and
should, bp allowed. -It -1$, not denied
that .the State owes the bonds to soir.e
one? '.Tiiey *re carried - as part.of the
debVo'f the State on the books of the
treasure^ as ?wlri? to some one. The
courts have, all decreed th?. bank to "be
the.frtvnerir No one' else can now claim
therh.-as all.tpersons but the bank arc
barred! under the act of ,1806 from doing
bo. >I repeat. In the fpee ?f th?se facts,
it wUl'be: little short ol repudiation if
we .continue'-'to refuse t?''f*ll?AV- the re
ceiver of tho b^nk to fund them,
EXTENSION "OF 3 TIME FOR PAT
. MENT OF TAXES.
It is best that t-hie tiirie for the pay- j
merit of -taxes without penalty should j
he. fixed, an ; It should bo riuderotoud 1
that there ..will be' ,no extension, in j
view. hoWever; of the stringency of !
rhoney with opr,farmers and in con se- !
queric?rV-lth almost every other branch
of business, and in view of the further
fact that-the. time for tire payment of
taxes.has so. often been extended that
our-people have come to expect it* after
consultation -ivlth; th? cotnptrpller gen
eral,. arid'b'y';vlrt?e' pf? authority, given
at by law, the'time for" the paynient of
taxes, without penalty has been expend
ed to the first do y or March. 1902.
The question of,taxation is one of the
most Important and difficult problems
that will confront you arid one of the
most prof ound ,ln political. economy. It
has been a dimcult problerii ever since
government. ..has been organised and
taxes laid, and never, y?t has a sy?
tehi: been adopted which . is entirely
equitable, and Just and which has not !
been: open to fraud, and evasion and in
equality. .. It . is "easy to lay down a
theory arid;a principle that will be.Just
and equitable, but when It comes to
putting In motion the machinery, that
will carry :out- in Its practical opera
tions that theory and. that will ripply
the ^principle..to property,, the question
becomes' a vexed, one. and. difficult;.of
solution. The constitution provides
that ajf property .shall bfe assessed' at
Its- truei. value and therefore bear * 1ts
share of the burden of taxation: This
principle \vn8 laid down, by Adarri
Briilthi the celebrated Scottish philos
opher arid , political economist, in th?
early.'paVt-of .the Eighteenth century,
arTd by all writers on political econo
my.before and since his day ...Equal arid
j'UHt taxation," levied on a?? ..property
prpportlonately and In accordance with 1
Its-value, .is the product of. the high-|
est justice, and :, when done to meet]
slriiply the .demands of government, :
economically' administered, is never j
burdensome.- Ott the, other hand, un-1
eattril and uniuat taxation is alw'jty?',
b?rdensprii.? rind, has been the cause
Of many, of the Wars and much .of ,trie
strife 1 rijl through the history of tho.
Jt is necessary to raise a certain
amount- of money, to. meet the ex
penses of the State government and I
this must be done by taxation. Itj
rpakos little difference to the taxpayer!
iVl??trier th? levy is high or low. The
question that coricerris him IS-the as
sessment or, valuation placed upon the
property to be taxed, and whether or
riot Jt.is valued at the same ratio as
}ther property. When the politician
tKjasts of .having reduced the tax. levy
h?}is only tryjrig to fool ..the people. The
leVy must be large-enough to realize
^sufficient sum to meet the -appropria
tions- rind it \ylll -be large or small In
proportion to the valuation placed up
?tf- the'property and the amount of a??? ;
pr.opriatlons math: by the legislature. 1
The only. Way to reduce taxation is to
*educe the appropriations. Of course,
the. school tax fixed. In the constitution |
ivp?ld realise more income if nssess
nentH were raised^ but that wouitl be !
io .disadvantage, for scarcely any orie |
ivould object to, an increase in this!
fund. ' .
