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?reater in -A^rea and
Frederick J. ?IsBkin
f This article, being the first of a
series from the Philippines, will be
devoted in the main to statistic!*. The
reader desirous ot becoming posted un
conditions existing in our Far Eas
tern possessions will do well to pre
servo the facts contained herein, as
they will be cooducive to a better
understanding of thc accounts to fol
low, and will be valuable for reference
at all times.
Although hundreds of books and
thousands of columns of newspaper
articles have been written on this sub
jeot, new conditions are continually
being formed which, together with the
established facts, should be kept con
; stantly before the people of the Unit
! ed States, because the future political
' privileges of the Filipino must be de
? termiced by American legislation.
! AB the attempt is being made to edu
cate the native, the American should
, not remain in ignorance of the cocdi
j tion of his government's ward. While
all argument may be colored by the
interests or prejudices of the indivi
dual, the actual statistics can not be
misleading, and are, therefore, worth
The Philippine Islands are a part of
; the East Indian archipelago. They
' "* are located southeast of Asia, almost
south of Japan, and north of Borneo.
They arc altogether tropical. The
zone which we acquired from Spain
as cet forth by the treaty of Paris
(December 10, J8D8), including land
and water, amounts to an area almost
thirteen times BB large as all of thc
New England States. The census of
the Philippine Islands, just issued by
the American government, is the first
. accurate record of what our posses
fiona here really amount to. This
shows that there are more islands in
the group than the Spaniards thought
The ezaot number, including every
thing whioh appear? separately at
high tide, is 3,141. However? 11,775
of these islands are very small, each
being less than a square mile in area.
About 1,500 of them are cf such little
consequence that they have never
been named. The total area of all the
islands in the group is 115,026 square
mileB. Fully half of this territory ia
contained within the limits of the two
large islands, Luzon and Mindanao,
the former being about the size of
Louisiana and the latter about as
large ao Indiana. Thus it will be
seen that there is considerably more
water than land within the limits of
the zone ceded to uo. There are so
many indentations in the archipelago,
that its coast line, li ko that of Alas
ka, is greater than the combined At
; j lan tic and Paoifio seaboards of the
Unitod States. Tho American gov
ernment paid Spain $20,000,000 for
the islands, which was about 20
cents per aore for all tho land con
tained in them.
The population of the Philippines
?.i bas ?been found to consist of about
P|P. 7,POO,000 civilized inhabitants, and a
aral- little .mora than half a million savages,
I Included io thoBe designated as oiVi
! lized are 41,000 Chinamen and 900
Japanese. Exclusive, of the army
there are over 3?000 Americans resid
ing here at the present time, BB well
as about 4,000 Spaniards, 700 Eng
g; ?j Rahmen and 400 Germans. Tho bulk
, j ofthe native.population is supposed
-?^ to be of Malay extraction. Although
past .'records, are very incompleto, the
population oktbe Philippines ia sup
.' posed to have been quadrupled within
the past century. This is a very
y Small increase when compared ,with
: . the growth of the ?n?ted States, which
. was ?fteeu times aa great during the
Samo period;.;! Relieved of the devass
tating effects of war. and ravages of
disease, it is belieycd the population
of the islands/will inor?as? ^?r?n? the
next fewy ears at a rate never before
equaled in their history, '
The establishment of accurate'ta
bles of mortality ha? disclosed a num- '
ber of unexpected reaultfl. Tt is fiur
f v .prising to find that the. death rate
among the natives is very high, and
fay ;- ^orrM^ending^ low among the for
eigners;! The mortality among the'
Filipinos iejgreat?r, than of any Surd*
and it ia doubtless..not exceeded any
' where unless it be kn som* of the more
unhealthy provinces oFBriti?h India.
Thc. g&e?tist loss is shown among
children less thani one year ?>M, the
rate among the** bsvjng gone as high '
as 322 per thousand. Thir is said to
bo a forfeiture Of infant life, jdu? to
ignorance cather than to th?^Mm?t??
