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Nature's Callous JE
8ojourD?Dg at j Way Etes ville, N. 0.,
jorrooided ou [every side tot fifty
Bjeg or mofe by lofty mountain
ranges,0De'? Abugbts na*ttrally,'iurn
i9 ecmo of the problems which iapun
tuos present, ??chas ttujir origin.,
their relation to|olimate and their ap
peals to ih'j aesthetic sensibilities,
first bow were! mountains formed?
?a the rooks *c pem sro vory much
folded, fraotured, displaced and dis
torted, early geologists coaeluded that
BOuntaioB were produocd by groat
|WDvnlsioD8 of nature, of which vol
iioic eruptions and earthquakes are
inor exhibits. The interior of tho
irth was regarded as the seat of plu
,nic forces under great stress, which
night relief by uplifting the earth's
?st. Hence, upheaval, that is,
?ting from below, was the usual term
ipplied to mountain making^ and
inch is tho popular belief of the ori
io of mountains at present. This
incept carries with it the idea of
idden formation, hence such terms
catastrophes,'. cataclysms and so
,hwere used in connection with
Geolog'iBts now hold-entirely differ
it views of the matter. They cott
ier mountains as wrinkles of .tho
th's outer part or crust, and these
produced by a con trac ting or shrink
of its interior parts, and this cou
:tion as due to loss of beat. There
ibundant and convincing ovidenoo
,1 the interior of the earth is hot
than its outer crust. The tem*
(are of deep mines and deep arte
wells, whorovcrJocQted, in arctic j
well as in temperate regions,
ire it. After passing down a mod*
,e distance from the surface the
increases at a.pretty uniform
sar at about one degree foi avery
or sixty feet. Th? temperature
ie outer orust is little affected by
internal heat, 'and is kept ap
ately uniform by heat received
thc sun. The outer crust,
?fore, does not Contract appr?cia
The interior is not reached by
na's heat and is constantly but
iy losing some of its <heat. It,
fore, contraots while the outer
stands firm, and the crust must
le to keep in touch with the
iken interior. An old familiar,
-triking illustrative analogy is the
piling of au apple. The outer
dry and rigid, the interior is
and soft. As the latter , loses
ire it shrinks and the akin
les to keep in contact with'it.
mgthen the analogy, it may be
tb st-the uuight of mountains
io greater ratio to the diameter
earth than that of tho wrink
a apple bear to its diameter.
loss of heat by the interior
earth is very slow and gradual,
-Hing ia likewise slow and j
1-henoe, mounj-?ns ar? . jot j
a day or & yeaf, but in thou
years. While the final ro
fl uplift, the force which pro
is horizontal rather than^ver
st as one can throw a sheet of
to folds by pressing on its op
;CB. That such lateral pres
been esorted on mountain
shown by. the flattening of
their beds and bj the le- j
flt of Blaty olearage in their
rooks. It would take us
t of our way to discuss slaty
ak length. Suffice it to say
process eansbe-imitated arti* |
pressure ou substances, Hko
" naturalJy havo-no e?eaV
?. The flattening bf fossils
leavage planes in mountains,
M horisoptal, not vertical,
his aa now seen are cquite
from what tiley originally;
dges and valleys existed ?
ntains were first formed/ aa
I?do, but peaks were probably
Jitirely absent Diiintegra
!*s and the washing away of
?Bist?nt parts haye radically
e original wrinkles. Ori
havo boen widened - and
new ones have been form
have been serrated and
ed. Indeodf ir> many oases
dges were strained until
'plit open with water, ac
h? the splits, haac?ttuem
?Heys and left the original
1CAI) .1 ^P08-0* *forcer coutr&c
lEJW #inkiin^:irom -loss of heat,
!?nng away, and catting
'?dges by the denuding
ter, have ever been war
oaoh other, the ono tend
mountRtrjB, tbs other tb
own lets plains. Pluto
have never ceased their
0 dry land first appeared,
tive simplicity of Pluto'B
'Q- changed by Neptune
ito complexity and beati
ng mountains, howhore
?ated.thna iu- the ?I'JUE
,l*r of life
tanga by a
ia and fire
3 only way
i ia to in*
jocose of Mountain
? . ?: y \Y. ? f '
tains of North Carolina, towering above
all others east of. tho Mississippi
Mountains and oceans are both char
acterised by sublimity and grandeur.