'^Urider the present system t.te returns
ire made t?.the county auditor. There
a ri.rtownship board'of assessors, which
ne?ts at the court house .after, .the au
litor has taken the returns, arid un
lertak?s U> go over all of tltem in one [
^r.tw? day?. Then there Is a county
>oard of . equallssatlop- which also
neete at the court hous*s and goes over
he returns for the entire county in
?ne or two d?y? All ,ot this Is done
n somewhat'.of.a perfunctory manner
[nd acePmpllshes little or nothing In
n securing an equitable assessment
if property. There nre counties in the
Hate in which some of'the;.land Is an
essed at one-third or ohe-hatf Its ctc
ual value, while other land Is assessed ,
t its real- value. In fact, there may
io two adjoining plantations,, the one
forth twice, as much as the other, and
et under our system each is. assessed
g^a^pXlop at the same -price per
*er?. In many cases it is the rule to e
issess live stock at so much per lioud, 1
regardless >of : the fact that one horse a
uay be worth two or three times ns r
a but another. Is, even In the same r
county. And yet this is .wliai town
mlp boards Of assessors and the. county ?
board of equalization understand us t
*quallalng property for taxation. This i
certainly 1rs not the purpose for which v
these boards are created.. And yet It *
Is Impossible for n townahlp board to t
meet and ?pond only one day koIiik <
over the returns that have been made, i
und'get them'equalized. It is also as i
Impracticable for. a county board of1'
equalization to meet nnd in one or two.. |
days equalize the assessments upon all
the property In the cfcunty. Much more I ]
could be accomplished if the law were j
amended so as to require that the h
county auditor shall, after notice in 1
the public prints, take returns in each
township, and shall not take these re
turns except while present in the town
ship. In euse any tuxpayer falls or
refuses to make return while the au
ditor Is present in the township, the
auditor .aud the township board shall
he required to assess such property
und notify the owner of the valuation
placed upon his property. That there
shall be appointed a township board
of assessors, consisting of three dis
creet freeholders residents of the town
ship, who shall meet with the auditor
to receive the returns and nBsess the !
property. That this board shull be j
appointed by . the, county auditor and
receive compensation for its services.
TJhftt all rctur.ns-shall he made in pub
lic, in, the presence qf the auditor and :
the township'board, and that the owner
of the property shall bo required to
answer, th-?-questions as now provided
by law, und make affidavit as to the
correctness of. his answer. If the' town
ship hoard thinks the return is too
high or too-Jow it shall be Its duty,
in the presepee the owner of the
property .and the auditor, to raise or
lower .the. return in order to. reach
the'true market value of the property.
The chulririattof these, township boards
shall, constitute the.county bonvV of1
equalization, and this hoard shall meet
at the cQUrt,.hbuse-anqVgq over the re- 1
turns: for,. |he..c?n,my ,wlin the county
auditor and bear <com?JttIrit8 and ap
peals, their 'decision .to be Subject to
appeal to the .State, board..'.The auditor
shall hot be. hermitt?d to. go ,lnto a
primary, hu't shrill be appppinted by the
governor,- as. provided yy law, .-.so as
to be as free an independent , as it is.
possible. In ,thls. <\yay X believe; much
win he gained toward having all prop
erty assessed;, equitably,. The honest
taxpayer would'.much-prefer to return
.his property, at' its -.true, value, If by
doing so" h'e ; w-ould ,.boar. no .more, than
his j v'H portion of the burden, and the
I rrian who.?deslres .to eyqde< should be
made: to , bear hls^part of the -burden
by ,havlng; his property returned at
Its' true"value. <
I There . Is , n\> question; that so. much
demands your earnest,-.your Careful,,
your thoughtful." and your diligent con
sideration,,,arid that so much concerns
every citizen .of the-, commonwealth as
this question of taxation. It. has r?
