Newspaper Page Text
li* Harvest? Were ILc
Would be 12,0
Chicago, September 30.--Thia is
the reason of tlic year when Ameri
can railroads arc taxed to their ut
iao6t, for the autumn days are the
time when the crops are moved. Tew
realize the extent of tho railroad
man's problem, yet some idea of its
magnitude may Le gained from a
statement of the value of the coun
try's agricultural products. This year
the grain crops will approximate $4,
000,000,0(50* 'a value, a sum four limes
that of thc national debt and nulli- ?
cient to give every man, wo?;;u and
child in the country $00. Two-thirds
of this crop will bc led to live .nock or
moved to mills by wagons ;u the dis- j
tricts in which it is ^rowu, but thc re
maining third wi'i travel to every part
of the world, and it is in the moving
of this part that the railroad man finds
his great task.
This year will see crops of such size
that that part which comes to tho
railroad will aggregate 1,DOO,000 car
loads of freight, for the moving of
which atone time nearly HH,000 loco
motives would Le required. These
cara and locomotives, if placed iu a
eingle train, would reach half way
around thc world, and sinoc thc sup
ply of freight cars in this country ia
only a trifle in excess of 1,500,000
with something like 43,000 locomo
tives, one may imagino thc w ies of
the railroad man in moving a single
item of freight amounting in volume
to nearly thc total capacity of thc roll
ing stock of all tho country's rail
roads. To thc railroad man it is a
game of chess played on a board 3,000
miles square, with freight train* for
pieces to bo moved hither and thither
in hundred mile jumps.
Let thc average citizen picture him
self as confronted with this problem,
with the necessity of moving each
year within a limited period 1,500,000
car loads of grain. It sounds simple
enough to talk of Bonding trains to
those points from which grain ship
ments will bo heaviest, but when it is
remembered that all th's grain must
be moved without disturbing other
shipping, the average citizen doubt
less would bo nonplussed with the
problem which confronted him, sud
ready to admit the necessity of a won*
derful system developed by men with
f?U9 and yoars of experienoo and
Tho railroad man in attacking the
problem, understands the situation
thoroughly. He has a given amount
of freight to move, with given faoili
ties*. He is backed by a system evol
ved from years of training and experi
ence, a system whioh has built up
American railroads until they lead the
world, with rates from two to three
times loner than those obtained in
any other country, and being freo
. from government regulation ho finds
that elasticity so necessary if changing
conditions are to be met. The rail
road man understands, too, that his
prosperity depends upon the prosper
ity of the farmer, and that in order to
move the crops or indeed evon to
make their production attractive) to
the farmer, rates must be made suffi
ciently low to allow Amorioao grain
to reach all tho markets of tho world.
The railroad man and. the farmer
really oooperatc, and it is .extremely
difficult if not impossible, to distin
guish just wfcero the function of the
former begins or that of the latter
S very ono knows that tho Ameri
can farmer comes pretty near being a
lord of 'creation, sinco ho feeds not
only this country, but even people in
other parts of the world which pro
One disease of thinness in
; children is scrofula,; in ;. adults,
consumption. Both have poor
.i blood ; both need inore fat.
' s,, Th?se diseases thrive. pji Jean
% ness. Fat is the best means of
- overcoming them; cod liver oil
% makes the best and healthiest
fat and \ . . '.
'X^^|^|^al|?^iHm most effective
form bf cod liver % Oil. H ere's -a
natural order of tirings that
, of 4o'mii?ii: Va?^?/.|n.'?ali caaes of
scrofula and cor^umption. ?More
v fatj more vyeight, iiiofja nourish*
. ment, that's >vhy.; .f .,,
&Qrt(f Jbr ftf? sample.
:>adod on one Train, it
I ?luce grain. But thc cause of his
position is Dot ofteu considered. It
j is true that his land is fertile-but
j other countries produce larger crops
I to the acre and then, too, he pays bet
ter wagcb than the farmer of any other
country. In reality it ia the coopera
tion of the railroads which make for
bia success-the elasticity of rates
which enable him to meet changing
condition?. I-'or instance, suppose
that a certain grain-producing district
has had a bard summer, that labor
has been scarce, and that bad weather
has s,"died a par.1, of the crop:*. These
conditions, of course, make tho cost
j of production higher for the farmer of
that district and it is out of the 'juea
tiou for him to think of shipping his
grain as he would have shipped it had
every condition been favorable, but his
true partier,the railroad,steps in at this
point, and. by making a sufiicienJy
low rate, helps him in overcoming the
hard times of thc summer by enabling
Lim to put his grain on tho market at
a profitable price.