Me:Lcv? a?lowj children to begin cat
incit?- 'food ?;*fce* they ?re not
strong enough to ^igeafc it, whioh ia
ahnoBt certain to cause cholera infan
tum and convulsions, , Every efforlia
/ ^eing made to mrie the . natives un
JRgerai.aod that babies ?h*ee oi four
?r^-'-'-^^?uthe of ago muetnot be fed on Snoh
things as ri?e, mong?es andi/bananas.,;:
I [Less in I^oirulat?on
ia The Sunny South.
Time has shown that the foreigner
who will obey the rules of health pre
scribed for a bot climate can live in
the Philippines with almOBt as muoh
immunity from disease as if he were
residing in the United States. This
is proved by the record kept by the
army and navy officials both in times
of peace and war. Gf course a per?on
may quickly become diseased from
dissipation or disobedience to tho
rules governing tropical diet. Tho
usc of liquor in a bot climate is ener
vating, this cac easily be overcome by
frequent sojourns iu a higher or cooler
The great neoessity for education
in the Philippines ie shows by the
discovery of the fact that lees than
10 per cent of the entire population
could speak a common language. It
was supposed that thc majority of
the people understood Spanish, but
this haB been proved inoorreot. It
was the policy of the friars to learn
the language of the people rather than
to teach their own, so they could in
terpret the law arbitrarily, There
were many people counted as literate
who could speak some Spanish, but
were unable to read or write it. As a
result of the educational system now
in vogue throughout the islands the
bulk of the population will soon be
able to affiliate by means of the Kog
There are now 375,000 children at
tending robool in the Philippines. A
few lc8a than a thousand American
school teachers are engaged here at
the present time and they have about
live thousand native teacher!) assist
ing them. The number of American
teaohers .will gradually diminish a9
the supply of natives eligible to en
gage in tho work increases. The diffi
culties encountered by the first Amer
icans who came hero to teach can
hardly be described. They succeed
ed Spanish instructors who taught the
pupils to write upon banana loaves
with a pointed stick. The process of
counting was to out notches in a pieoe
of wood. Some of our teaohers bad
to build their own school bouses, man?
! ufaoture their own benches, and then
work for months without slates, booka
i or other material. Those who could
not procuro building material con
ducted their classes nuder shade
; Some critica bave insisted tbat too
much money bas been spent upon edu
cational work, but that contention can
hardly bo justified. On account of
tho natives having so long been
amenabb to tho influence of 'the
Spanish friars, they are more easily
cob trolled by the school teaohers than
by either the civil or military authori
ties. The rural teachor in tho Philip
pines is the natural leader of the com
munity, and bis fundtiona are so nu
merous and BO novel as to bo quite
outside the limitations of the same'
calling in the. Uni UM! States.. He ia
appealed to in cases of oppression, he
settles political disputes, presides '
over all functions^ superintends the
building of roads and bridgea and bas
even been called upon to assist indis- j
persing'bandits. That the people are 1
anxious for education is shown by the
fact that tho attendance i? 02 per cent '
of the enrollment as compared with 74 i
per cent in the United States. The <
wisdom of the broad educational <
campaign inaugurated by General
Otis ia becoming more important every
There is little variety in the perms- i
neat 'occupation of the Filipinos, t
Forty per cent of the men are farmers.
The women are very industrious, and
arc especially clever at spinning and
weaving. / With .tba orudest kind of.
looms they manufacturo most exquis
ito fabrica, and mako bats, mats and
carpets'of an exceeding fine quality.