j c?lved the attention of every legislator
who has had the interest of his.people
?t heart since taxqu have been levied
and, government organized, and .yet
there.. Is ;^io., subject, in .which there'Js
more, rooriin-. for reform than that -of
equalizing taxation rind placing upon
th?: books ..for taxation that property
I Whttli' 18 now evading the oillcers of
th? mw'. U 'M
I There has been a gratifying increase
in the taxable property during the
year just closed. In fact, the increase
\s greater than , for any one year 'for
several years past. This, of course,
has made an increase in the amount
of tax?s, collected, .but your npproprl-,
atlons .were larger at the last session
than the wear, before, and but for the
Increase /In taxable values there would
have uc?i? a demit and the appropri
ations, could. not have been met out
of the Income for the year, instead,
however, of-having $189,000.000 of tax
able proporty we should have near
The following comparative figures for
1900 and 1901: are taken from the comp
troller general's report:
Real.. .. .. .. ?102,148.427 $103,258.440
Personal -.- .. 52.006,830 69,030,424
Railroad's .. .. 25,359,273 27,044,243
I Total .. $i79.5l4,530 ?189.333.107
These-figures show, u total Increase
In the taxable values for the past year
For further Information In regard
to this 'department ;your attention Is.
directed to the excellent and suggest
ive report of the comptroller .general.
. S?SUCINO FtjND.
.In my last message to. tho general
assembly attention, was called to the
fact that at. that time $241.030.84 of the
$389.202.23 of assets, of . the cumulative
Sinking fund for. reduction of S. C.
Brown 4 1-2 per cents were ou deposit
iii^uuim?, and aitnough drawings per
cent*. Interest, were . unsecured., except
by, the credit of the banks wherein de
posited. This condition no longer ex
ists/and- there is now of this fund so
deposited hi .banks only $59,358.84, which
will, soon be drawn out to complete the
State house loan. This has been ac
complished during the.'past year by tho
loan of $123,164.37. under the act of I960
"To provide for tne completion of the
State house." und by the purchase
during the past year by the commis
sioners of the sinking fund of S. C.
Brown 4 l,r2 per cent, bonds.and stock
of the aggregate face value of $78.012.00.
These-bonds and stocks have been
under the law converted into 8. Q.
BroWn 4'1-2 ,per cent, stock issued in
tttej name ,of the commissioners of the
sinking fund, and although purchased
at a minimum, being 4 1-2 per cent,
bond's, will until maturity pay ulmost,
if, not quite. 4 per cent, on the price
paid. Under the trust this Is an Ideally
safe investment, being made tri- the
very - bonds the fund Is created to re
The deposits in banks, unsecured ex
cept by.the. credit of the. hanks wherein
deposited, pay only 4 per cent. Interest,
ami this rate, of interest 1? liable at
any time to decrease, should Interest
a.nd the ^demand for money at the
money, centres decline.
'On December 31st, 1901. the assets
of, the cumulative sinking fi'hd for
reduction of S. C. Brown 4 1-2 per
cents, amounted to $420,515.52 invested
Sous to yield from 4 to ? per cent, in
terest The. assets of the ordinary
sinking fund are now $49.397 "52. The
assets of the insurance. sinking fund
for *tate insurance of public buildings
amount to $3.111.22. .
i OOOD ROADS.
During the post year there has been
a general awakening throughput the
country on. the question'of good roads
nnd in every section,-great Interest has
been manifested and movements begun,
looking to.-the Improvement of the pub
lic highways. There Is no question
that mere directly and more generally
oneerns the great body of our people, tl
'he south has possibly been u little ii
low in this matter*, and the effects r
esultlng from lwn- negligence are tl
?lainly to be seen. i,
For. the past few years there has been |;
l great lntlux of people Into our towns n
md cities und these have rapidly bullt o
?p at the expense of the surrounding ! f
ountry. This is an evil which if pos- l
dble should be remedied, for It Is ! n
LO the People of the country, and not to > V
.he tewns and cities, that the State ! l
must principally look for the pre- r
tervaihm or her Institutions. One of ! t
the prime causes of this gn at How of ! l
population into the towns and cities M t
to be found In the condition of our'
public highways, in most or the coun
ties in the State during certain sea
sons or.the year some of the roads are
altogether impassable, and all commu
nication and tra?ne with the cities and
railroad points are cut off. Such a con
dition of affairs must work great hard- i
ships, especially upon the rural dis
tricts, and the people of the rural dis
tricts compose the great majority of]
Leaving out of consideration alto
gether the evils resulting from the con
dition of our roads, however, and luok
ing at the question from a purely busi
ness standpoint, good roads pay. and
are one of the best investments which
can be made by a county, or State.1
Under our present methods of road
building, it is necessary to rebuild the
roads after every washing rain, while \
If we build good, permanent roads, the
cost of keeping them in repair would be
a very small item in comparison to
what our present roads are costing.