Thia is reilly the great basic prin
ciple of American railroading-thc ad
justment to chancing commercial con
ditions and the freedom from hard
and fast rules *vhich government regu
lation in other countries ha3 always
brought about. In Germany, for in
stance, with good times or bad, largo
crops or small, the farmer pays tho
same rate, and these conditions have
po militated against his prosperity
that today in that country grain can
not move by rail more than 125 miles.
One can hardly imagine the chaos
which would ensue from similar con
ditions in thia country.
Tho movement of grain each year ia
to thc railroad what the conduct of
the campaign ia to the general. Each
depend? during the early stages upon
tho reports of his scouts. Those of
tho railroad company from a large
corps of expert? .?ho travel throughout
the country, estimating as closely as
possible the probable groin tonnage of
eaoh district and tho number of cars
necessary for its transportation. Bas
ing its plants upon thescfigurep,tho rail
road makes ready to concentrate cars
at points of coed just as, the general
concentrate this men.
The idea io tho railroadman's mind
is to get cars to the region of the cen
tral west at any oost. Expense is al
most a forgotten itom. Every one,
from the general trafilo manager down ,
to even tho station' agent, receives
general orders as to the disposition of
all cars. They are begged, borrowed,
and bought-in fact, proouredin *very
possible way. Agents in their efforts
to serve the farmers hare boee known
to steal trains of "empties'! in order
that thc grain movement of their par
ticular districts might bo facilitated.
But since the natural flow of oars to
tho grain region ot" tho central we'st
would not be sufficient tc take caro of
this rush of business, tho railroads
find it noceasary to attract mord than
an ordinary supply., . . .
vCountries in which tho government
controls the railroads find that their
rates are novcr lowered, for the rail
road company does not dare take the
chance on what invariably results as a
permanent change. But here, with
the elasticity whioh results from the
freedom whioh the railroads enjoy, ail
efforts.may be bent toward the doh
I oentration of oars at any desired point,
I The extra supply is attracted in this
way: There is always a largo amount
of freight flowing steadily throughout
tho country which, unlike grain, for
instance, does not move in any larger
quantities at one time than at another.
But tho shippers of this freight are
always anxious to benefit themselves'
by a:.y reduction in rates, and so the
railroad?, in order to attract cars to
tho west, make reduced rates on
west-bound merchandise of various4
classes. . . . .
Shippers in all parts of tho country
are quiok to take advantage of such an
opportunity, and in this Way the sup
ply of. cars for the- transportation of
eastbound grain is tremendously in
creased, since these oars, although
coming into the grain region loaded,
eau be used on . their, outgoing trips
for the, transportation of agricultural
produc?s. The whole system ( really
moxes in noircie, for.thc farmer, ie
benefited by getting his merchandise
from tba ?let, /wost. or south more
ohcaply, r and tho manufacturer, ' be
sides enjoying the ad van taja of lower
rates, can buy breadstuffs et a' figure
which would bc oat of1 tho Question
Were tho present elastic policy of the
'railroads isndered yinipbssiblo. The
railroads /are benefited in spitei /of.
lower rates by the tremendous luoreaie
of freight, eo that' the prosperity. ??
erally due the supremacy of the
American farmer. One may wonder
why, for instance, tho German farmer
finds it impossible to compele against
his American cousin, and why it is
that Gr?-nany consumes grain grown
in this country, but the fact of tho
matter is that the whole difference
lie? ia the ottit ide of the '.wo gov
ernments toward their respective rail
The railroad man in the gigantic
game which he plays in tue trans
portation of the country's grain to
the markets of the world, takes all
these conditions into consideration,
and asserts that to them alone can bc
given thc credit for the fact that our
farmer enjoys rates from one hun
dred and two hundred per cent lower
than those prevailing anywhere else
in the world.
Why is a Hen?
The time-honored conundrum.
