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Prisoners of War
*. \ 1 '
(Essay of Miss Ruth Rodgere that j
vron the MaoDowell Wolff medal. The j
writer is not yet fourteen, but has al
ready won two medals for essays on
Civil war topics.)
In the consideration of the Civil
war, one of the special, and most in
teresting in all its various phases is
the capturo and treatment of prison
ers of war/
In all nations or countries called
civilized, when they may he engaged
in war, it is customary for the con
tending parties to accept the surren
der of men from the opposite army,
when they may bo overtaken, and to
hold in custody suoh as surrender.
Suoh as are thus taken aro1 put bore?
de-combat by being put in prisons,
and held as prisoners of war, under
suoh rules aa are commonly regarded
by what in termed civilized warfare,
if, indeed, any people who engage in a
war may be properly oalled civilised.
Instead of being lilied after their sur
render, prisoners are taken and held
in prisons so that they may not fur
ther fight until properly returned or
I Tho civil war in the United States
was ono of the fiercest struggles in
history. The subject of prisoners in
the civil war find their treatment fur
nishes to tho student of military his
tory some of the most horrible and
pathetic incidents of ? human suffer
ing over koomi in the world. Both
sides of the contest, the United States
and the Confederate States of Amer
ioa, have much. to answer for in the
matter of revere and cruel, treatment
of prisoners. The advocates and par
tisan? of either side have often made
charges bf inhumanity against the
The responsibility for the harsh and
cruel treatment of prisoners is not
easy to fix in any sp?cifie or definite
degree; and must always bc? consider
ed as general, ; exceptio some speoifio
and individual oases.
AB to which side was more to blame
than the other can only be fairly eon- ;
eidered and estimated by taking a
comparative view of the means, pow
ers and resources bf both sides for the
proper tremont of prisoners.
'In view of the superior atfvantages
of the United 'States government, it
seems thai the fair land Just judgment
of true and impartial history must be
rendered in favor bf the CoAf?d??ato
States government. The Confeder
ate government,^ -hast, was but
provisional, and wes: not well estab
lished as a permanent and reliable
. government. Its .ondit was not weil
established and oonld not be counted
on for any more than its immediately
tangible and visiblo reaourcos in hand
at that time. Its only available asset
for credit /was Vhe ^jproduoiipn of -Wt?
I ton, ; and = at thia period of war the
'raising bf. cotton was ; curtailed and
limited so aa to make; an. increase in
s uba tan ti al ; supplies for bur: armies.
I The property in. negroes at.ibis tirne
[ was - iuneertain;::as tb its permanent
character or of duration, and was hoi
available as security for credit.
Prisoners were simply so many par
asites of the enemy ba the Confede
racy. They were a ; lot of vidie^non
paying, burden?onie boarders, who
had tp^O o
weak to'P'carry its own bardo, having
a population of iskves who did not go
ie&<*he. atfaier lp help fight the hat*
ties for constitutional prissies of
government wherein they' were Inter
cBtcd OB to tb? whole number of slaves
and counted for three-fifths of their
number of r?|^(?h.^iibo^i|^^^P
Oar women sud children had to bc
supported while, om^KWp^erd'' on
gsged in the war, Thoo to take on
peat:%a* aud.>s4s^ns:f?r. gjgpj
North and South.
cordi' in the war department at Wash
The whole number of Confederate
prisoners captured by tho Federals
was 220,000. At once it is soon that
the Federals were 50,000 more than
Ttte number of Federals who died
in Confederate prisons was 22,576 and
the number of Confederates who died
in Federal prisons was 26,436. So it
appears by official records that moro
than 12 per cont of the Confederate
prisoners in Federal prisons died and
less than 9 per cent of the Federal
prisoners in Confederate prisons died,
notwithstanding tbe difference and
disparity in means and resources be
tween ?the North and South, consider
ing the superior advantages of the
North over tho South for tho proper
care of prisoners.
' lu tho North were numerous places
for prisoners. They were located at
points as follows:
Alleghany, Pa., Alton, Ul., Camp
Cutler, Ul., Camp. Chase, O., Camp
Douglas, 111., Camp Morton, Ind.,
Elmira, N. Fort Columbus, N. Y.,
Fort Lafayette, N. Y., Fort Worroo,
Md., Fort Wood, N. Y., Fort Piole
eos, Fla. , Point Lookout, Md., Rook
Island,. 111., Johnson's Island, O.,
Louisville, Ky., dMemphis, ! Tenn.,
In this essay it is nnneeossary to
specify the number of prisoners in
each station, as they were distributed
to suit the wishes and conveniences of
the government, presumably for their
own convenience for supplies, guards,
and facility for keeping.