Jn fact, .the saving In not having to
work the permanent roads so often,
would in a very short time pay ror
their building. This lias been found to
be the ease wherever good, permanent
roads have been built.
Frpm the seventh annual report of
the Commlsloners of public roads for I
the State of New Jersey, one of the j
leading States in the good roads move- j
ment, the following Is taken mt-ely j
to show in what respect good roads
are held by the people who have used
them and know of their advantages:
"The people seem to be bo wonderfully
impressed with the idea that by good
roads the value. of lr.i.d will be In
creased, transportation cheapened,
travel and business attracted, school
houses and churches Ailed, and civi
lization advanced, that they are pray
ing ?a earnestly for them as for great
*Jchea. Consequehtly. the pressure ror
new roads is so great it seems almost
impossible, to hold the people back.
They .are so anxious that they arc
not willing to confine themselves with
in the. limit of State apd county ap
propriations. They are constantly in
sisting upon building.' ahead of the
State appropriation, in order that they
may enjoy them'now."
'.It has beert- esflmafed that in 40
counties In Indiana where good roads
have been built, "the average increase
in the selling.price of land...due .to ex
isting improved highways, Is $6.48 per
acre. The estimated average increase
per acre that would.,result from im
proving all the'public roads is $9.00.
The . estimated .average cost of eon
verting the common public roads into
improved highways is $1,14C per mile.
.The estimated average annual loss,
per 100 acres, from poor roads Is $76.28."
On the busts, of this calculation the
average annual loss from poor roads
is 76 cents per, acre. It will be seen
that thfi loss from popr roads would
soon lay for the building of good
roads, and after replacing the amount
paid for their construction, the good
roads will continue to pay.
Of course, it cannot be expected that
South Carolina should do as much as
some of the States have done, but any
action which may be taken, looking to
the het*--rm*e'nt of our roads, will be of
great .>onefit and in the long run will
actually save money. Most of the
work <lone by oUr chuingangs upon th*
present roads is simply thrown away.
The building of. public highways Is
as much of a science as railroad
building, and in order to build roads
will require money, and in order to se
cure money there will have to be pro
vision for raising it by taxation. Tho
Oood Roads convention, which was re
cently held in Greenville, passed reso
lutions requesting the legislature that
each, county be given the privilege to
determine. by election the right of
such county to levy a tax, not to ex
ceed ii 1-U mills on the taxable property
of such county, if so much be neces
sary, in order to build good roads, and
that such counties as desire to do-so
bo given authority to issue bonds to
construct and maintain their public
highways and be authorised to issue
bonds upon so deciding by county elec
tion. A resolution was also passed at
this convention requesting thd legisla
ture to enact such laws as will en
courage tho use of broad tires, and also
that the county -chaingangs shall be
put to work exclusively on building
good, permanent roads. These sug
gestions are practical business prop
ositions and will work great benellt
to the State if carried but, and 1 rec
ommend that they be followed.
It la most gratifying to note the in
tercot which has lately been taken by
the people of South Carolina in this
subject.- Most of the counties of the
State an? awakening to a realization
of the importance of the subject and
much, is being accomplished.
In this connection the work which
has been done and is now being done
by the Southern railway in this di
rection deserves commendation, and no
doubt much of the good which has re
sulted from this awakening Is due
partly, to its efforts.
Any action looking to the better
ment . of our roads which, in " your
wisdom, you may see tit to tsike, will
be so much done, toward the promo
tion or the general prosperity or the
people. Whatever plan you adopt
should be efficient, economical and
oqultuble. And that you should adopt
some plan is patent to every thought
ful citizen. v
CHILD LABOR. x
In my last message I directed your
attention to the Importance of giving
careful consideration to the question
or child labor In our manufacturing
establishments. With the rapid growth
of . manufacturing industries In our
State this has now become a ques
tion that directly concerns the people
6* South Carolina and a problem that
is demanding solution. The solution
should work no injustice upon the mill
owners: nor should the health and the
future happiness and prosperity of th?
children, who will in a few years be
citizens and voters, be neglected.