"Why is a hen?" has never received
a really satisfactory answer.
i'ress Bulletin No. 140, of tho ani
mal and husbandry department of thc
Kansas Stato Agricultural College,
attcmpis thc impossible and of course,
fails. Indeed it does worse. Li'..e
the patient man in the land of Uz, it
has darkened counsel by wordfi
without knowlodgo. Kvery linc o?
this report, which gives thc results
of a great ejg laying contest in the
bleeding State, adds to'the mystory,
and wo are compelled to go on inquir
ing, "Why is a hen?" 1
Whether it is on account of her sex,
or whether nature was in a playful
mood when the hen was evolved, there
can bc no doubt that sho is a most
eccentric being, utterly repugnant to
logic and a combination of heteroge
neous mental qualities which nature
has apparently made no effort what
ever to harmonize, says the Baltimore
If we contemplate one side of tho
charaoter of this money-sided and
strange being wo are astonished at her
wisdom. Sho is taken down with the
incubating fever and is entrusted
with fifteen eggs. She spreads her
self over them with tho utmost care
and precision, so that not one of
them is exposed to the outside air.
If she should get thirty eggs she
Would spread herself as earnestly ns
the graduate before the footlights on
commencement night. Tho hen
knows just how thc egg is formed.
She knows that the yolk and the
white are of different epeoifio gravity,
and that if left too long in one posi
tion the yolk will come in contact
with the sholl and raoe suicide will
She, therefore, turns eaeh egg over
every day and never forgets. Some
years ago a womau from New York
got off the cars in Baltimore and for
got hor baby, whioh was asleep. But
the hen never forgets a single one of
her fifteen eggs.
The hen knows exactly the tempera
ture? and the exposure that will, he
fatal to incubation. She watches the
weather and if it is a cold day she
will loavo.tho nest only a few minutes
for her food j and cannot be persuaded
to stay longer. If it ia a hot summer '
day she will leave the nest and take, a
Considerable stroll among the other
hens to learn the latest gossip, after
the manner of hor kind, knowing
that on such a day the eggs are safe
from chill. - \ .
And yet * creature endowed with1
all this iitolligouoo will sit.heraolf to
death trying to hatch a ohipa nest
egg. And ehe will tura it over every
day with the same care she bestows
upon a genuino egg of her own pro
duction. How can suoh intelligence
and stupidity resido contempora
neously in the same brain? In
short, "Why is a hen?"
Now comos the dairy and animal
husbandry department :ol the experi
ment station of the Agricultural Col
lege of bleeding Kansas with an egg ?
laying contest, hoping to cleat;'up
some of tho my e ter ios of the' hen, and
succeeds oniy;?o the multiplying evi
dence of the inconsistency and lack of
judgment of theso cackling fowls* It
is well known that careful h?usekeep
ers aro hoarding egg*, ?uri.bg tho
months pf November' 'and December,
With whioh to make the Christmas
eggnog; It 'took; aeyo?? ' Ko^-t?^
White Leghorns the entire m o n t h o f
November to lay 8i?\. egga when the
market was soaring,- whib tho samo
illogical birds laid : bi?aity-threa if
April *whea. eggs were soiling for a.
cent apiece.-' . . - . v .;-'^
lt tnpk six Light Brahmas the en
tire montK of November and Decem
ber to lay four eggs when/.?g^wa>n'
worth something, while tbey;i(aid^?$0,
in March and April, af t^^tbV^g'gqog
aeaBon wa?' over. It balbeen urged
that these were temperance hens, ana
had formed a Hen*'Temperance
Tho Most Famous of Them Were Ce
lebrities of France.
The pages of history tell over and
over again the story of great woman
gamblers. France has furnished the
greater number of these, but Eng
land has put forth many whose fnmn
lias become international.
There seems to be-something in
the blood of French women that
makes them gamblers of a high or
der. Aline.'de Montespan won ?o
much at basset, her favorite game,
that Louis XIV. was delighted and
borrowed some of her winnings, and
her play grew so furious that in
1G82 Louis abolished the game.
It is recorded of madam that she
one night, while thc king looked on
at the pluv, risked a ?nm equal to
.$200,000 on a single card and fa.it
the king grumbled when no one
could be found to rover the bet.