But a beholder is quite differently
impressed by them. Mountains sug
gest great titanic powers, active sn
tho past, and represent wOrav done.
They are monuments of great achieve
ments in ages past, and, like monu
ments, are cold and lifeless. Not so
with the ocean/ It is the seat of*
ceaseless activity. Its waves ever
beating against its shores; it frets at.'
its confinement and is evor struggling
to extend its bounds. Its moaning
nover ceases; its murmurs arc ever
heard. It suggests . life and it is the
home of ljife-not orly.Us home, but
its birthplace. Lon* before the dry
land ?ad an occupant the ocean
tpemed with "countless creatures. It
was the seat of the great evolutionary
processes, which from simple begin
nings led pp to tho highest class of
animals, that class to which man him-,
self belongs. In the pr?sence of the
ocean man feels Ms utter littleness
and feebleness. "Fear gets hold upon
him; he trembles iud quakes.1' "Man's
ravages stop w-tb the shore. .Upon'
the watery deeps the wrecks, are all
On the other hand the mountain's
power seems afar off. it does not
threaten his life. . He ?am climb its
heights and tunnel through its bow
els,. Its, sublimity is greater when
viewed 'rom afar. " 'Tis distance
that lends enchantment to the view
and rob?B the -mountain in its azure
hue." Standing on a mountain's
summit one ceases tc think or the
mountain beneath him; his evo turn?
to the distant horizon 'brought into
view, to other mountain peaks and to
the peaceful valleys spread out below.
Nothing suggests great pr .sent activi
ty; less animal lifo is apparont. The
silence is seldom broken by the songs
of b"rds or the bark of the squirrel.
But for the clouds which form and
float around Its summit and the thun
der which reverberates if rom peak to
peak, the stillness of death would
reign over it.
And yet there is some suggestion
of life about a mountain. The -white
olouds which form and kovor about it
suggest that it is a .great Blooping
monster, whose condensing breath
forma the clouds-ono breath in the
morning, another in the evening-in
dicating very deep sleep, a tleop so
profound that on? ?fire set its wak
ing. For ages k has slopt;. it may
sleep for ages yet to oome. Besting
in this faith and hope, one calmly and
reverently views these great earth
giants, learning leesons ot humanity,
as his thoughts turn from their great
ness to his ewr. littleness, audie ready
with the palmist to exclaim, "What is
man that thou art mindful of him?"
At other times, standing on a lofty
mountain's aummit,. his intellectual
vision expands commensurately with
tho physical vision of the vost stretch
jof billowy mountain s gradually fading
into seemingly g^eat plains bounded
by tho far distant horizon and the
feeling of the immensity, of the in
finity, of the material ? vision awak
ens the infinite ia himself, and Ute
boundless possibilities el isis own be
The spaoe ia which the earth re
volves around the sun ?ia very cold j
sover&l hundred degrees, below zero.
But for two things tho surface. .of tho
earth would be approximately as cold
as the ?paco in which it moves.