The returns of the resent census show
that the proportion of women engaged
in remunerative ocoapation in the
Philippines io more than double thoao
similarly employed in the United
States, and three times greater than
in either jrorto iii co or Cuba.. ?be
f||nY of wage earners'".showed that
the Filipinos begin work when very
young. Only a small portion of tbe
female) population to?epts weri^ a?,
dofteatio servants, this belog* a line of
onUeivor almost entirely monopolised
by the Men. Great difficulty was ex
perienced in classifying tbe varions
occupations because ojL&be tendency
among' tbs people to dabble in. to
many .different kisai of work?, For
instance a waa ttij^fc be a farmer for
several boura during tbe day, a coach
man in the evening, and be looking
after some fi sn i ng apparatus late at
The Filipino ita jack of <Al trades,
and good at none.. The>ange of oc
cupation he will attempt seems to bo
t^joid est?mate. ; I hoard a , roan tab
ing about one versatile native who in
aida of. two months had been a lawyer^
a plantation overseer, a coachman, a
bartender, and a waiter in a restau
rant. The stimulas to effort and con
centration has not been groat because
of the fertility of the country and the
small demands of the civilization. On
account of having been a subject raoe
so long the ambition of these people
has been stunted by the seeming hope
lessness of their future. But now
that they have an opportunity to de
velop themselves and reap the reward
of their endeavor, it is believed they
will become responsive to tho possi
bilities awaiting them.
The principal wealth of the Philip
pines has always been the producta of
tho soil, but the individual holdings of
tho people arc so small that they ctn
hardly be celled farms. The average
size of each holding throughout the
Archipelago is only eight and a half
acrcB, while iu America the average
size of all farms is about 150 acres.
Lees than half of the available agri
cultural land of tho country is under
cultivation. Tho most valuable pro
duct of the islands is hemp. This is
the fiber t?kcn from a sort of plan
tain, generally oalled abaca. It ia
similar to the banana plaot aod grows
nowhere else exoept io this latitude.
It is famed all over the world as "Ma
nila hemp." It grows wild and all at
tempts to propagate it in other cli
mates have failed. Th9 land upoa
whioh it grows is always fertile' and
well drained, anda strange faob io oem
neotion with it is that irrigation can
not be substituted for natural drain
age. Nearly all the hemp exported
from the Philippines finds its way tc
the United States and Europe when
it is used in manufacturing rope
That portion COQB?DJ?U in ??O?I?BUI
use, however, is utilized in the manu
faoture of cloth for wearing apparel.
Sugar ranks second to hemp in tin
value- of tho island's product fi. I
was formerly the most valuable oro]
of the islands, but a number of cause
have combined to give it a eeo
ondary place. The first of these wa
doubtless tho competition of bee
sugar. Tho unreliability of labor, th
difficulty in procuring boasts of bur
den, and poor transportation faoili
ties, wore other obstaoleB whioh th
planters could not overcome. In 183
over 460,000,000 pounds were export
ed, but this amount fell until, durin
the year following American occupe
tion, the amount produced for es poi
was not quite 190,000,000 pound)
However, the recent advance in th
price of sugar has encouraged the plat
tera to renew their efforts, and th
aoreage is now being largely ?aerea
The third co tn mero i ni crop of tl
i?lsnds is tobacco. The plant raise
here is of American origin and wi
brought from Mexico by Spanish mi
Bionarles. For a time tho sndusti
was oonductcd ss a government m
uL'p??y, bub the embargo was remov?
in 1832. From taut time its oultu
bas coj-yed a rapid growth. Tl
home consumption of cigars and oigs
ettCB ia very great and thia, togeth
with the increasing foreign denian
makes the industry ono of much proi
ise. Luzon produ.oeqVjtBe'best gra
of tho leaf. .
The ooo oan ut is vapidly inoroasii
in commercial value. Tho dried me
of this tropical luxury is called copi
Although it is va comparatively in
product it now ranks fourth among t
exportable commodities of the Ph
ippiuos. The t bi-produots of tl
cocoanut are used in every concoi
able way. The sap and meat prov!
the native with delicious, food ai
drink. The abolis;. ' aro valuable
household utensils, and oan be ma
into many kinds of ornament. T
tree provides lumber for the constrc
tion of houses, sud the foliage, mak
Bxoelleut roofing for the same. The
ire eighty-thrca dist?notuses to win
?he substance of this wonderful ..tr
nay be put, ranging from the man
faoture of toothpicks to th? prepai
rton of dye and hair, oil. There i
great 'possibilities in its culture, ?
sause it i s .ex tremol y prolific,, vie ld i
lix or seven crops of nuts avery twel
non th s.