But madam also lost one New
Year's night 700,000 crowns at
liocal and on another niffhc almost
$1,000,000 at thc saine game.
Mme. du Barry was the most fa
mous woman gambler of the time of
Louis XV., but with her it was only
a pastime. But that other favorite,
Mme. de Pompadour, went in with
+he sole object of winning if she
co ?'ld. It is recorded that her win
ningb were enormous and that in a
single night she eased the pocket
of the king of 35,000 louis d'or.
Quean Marie Antoinette, accord
ing io history, was a gambler who
liked to be surrounded by gamblers.
Faro was the popular game, but the
stakes got to be so great that many
a nobleman had his entire estates
wiped out in a single night. Scan
dal rose high and the game was for
bidden. Nevertheless in a short
time it was being carried on again,
not only in the apartments of tho
Queen, out at the hons** of the Prin
cess de Lamballe.
At first the queen and those who
desired to play with her went to the
apartments of Mme. de Guemene,
whose house is credited with having
been tho scene of th^ highest con
tinued play of any in France. But
mattera got so bad before tho end
came that noblemen would no long
er play with the queen, and^she ad
mitted to her table many common
gamblers. Then thc "scandal broke
in full force, for some were caught
cheating, and one was arrested for |
picking a pocket.-Liverpool Mer- j
cury. ,<~ - . - .
Forgetting tho Tunnel.
? story of the early days of tho
Belgian railways is told in the Corn
hill. It describes what the Belgian
engineers did when they came home
from England with sheaves of
sketches, plans,, specifications and
particulars about **the new English
traveling read," to build one like it
in the low country. They 1 made
their first railway across the flats
between Brussels and Liege, and
when it was finished, on almost the
very day before it was to be opened
with mp and circumstance", the?
chic igineer, looking at his Eng.
lish plnns and comparing them with"
Iiis own substantial achievement,
'suddenly, struck bis forehead with a
tragic gesture and cried t "Mon
Dieu! We've forgotten the tunnel!"
A railway without a tunnel could
not be a railway, they ?thought, con
sule Planeo, So they Covered, in the
deepest cutting they could find!
Cause of tho Trouble.
An incident illustrating President.
Lincoln's ever present sense ;olnii
mor is given, in "A Biographical;
Memorial of General Daniel Butter
field:* ; : .
An immense amount of corre
spondence h?d been sent to, Presi
dent . Lincoln, in which were inany
accusations "and counter accusations,
letters and explanations concerning
the failure to : get the pontoons to
?Yedericksburg in time for Burn
side. ? -/, ?" ?.. . '\ '? .
. ; Many thought Mr. lincoln would
remev?or court; r?^
Hp indorsed the papers with the fol
'In mv opinion Mr. Lee caused;
this trouble/'v 'J'
T" A. woman oe ver f ails vio b^sfc^f
her intuition every, time abe makes a
ALL OVER THE HOUSE.
Advice as to Cutting Down and Mend
ing Worn Carpets.
Tn mending or cutting down worn
carpets a lengthwise seam is more
noticeable than one made across the
breadth. However skillfully done,
mending aa oim would an ordinary
garment, by cutting out the worn
place, clipping the corners diago
nally, turning under the edges and
stitching them down to a piece of
tarpet secured to the under side, is
sur<i to he conspicuous.
It should be done by cutting
across the entire width and match
ing the pattern perfectly. Insert a
piece by neatly folding the edges of
both thc body carpet and piece back
on -the wrong side an inch, basting
securely in position. Overhand stitch
the edges with linen thread as near
the color of thu ground as possible.
Spirits of wine rii-bbed in well
with a clean cloth will remove all
stains on white leather belts.
To keep parsley shut it up in an
air tight tin and store it in a cool
place. It will last longer thus than
if put in water.
When tarnished gold and silver
embroidery muy be brightened by
being rubbed with flannel dipped in
spirits of wine. v
The ordinary cake blacking mixed
with a little milk makes a fine polish
for shoes and prevents the leather
getting hard and cracking.
Whisk Broom Holder.
A whisk broom holder which looks
like two circular pieces of delft por
celain is made of two disks of card
board about four and a half inches
in diameter covered with a glazed
chintz on which are figures and
symbols in delft design. The disks
are fastened to each other by delft
blue satin ribbon bpws, leaving room
for the whisk to be slipped between
them. The holder is suspended by
delft blue ribbon ends.