Nothing should bp done that will In
jure tjjus manufacturing Interests, nor
retard the progress and development
of South Carolina In material growth.
There is no doubt that to keep the
small child confined at labor in the
mills is injurious to the child phys
cally . and mentally. Without time
for recreation, play, exercise, sunshine,
school, things so necestary for the
fitrOWth anil hehlthv ?tovolnnrnn??* of
tic child body and child mind: noth-i t?
ig but labor and loll from before sun- if*.
!sc until after dark, w compelled by : ov
lu? laws of nature to dwarf the child j g
rind and th? child body, because it ; ii
* In direct conflict with the law? of tl
aturc, and will have Ita influence and I
ffect upon the citizenship of the ?
uture. j u
Even looking at the situation from I c
; cold business point of view, it is i u
tetter that w? should not have child li
abor. In a good many Instances tlte i \,
nil) owners themselves have realized ! ?j
his fact, and have prohibited child 1 ?
abor in their mills. Looking; to the I t
uture, they know In order to have j
iktlled labor in the grown up man and j g
vornan. It Is necessary that the child i
if the present shall not only not be 1 ^
iwarfed physically and mentally by ; }
lose confinement and labor during the M
lender years of youth, but that It shall 1 \
have all the advutttages offered by the ! i
schools of the community, lit some}1
cases the parents who work in tue I |
mills are required to sign a contract ! <
to force their children between certain | ,
ages to alt tend the public schools pro- ;
Vided. There e? ? mill towns In this |
State which a models In everything
that goes to make an Ideal commu
nity. The mills contribute largely for
the education of the children and in |
some of these communities you will
find as good school buildings ns in any
of the larger towns and cities. R?sides, I
the mill owners pay their part of the
school tax, which g-<es into the general
fund, and the most pleasant relations
exist between the mill owners and the
operatives. .The fact that the mill
owners, who are In the best possible
position to judge by experience, recog
nise by such action the Importance
of educating and caring for these
children, is u strong argument in favor
of the necessity of u law prohibiting
I In many instances, however, these
rules are not required, und the nilll
! owners, finding child labor cheapest,
j an<l looking only to the present, sub
! stitute the child for the man, and the
ihealth und future happiness of this
child arc sacrificed to present gain.
This question Is one that 1ms to be
met In every manufacturing country..
J and in every instance It hits been found
I to bo the part of wisdom, looking both'
I to the mental and moral uplifting and
the material advancement of the people,
I.to prohibit the labor in mills of children
of tender age. England, France, tier
many, and all t ? principal manufac
turing countries of Europe, and all the
manufacturing States in the north In
our own country, after tin rough inves
tigation ahd long experience, have de
cided in this manner. The question Is
a new one in the south only because the
south has within very recent years
developed Into a manufacturing section.
The manufacturing Industries of the
south in ?lhe near future will bo t om
pelled th meet atrong competition from
the people of other sections of the
globe, particularly from the far east.
In order to meet thiscompetition they
must have skilled and Intelligent, labor,
and this, can 'only be secured in the
operatives or the future by the educa
tion of the children of the present. And
the children, of the present canifot be
educated and prepared for their duties
and for good eltlr.enHhlp If they ?r? re
quired to labor In the mills during thelt
The question Is demanding solution,
and the part of wisdom Is to solve It
now, for the longer It Is left alone the
more difficult of solution it becomes.
This question was discussed by you al
your last seRslon and In one brancli
of your body defeated by a large ma
jority.. Flnnl action, however/ was post
poned by a continuance of a bill in
the other branch.