These two things are: The heat
which it receives from the sun and
tho earth'a atmosphere, which serves
ns a blanket to retain the heat thus
received. Aa stated previously, the
internal heat of tho earth affects its
cruBt very little, a-very small fraction
of ono degree. Tile temperature of
the surface is practically regulated by
the heat received from tho sun. Heat
received from the moon and stars is
scarcely appreciable. If nothing in
tervened between tho san , and thc
eartVa surface, and if tho days and
nights were bf equal length, all the
heat received during tfcoday would be
lost during the night, and the days
would be unbearably liot sud the
nights excessively cold. But the at
mosphere does come in between the
two and absorbs, and holds part of tho
heat on its way to the surface; during
i the day, acd does the same thing again
when tho heat rtcoiveu by the surf abo
is radiating and passing off again into
apace during tho night. The atmos
phere tends, therefore, to make tho
temperatura of the earth's outface
If tho atmosphere intercepts and
holds some of thc heat as it passes
from the sun to the surface, and ?IBO
absorb? and holds some *? it returns
from thc surface into outer anace the
atmosphere itsol* must he warmed to
Some extent. The degree to which
it is warmed ie commensurate with ita
density, the denser portions obstruct
i?g and absorbing more heat than
those less dense. Now the stratum
nf air next the surf are, at sea level,
is densest of all, beoauso it hair-all
the superincumbent air above press*
.pg down on it, sud, therefore, it will
be most heated. For. a similar rea*
son eaoh successive Btratum ac we
ascead upward is less dense than tho
one below it, and therefore less heat
ed. The upper atmosphere is, there
fore', always relatively cold. &ut
there is an additional reason why the
lower strata of air are moro heated
than the upper. It is not the two
principal ingredients of the atmos
phere (its ' nitrogen and oxygen),
whioh most intercept the sun's heat,
but the carbonic aoid and vapor of
water.present in it. Those two*?nb
s tau cos aro more abundant at low
levels than at ^Teat altitudes. Evap
oration from oceans, lakes, rivers,
the ground itself and from the leaves
of plants, is continually contributing
vapor of water to the lower strata of
-.ir. < The decay of vegetable mutter,
the burning of coal and wood, tho
breathing of animals are constantly
supplying the lower strata of air with
carbonic acid, also with vapor of wa
ter. The same /processes produoo
like results on mountains, but the
quantities produced are relatively
very much less, beoauso the surfaces of
mountains are so limited compared
with the surfaces of lower levels.
Moreover, the winds which sweep
over the mountains quickly carry
away local accumulation of carbonic
acid and watery vapor. Especially
in large cities and their vicinities are
these two ingredients of tho.atmos
phere increased. It is said that with
the growth of New York city, fogs
have become more abundant in its
harbor, supposed by metereologists, to
be due to inoroase of watery v>por in
its atmosphere, this inoroase being
caused by the vast amount of combus
tion and of breathing within the oitjr
This long introduction is necessary
to explain the peculiarities of moun
tain climates. . As U?OUU?B?UB auoeud
into tho upper air they are enveloped
by an atmosphere less heated by the
san, as already explained, and this
eiroumambient air helps to cool them.
Of course, the surfaces of mountains
receive heat from , the sun as other
parts of the earth do, but the currents
(winds) of tho cool upper air, which
are constantly passing over them,
quickly carry off the heat thus re
ceived. The winds Whioh sweep the
mountain tops are not only cooler but
swifter than those at lower levels,
beoauso they encounter less obstruc
tions and less friction, and have,
therefore, proportionately -treater
v Again, in the elevated valleys- and
plateaus, whioh aro surrounded by
high mountains, tho -days are .practi
cally shorer; that is, tho time during
which the sun shines directly upon
them is reduced. The sun's heat is
ofter? out off from such localities an
hour in the morning, and again an
hour in tho afternoon. The time for
receiving heat from tho sun is thus
prac tic al ly decreased, while the timo
for losing it (by radiation) is increas
ed, approximating somewhat winter
conditions, when . the days aro short
and the nights are Jong; conditions
which always tend to produce lower
As mountain tops have less air
above them, than is present at lower,
levels, and the air. above them is more
rarified and contains proportionately
.less carbonic acid and watery vapor,
the sun's heat roaches the surface
with less obstruction and absorption.
?Heneo ooo feels the direct heat of the
sun intensely in tho mountains, moro
so than in tho plains bolo Bab for
the same reasons, the heat reoeived
at the surf ace of mountains radiates
and-esoapefi rapidly during the night;
hence the nights aro relatively cooler
in the mountains than. at lower levels.