'.? Candied Sweet Potatoes.
Cut raw sweet potatoes after they
ure peeled in thick slices crosswise ;
throw them into boiling water or in
thc steamer above a pan of hot wa
ter (the latter way gives them a.bet
ter flavor). When the slices are soft
roll each slice in granulated sugar
and have ready a sldllet of hot fat,
into which throw the slices after
they have been well turned in the
granulated sugar. Fry the slices a
In cooking fish it should not be
exposed to tierce heat and at the
same time it must, not be put into
cold water -or into a. cold oven. There
are exceptions to the above. For in
stance, salmon, especially j if just
c?tight, should-be'.put into cold wa
ter and ?.brought gently to the boil,
hui .the general rule iv to put-fish'
.into wann water, bris ig the water
slowly to the boil, then let it sim
mer. ; ,". ,.' ..?
Cara of Wood Floors.
I be kept in good condition by wiping
I with a dmpT> cioth'and then Ebbing
with ? dr - ?oblen cloth. This, pf,
course; is''foi floors that do not get
badly boiled. Kitchen or pantry
. floors may be washed , with; skim
milk; if l^pK^?l^m^and.
water. A isorn^
never: be used, on a painted or yarr
;'.:,*, Care of Clothes Closets. , '
^.t knievel Ose t should be opened and
left tc. air every ,week for a tew|
hours at least. Ali clothing 'should
;be: ; removed, from Uio hooks and
hung but on. the clothesline to air.
TJhe. heat of thc; sun will take all
creases.--out of cl6th and velvet ^
Ementan and j save pressing:r If there
ire ?uj^rfluo?e articles of clothing'
on the* shelves these 'should' alsojbe
; , ., . ; i. ... . <-~ . .
While ? cn an' s. w?ll^ may / b?-taw,
in tba case of a-m
is .atldom enforced. :.. :<;'?
Either a girl wood?riif a m in is
in. earnest br if she^
~- A. very useful way io stay ont of
Sail is to bp a politician.
^Vegetable Preparationfor As
ling thc Stomachs oiviBoweis of
j Promoles DigcsllonJCheerfur
ness and Rest.Con!ahio neither
NOT "NARC OTIC .
/?*tpe af (Hd.nrSA!<UEL PITCHER
' ?ilx.Sr.ir." *
fion, Sour Stomach.Diarrhoea
Worms Convulsions feverish
ness and Loss OF SLEEP.
Facsimile Signature of,
. NEW YORK. .
v f4^l-u II? turill *v old '
J 5.1) (? *? IS - i j C I N IS
EXACT copy CF^WRAPP?RJ
Office over Farmers and Merohants'Bank, Anderso n, S, C.
. ;:..c ???<?--:. : :r
Kow is-a good thus to bay a new Bagg^ ^? Heness,
and ?jjpjj 'is.aat you to look at Our largs stock of tho lat edt ,?u&
best up/to-date styles, and.it will be no tronble for youl to*
niake a selection. Our work is all sold under guarantee. We
bav? extra bargains to offer. Give us a trial. Our prices are
low au? terms to suit.
THE ; 4L. S. FOWLER COMPANY.
P. S.-Wehave a few last Fall> Jobs to ?o at Cost.
Coin? in td see us, and l?tuateU^o? aft about-&
We have sold this Paint forirhany years, and all hayo been pleased'who.
shpwing them if you will call in aBdjrequeat sftmev ; Algona iiiil lino of-^:
Varnishes, Stains, Jioor Paints, ' ^S?
- ;;v ; .-V : ;,; ; furniture Polish, Palih^jp^
. ORR, GRAY & CO.,
?I?io Estal?lisBmont has Jjcea SoHitig
^We oonjo and gone, hut weA?ve r^Wt?
fohnd.^ not rest until We paf ?^
^ng, and wo?an say with pride? hut without h^
?? fc? -WP** of > to&^oiionv : v We .haye a larger Sioo&cf ?tendr?this '
sold Furrsit.nprt ?fe rt!* ftlrtrt^ *. -tttoVtri* AP ??.ft*'?'? ?*?>jSv?i:>-J
VOLUME XLI---NO. 17.