After careful and thoughtful con
sideration, 'it is my opinion that it'ij
a duty which you owe to humanity and
the citizenship of your State to protect
th'ise children by prohibiting theli
labor in our manufactories. If the par
ent does not feel sufficient interest lr
his own offspring to look.after Its best
interests and to prepare It for the hlgl
Buttes, of good citizenship, then it li
.the- duty of the State to step In une
assert its^nuthorlty by taking car? oi
. the life and the health and the happi
ness of fh??e helpl^HS little ones. ]
I realize that it is a perplexing questict
where the authority of the parent endi
and the duty of the State begins, but
in a question of such vital Importance
to the State fine spun theories shoult
not be indulged, but the best interests
of the commonwealth and its citizen
ship should be the paramount issue
No child under 12 years of age shouh
bo permitted to labor in the manufac
tories of this f?tate, unless it be neces
sary for the support of a widowei
mother. If you should adopt such u
measure, however, at least one yeai
should >>e given before It becomes oi
forc? In order that all parties may ad
Just themselves to the new conditions
It is a principle now well recognized
that the safety of the government It
self requires that It give Its citizens
the opportunity to fit themselves for at
Intelligent discharge of their duties ti
the State. Our form of government it
seir, in which every citizen is a ruler
and every ruler a public servant, de
pends for Its preservation upon the en
lightenment of the great body of oui
people?their education and instruction
in the "great elemental truths wblel
elevate the mind and purify the heart
of man." and which render him cap
able of self-government. Subsequent
events have proved the truth of tin
sentiment expressed by Washington al
the very foundation of the government
that 'it Is substantially true that virtue
or morality is a necessary spring oi
popular government. Promote, then, as
an object of primary Importance, insti
tutions for the general diffusion ot
knowledge. In proportion as the struc
ture of a government gives force to
public opinion, it is essential that pub
lic opinion should be enlighten-d."
Public opinion depends for, li* en
lightenment very largely upon the free
common schools, and ? he efforts of the
State should be directed principally to
the Improvement and perfection of Its
system of common school education, for
it is to the common schools that the
great majority of the children must
look for their education. This should
not Interfere with our system of higher
education, but the first duty of the
State is-to prepare the great majority
of Its citizens for the Intelligent use
of the functions of citizenship. The
ideal system is one properly articulated
from the common school to the high
school, the college and the university.
"It Is of little use for a republic to have
higher Institutions of learning pro
I during men of wisdom and power Un
i loss it has aJso a system of general,
1 nay, of universal, education producing
popular respect for wisdom and power.
The.university at the summit, reaching
as high as human Intelligence can go,
the common School at the base, spread
ing as wide as human nature itself, and
between them the best attainable sys
?m of grammar schools ana high
huols and academics, and spreading
it from them an ever-developing or
nnlzatlou of technical nnd professional
istltutlons?these are the defenses of
But it is of little or no use to have
n adequate system of free education
inless It he taken advantage of by the
hlldren of the State. The attendance
ipon our common scltools is not as
urge as It should be. No child should
>e allowed to grow up to meet the high
lutles and responsibilities of eitizen
ihlp without at least having acquired
he rudiments of a good education. And
et many of the children of this state
ire permitted to come to the years of
natnrlty without being able to read or
vrlte. either because the child cannot
<ee for Itself the advantages, or the
lather.is wilfully negligent of the wel
fare of his offspring, or himself igno
rant of the necessity of an education.
There Is no greater enemy to the wel
fare of society n*id to republican lr -
?dilutions than ignorance, and the duty
of the State Is to require the child t?>
take advantage of the education pro
The question of compulsory education
has 0diluted the minds of educators
throughout the State for the past few
years. Various public addresses on this
suhjev . have been made, and at nearly
every teachers' association in the State
the question has been discussed. It
would seem that the majority of our
best educators advocate the system of
Tin; objector to compulsory ?ducation
will Urge that every parent has the
right to determine what education shall
he given his own child and that the
State has no right to interfere in the
affairs of the family. "When a con
tagious disease Invades the State no
question of this kind is raised, but the
state takes measures to stamp
out the disease and asks not for .