Ono can generally keep cool in the
m o un tain ?3, during the hottest por
tions of the day by keeping within
doors or in the shade. . This is due to
the fact that ' the average or mean
temperature for tho twenty-four hours
(night and day) is less than in the
plains bei ow, and the temperature
within doors approximates tho average
temperature of the day.
Another source of relief from hoe*
in the mountains is their almost nev
er ceasing breezed., : In the upper at
mosphere the winds meat no obstruc
tions, and air gliding over air develops
less friction than air passing over
solid surfaces. Light breezes at
lower levels might be practically
stopped by obstructions, each es hills,
tresa, etc., while over the tops of
mormtains they pass freely OD. Wind
relieves heat heat in several ways:
By bringing air from a ooolor piase;
by removing tho air in contaot with
tho body, which air has been warmed
by the heat of the body, and by in
creasing the evaporation of tho per
In addition to the general currents
of air or winds x.'nich prevail on moun
tains, thcro are frequently local cur
rents developed in elevated plateaus
ftuu y????ys which are surrounded by
high mountains. High mountains
radiate beat very freely from their
tops daring the night, and also, fro ai
their shaded slopes, during tho day.
The air io cou tact with tbeap cooled
surfaces, becomes cooled also, and
when cooled becomes denser and
heavier, and then flows down into the
valleys and plateaus, displacing the
warmer air present. Air being invis
ible these currents are not ordiuarily
seen, but so m c? li me a smoke entangled
in them render them visible. Cur
rents thus formed In the higher
mountains follow the courses of river
valleys for long ditienoee. Such a
current from the high Balsam moun
tains very generally prevail in the
valley in which "Way noa ville, -N. C.,
ia situated, and contributes much to
the coolness of its climate.-Dr W.
L. Jones in Sunny South'.
. A Lawyer's Advice.
One of tho old practitioners of tho
Osceola, Mo., bar tells this story of
the good counsel whioh a lawyer in
that ?own onoe gavo a client:
Shortly after tho firm of Nesbit <&
Ferguson hung out their shingle nu old
farmer called upon them in regard to
a land suit. Some of the parties at is
sues'' were not resident? of tho state
and it was necessary to notify them by
publication. Ferguson took down a
blank and bogan to fire questions at
the farmer at a great rate, which thc
honest old fellow proceeded to answer
after weighing carefully oaeh word.
The blank having been finished and
put in a pigeonhole, the olient asked
what it was.
"That is the advertisement com
manding the non-residents to appear
end defend tho auit."
"And how much will that coat?"
"My friend," said Ferguson; calmly,
looking the old man in the eye, "if you
aro going to figure on the cost you had
better stay ont of lawsuits."-Kansas
City (Mo.) Journal.
Boara tho ?Tba Kind Voa Hw Mwira foflgftt
-- Without tale-hearers there would
be no tale-boarem.
-- Whore tho devil is so smart1 is
that ?he always lets tho one he wants
to convinoe do the argueing.
for ?a inferior b?er?
Schlitz beer costs twice
whet common beer costs
in the brewing. One-half
pays for the product; the
other half for its purity.
One-half is spent in
cleanliness, in filtering even
the air that touches it; in
' filtering the beer, in ster
ilizing every bottle. And
it pays the cost of aging
the beer for months before
we deliver it.
If you ask for Schlitz
you get purity and age,
you pay no nore than
beer costs without them.
- Mr. Moody, who carries the rural
free delivery mail from He-ta vi Ho tb
Leavensworth, had a narrow escape
recently. As he was making hi? trip
a tree fell across his buggy and utter
ly demolished its rear part, including
thc wheels, yet he escaped without
Just to see tho beys scramble to pick up a lew genuino,
legitimate and irresistible
We throw oat a few samples of what we propose to do this Spring in tho
trading line. Some of thom, you will seo, are to close out because of the late
season, hut geewhia! notice the prio? : .