. A Very Sick Boy.
Mark Twain on his.last visit to 1
rirthpj: we-Hannibal^ Mo.-told t
iohool children a true story ahem
?^?olboy, says the Philadelphia H
??This boy," he said, uAwoke c
he h?u"sbold. Th? doctor was AC
'or and came, pont has to.
" 'Well/ said the doctor asjas ?
ered the sickroom, 'what is the in
?le?- ?- ':? ? :
u 'A pai? in my side,* said the bi
" .Any pain ia the head?'
. " 'Yes, cir.1
"Os th? right hand atinT
H *A little,*
" ?How about the righi foot?' ?
"'That's stiff toc*
"Thc doctor winked at ?e bo
W$mt? ne ; said, 'you're * pri
i?ck. But you'll bo abie io go
ohool on Monday. :Let tae seo,.
$|#a$*rttrcVay and.~ .
" 'Is todav Saturday ?\ said tho !
n a -ve-jSad' to?c. : *| thought ifc il
"Halfan hoir later the boy decl
d himself healed and got v$ - 5i
hey packed bim off to school? for
A Wealth of Corn.
Whatever woe a may be io store for
the people of this country, it is quito
certain that, in the immediato future
at least, we shall not starve.
Corn is ripening in'o a great golden
harvest-a harvest that will tas the
labor capaoity of the whole great west
to its fullest.
America has long been teaching the
world to take our coro. Europe haa
learned to eat it and to like it. The
market is practically unlimited. There
is no such thing as overproduction of
There is no cereal carrying more
nutrition, none capable of wider ad
aption, tBan corn. It fills an amaz
ingly broad field of usefulness, extend
ing all the way from the daintiest
tabled to the pig sties; and everywhere
it ia delicious and healthful. It
makes bone and muscle and sinew and
brain, and these make character.
There is no end to the explanations
advanced for thc characteristic
strength and vigor of the American
people. No explanation ia near the
truth if it does not include oorn.
Corn enters icto the character of
the Americana as truly as macaroni
does with the Italians and Bauer kraut
with the Germans. If there ia to be
a national flower none is more approp
riate than the oorn tassel.
Last year's crop in this country
broke all records. But the new record
was short-lived. This year's orop ex
ceeds it by the astonishing figure of
The latest government orop report
indicates a total crop for the country
of almost 2,600,000,000 bushels-the
largest corn crop ever produced and
considerably larger than the ordinary
mind can comprehend.
And corn is not all We shall have to
eat in plenty. The total winter and
spring wheat crop of the United States
promises to be 690,000,000 buahels
the largest, with one exception ever
The aggregate production of wheat,
coro ?nd oats amounts to 4,164,000,
000 bushels, which ia a quarter of a
billion bushels more than last year.
Trained Rooster Pet of Sheriff.
When it cornea to taming roosters,
former Sheriff P. D. Gilreath has prov
ed himself almost aa mach aa an ex
pert as he is known to have been in
taming hardened criminals in the old
days when men of the Jim Howard
stamp had to be bandied in Greenville
The "Old Sheriff" aa his friends,
like to oall him, is spending muon of
his time in these days at bis farm
near Greer, and among his petr ia a
handsome Plymouth Kook rooster.
This bird never allows the sheriff to
get out of his sight if be eau prevent
it, and follows bim from one part of
the place to another.
Visitors at the fara never fail to
seethe rooster, for he ia a wonder. ;
He will crow just as violently and
just as long as the sheriff tells bim to.
He frequently comes into the house
and is fed by the sheriff. One of the
rooster's best tricks ia to take bread,
or anything else he should happen to
be eating, out to the hena in the yard
at the direetion of the sheriff. No mat
ter bow hungry be may be will not
touch a grain of corn or a thing until
his master giyea bia permission.
Sometimes the sheriff lets him eat
a grain and then makes bim take the
nest to the other fowls in the yard.