; permission to establish a quar
antine against the spread of
the malady. The two cases are slml
, lar. Ignorance Is the worst of dls
jI eases and the State has the right to re
Iquire that the children shall be brought
j up In such a way as to make the best
I possible citizens. It is also urged that
j the cost will be too great. The State
ils now spending more than a million
dollars on the education of its children
and the proper position Is that every
child of school age should reap its
share. Hut the greatest objection
which is urged to compulsory education
in the south is the ever-present negro,
and the fear that if he is educated he
cannot be ?-ontrolled. The fallacy of
this argument is pa ten i to every
thoughttul man. It Is a fact known .
and recognized that in this Stute at
present) in proportion to the population
of each, there are a great many more
negro children than whites receiving
the education provided. The negro is
here to stay, und to educate him right
ly will but teach him his position and
be of beliebt to him and to HB. . To .
leave 1dm without an education is but
to make him n tool in the bunds of the
: I designing and a curse to.society. It is.
but suicidal not to require the white
1 children ?.f the State to attend the
! common schools for fear the negro
1 schlldren will receive the same ad
vantages. This argument means that
we should let the white children grow
up in ignorance in order thut the. ne
' gro may not learn. .
In this ago there are many problems
f which confront us and must be solved.
Education Is. the solution. "We must
educate, not one \ here and there, but
i every child in the State.
A compulsory law at the beginning
would probably have to encounter dlflfl-,
1 cult les in Its enforcement, but the time
Is ripe for something to be done, as
every one must admit when he eon
> aiders the per centngo of enrollment'to
I the children of school age, especially
t In the rural districts.
All the principal countries of Ku
rope, in fact all the principal civilized
? countries throughout the world, and
t two-thirds of the States and Terrltor
' es of our own country, have adoted
? some system of compulsory education.
I In many of the other States It is be
I lag agitated uud urged.
According to the Census of 1S90 the
t percentage of whites In South Carolina
? over 21 years of age who could neither
* read nor write was lB.fiii: of negroes
t 65.23. In 11100 the census figure! show
; the percentage of whites 12.6. and of
I negroes 64.7. These figures need no
* comment. The percentage of illiteracy
- among the whites has decreased In ten
. years 3 percent.; the negroes 10.53 per
The following d?tn, showing the
- States of the United States that have
I compulsory education laws and be
l tweet* what ages, has been obtained
* from the school laws of the various
P States and Territories, and from letters
- from their various governors and su
. perlntendents of education:
Illinois?If. weeks (12 consecutive),
I 7 to 14 years.
California?two-thirds term (12 weeks
i cons?cutive)', S to 14 years.
I Colorado?12 weeks (8 consecutive), S
> to 14 years.
Connecticut?full term. 7 to 16 years.
Idaho?12 weeks (8 consecutive), 8 to
! 14 years.
Indiana?12 consecutive weeks, S to
, Kentucky?S consecutive weeks, 7 to
( 14 years.
Maim?10 consecutive weeks, 7 to
! 14 years.
Massachusetts?30 consecutive weeks,
i 7 to 14 years.
Michigan?16 consecutive weeks. S to
I Ohio?16 to 20 consecutive weeks. 8
to 14 years.
, Montana?12 weeks (6 consecutive), S
to 14 years.
Nevada?16 weeks (S consecutive), s
to 14 years.
, i New Hampshire?full term, S to 14
I New Jersey?20 weeks (8 consecutive),
! 7 to 12 years.
[ I New Mexico?12 weeks. S to 16 years.
; I New York?full term, S to 16 years.
North Dakota?12 weeks (6 consccu
I ! live), S to 14 years.
Oregon?12 weeks (8 consecutive). S
j to 14 years.
Pennsylvania?full term. 8 to 16 years.
"Wyoming?7 to 16 years.
Arizona?12 weeks (6 consecutive), 8
to 14 years.
South Dakota?12 weeks (S consecu
tive), s to II years.
Washington?12 weeks, s to 15 years.
West Virginia?10 weeks, S to 14
Wisconsin?12 weeks, 7 to 13 years.
Vermont?2N -reeks. S to 15 years.
Nebraska?two-thirds term. 7 to 14
) Minnesota?full term. S to 16 years.
, Kansas?12 weeks (6 consecutive), S
to 14 years.
Khode Island?12 weeks (6 consecu
; live), 7 to 15 years.
Utah?10 weeks (10 consecutive), 8 to
1 would suggest in our State that the
eg'-s he fixed bftv.rc-n ? and 13, umi