20 Sacks Bliss/ Triumph, and other varieties Seed Irish Potatoes at
$2.60 pei Sack, former price 63.25.
Dean & RntlifiVo Fancy Patent Flour, worth 85.00, our price 84.25.
Dean's Patent Flour, worth 34.25, we ask only 84 00.
Bully-good Plantation Molasses to go at 15c in barrel lots.
?25 pieces pieces Cotton and Wool Jeans ranging in price from 8c to 25c,
worth 25 per cent more than this.
One Car Trunks, ranging in price from 98c for a Zinc Covered Trunk to
04,50 for the finest Traveling Trunk on the market.
We are always Headquarters for
FEED AND PLANTATION SUPPLIES.
You will save dollars to give tie your business on
The Busy Hostlers.
Special attention ia invited to a new shipment of
^CORN STOVES AND RANGES !
Vhich we have just received, and which 'includes the very latest patterns,
oth coal or wood, adapted to the requirements of this market
Tr you require anything in the Stove or Hange line we solicit an oppor
uuity to explain tho merits of THE ACORN.
We also carry a complete and up-todate line of TINWARE, WOOD
SNWARE and HOUSE FURNISHINGS.
Guttering, Plumbing and Electric Wiring executed on short notice.
ARCHER & NORRIS.
FRESH SEEDS !
White Blid'.:. 40c a Peek.
Red Bibs. 40c a Peck.
Early Rose.. 40c a Peck.
Goodrich... 40c a Peck.
Burbank. 40c a Peck.
Peerless. -10c a Peck.
FKESII PlOAS AND BEAN?.
Paper Seeds th roo ior 5o.
Onion Sct3-Red nut! White.
Fresh Watermelon Seed.
Pratt's and International Stock Food.
ANDERSON, S. C.
TRUTHS ABOUT COFFEES.
HAVING trouble with your Coffee, aro you ? Can't find tho sort to your
taste ? Can't get it uniformly good ? Try BOLT and your Coffee trouble
should oease. Once I know tho kind your palate approves I oan give you just
that all ?he time.
With White Star Coffee, and right Coffee-making, you are bound to have
Coffee sai: sf action. Tho Coffees are unbeatable, pure, genuine, and sold under
their righ names. No substitutes allowed hore. White Star Coffees are put
in Cans fo r grades from 25o to 40o a pound. I am exclusivo agent for these
A. A. Grade, 40o a pound, an extra fine blend of rare, rich and costly Cof
fees of the very highest grade, fine flavor, delicious in tho oup and suits the
Coffee oritio. Tho Coffees in it are novor sold by some dealers booause of their
oost. Those who want a No. 1 Coffee recognize its betternesB at Once.
No. 1 Grado, Mocha and Java. SP?.? a pound. Another palate pleaser.
Smooth, rion, fragrant, with drinking qualities hard to surpass. "Can't bo
surpassed," many folks claim. Genuine Mocha and Java, and not Rio or
other sorts masquerading under assumed names for profits sake.
No. 2 Grade 30o-No. 3, 25o. Both good and popular where medium
priced Coffees are desired. Honest Coffees at honest prices. Blends of high
grade sorts and please most palates. Money saved if you like them.
C. FE?NK BOLT, The Cash Grocer.
Do not Pail to try our Specially Prepared
8 1*2 2-2 Petrified-?
Bone Fertilizers for Grain.
We have all grades of Ammoniated Fertil
izers and Acid Phosphates, also Kainit, Ni
trate of Soda and Muriate of Potash; all put
up in new bags; thoroughly pulverized* and
no better can be found in the market.
We shall be pleased to have your order.
1N0ERS0H PHOSPHATE MD OIL CO.
Why Not Give Your Mouse a Coat of
MASTIC PAINT ?
You can pnt it on yourself-it is
already mixed-and to paint your
house would not cost you more
thanff- #.t - - -
Five or Six Dollars !
Ori>Gray & Co.