This is always accompanied with a
great deal of clucking and strutting.
There is only one thing the big roos
ter seems to fear and that is a strange
i dog. If there is one nearby the sher
iff hui a bard time to coax him into
performing. In accompany inp -?ho
sheriff On his rambles about tue place
tho rooster is continually ducking and
never fails to answer the sheriff every*
time ho,i& spoken to'just aB though be
understood every word that waa being
said. H? ip a wonderful bird in bia
way. Sheriff Gilreath regards bim as
one of bis best friends and it 'vr^uld
tako a big pile of money to get the
Plymouth Rook.-Greenville Nftws.
BEWARE OF SUMMER GERMS,
Will Cause Sickness Unless Stomach is Strengthen? </. ,
?ii With Mi?o-na.
If tho stomach is weak so that food
does not readily digest it, thc food
will become a soar, slimy, ferment
ing mass in tho digestive organs, the
ideal condition for germs to canse
bowel trouble, diarrhoea, or other
Bummer Hines a. ^
The well known Mi-o-na will make
the whole digeative system* so healthy,
olean and sweet that food cannot
ferment, and any disease germs which
may coter the stomach will be destroy
Just one small tablet out o' a 50
cent- bos of Mi-o-na before eating, and
you will have no headaohes, back
ache, poor appetite, . distress after
eating, heart-burn, furred tongue,
?lceplesnnes?. or general debility.
Ii will tone up the digestive, sys
tem and give perfect health and
Take Mi-o-na now* aud Evans Phar
macy will guarantee to refund toe:
money if it does not onie. The ribV
is ?ll theirs.
Yon will find that ?ur brisk trade and our lar g? ?s?L^e ri? ?
due to the tact that ^
msly. We aim td please thom. We seil highest : $md<&
Qoo?n at lowest possible juices.
White. Enal?el Mned, Ot?a? and: ?aay tit 9)^ .oleaa, .
OfflcB over Farinera and Merchants Bank, AndfraoD, S. C.
; ll I IM ?llllllll ??? I * il IIJ ? IM i l^lll IB?|?
How is a good timo to buy ? now Buggy and Harness*
and we want you to look at out large stocK of tho latest an&
best up'to-dat? styles, aud it will be no trouble for youl W
make a selection. Our work is all sold under guarantee/ W?
have ostra bargains to offer. Griye us a trial. Our-prices .are?
low and terms to suit.
J?. S.-We hayea few last FaUte ^
?--??-?-?-iii ii 111 i -M^tx^^---^.-w--:.:- . ? ' -?m '. _ .'
I, fir? Want to Sell Yo? lour ?Mat.
. ' Come in'.tu--S?e ?8,-?n'd let U3 'tell you nll'about it.
We bav3 sold th?3 Paint for many year?, and nil ba ve been f,???ssd wno
us#d;-H. We. baye a fino aelection of oolova, and will gladly give you a sard:
ahowing them ix you ?yill call In an^rcqueat same. Also, a falHine of
Viiruishes, Stains, Moor Paints*..
Buvnituie Polish, Paint Brushes, Ete.
:;S^t^ r E^isS?eB^ugg?tSv
feny years, Darinji; ail ?Bat Wcom*ct??? r
baye coiae and gene, bat we haye rsmwned- sigbt-jbere, . W? hsvo kt?*y? so!<;
Cheaper tba** any othera, ana during tbOee tong ye arabaye sot bad one dis
wtia^ .:will .?ometimea ?cour, and - ?? at te ?aWw*
dence or tb?people of th?a ?ec^o?.. Wo tee a. la*fe&'&&?^?mFmkS
*votteitand we-|>ie???iy^xr mp w^'ftfcifttt&fcsr?tf'. . .
m?m.hy;tipfi*i tba* we are ??UingFnif?l?; nos only a?lWe? allans '
t'8a?r.^in?^ tojB tb?;Bedm^i???tion. '.'Cosse and ?e-ot?.'' YoS ^;