!.. In tho South prisons were located at
.Amenons, Ga., Camp Sumter, Ander
Bonville, Ga., Oahaba, Ala., Camp
Lawton, Millen Ga., Camp Ogle
thorpe, Macon, V .., Charleston, 8. O.,
Florence, S. C,, j Columbia, S. C?.,
Charlotte, N. C., Salisbury, N. C.,
Raleigh, N. O., ganville, Va., Rich
mond, Va.,:' Belle Isle, Castle Thun
der, Crewe, Libby; Pemberton's,
Soott's, Smith's Factory.
: ;The supposition is likewise that
these placea were selected for the
convenience of the Confederate gov
I ernment for purposes of safety from
raids for tbe release of prisoners and
for proper uara of prisoners,.
j The prison at Andersonville, called
Camp Sumter, was the most noted of
all the Confederate prieoaB. In this
prison were more Union prisoners aod
more suffering than in any other pris
on in the Confederate States. There
Captain Henry Wira was in command,
and to bim has been charged the al
leged; cruelties and orimes at ^tfce
It is Undoubtedly true that there
was muoh suffering in this prison, but
.Hi's hardly :-t^fosf Captain Wira
was responsible it, iff for
Be was Swiss by birth, a physician
by profession, and lie. fame to^seri
ca long before th? war and located io
Ncvr Orleans, La. He entered ;the
Confeder?te army and was severely
^piin?waf?n^b^^e^eoas; to bar him
f?.om active field' eervico.' He w** as
signed and detailed for duty as com
mandiftg officer at AndcreoavilJe pvis
Afte? fcb? Bartender be W? s charged
by t?i? Federal autnoSties Wi?.^
rioai critoe* at the prison. : He waa
*?W to Washington city, and there
liisrnn^^O^i ^e hung, and be
was executed on the 10th of Novem
ber,!^. ; :;;
M^e^njtary tried ?nd
condemned Coefederate Captain Hen*
wj^??e^^sr by General:
l^s^la^ Wb ?. sabsequon?y be
came the I'***0* *"^?f 0t %hQ *?Q*
and freezing, as oooarred st Elmira,
N. Y., Fort Delaware, De!., and at
Sandusky (Johnson's Island,) Ohio.
At Sandusky and Chicago are largo
cemeteries of our men who died in
these persons. Brave patriots of the
Southland, they were true to thc last,
and they now rest in these cemeteries
in view of fhose who opposed their
cuse, as though they are to be silent
sentinels in guard forever for Southern
manhood and courage, fidelity and
fortitude, honor abd heroism.
Indeed, it neoms appropriate and
timely that the United States should
adopt tho suggestion of the lamented
President McKinley, that the Fedoral
government "should sharo with ns in
the care of Confederate soldiers'
graves." He said: "Every soldier's
grave made during our unfortunate
Civil war ia a tribute to American
It is simply a tale of horror io read
now the official reports of the lives of
Confederato soldiers in prison. A
significant faot with regard to tho re
cords, that in the roports of the su
perintendentB of prisons, under tho
headings of "conduct" almost invaria
bly show -'good" and "very good."
Let us contrast these reports of uni
form good oonduot of Confederates in
prison with the severity of the man
ner in whioh they were treated by
their cruel guards. For meo whoso
behavior was ''good" to be treated as
they were was simply wanton cruelty
The South had a double duty im
posed upon it, in tho oase of prisoners
in their prisons, and it also contribu
ted to the comfort of Confederate sol
diera in Northern prisons. .
The Confederate government sent
large quanti ties of cotton to the North
to be sold and the proceeds to be ap
plied for the purchase of supplies for
the Confederates in prison.
Confederate General William N. R
Beall was in a Yankee prison. He
waB released on parole of honor and
was designated for the purpose of re
ceiving and Belling the cotton and
buying supplies, and distributing them
amongst the prisoners at various pria
Eight hundred and thirty bales of
cotton sent to New York, after being
properly prepared for market, sold at
public auction February 8th, 1865, at
an average price of 82 cents per pound,
netted $331,789.66, whioh sum was
used for the purpose of buying sup
plies for our prisoners in Northern
On August 8, 1864, General U. S.
Grant sent a telegram to General But.
?er as follows:
"On the aubjeot of exchange, how
ever, I differ with General Hitchcock.
It is hard on our men held in Southern
prisons not to release them, but it is
humanity io lasso left in tu? ranas to
fight our battles.
"To commenee a system of eschango
noir whioh< . liberates all prisoners
taken, we will have to fight on until
the whole South is exterminated. If
wo hold those already caught they
amount to no more than so many dead
men. j At this particular time, to re
lpano ??l ?5be? prisone?5 w???d insure
Sherman's def eat and compromise our
" -after, abundant and indubitable
proofs, the responsibility for the suf
fering of prisoners North and South
has been laid upon the, authorities of
ins United States government, and
there let it abide in history.
; Abr nt-Mlnded FInaBclar.
A new story about absent minded*
ness is being told on a West Philadel
phia maa s and he is not a college pro
fessor, either, but an alert financier pf
large affairs who Is so absorb?! tn his
httsinoi* that simUar siorieshave been
~ Hie infirmity, indeed, is so well re
|sjgnized that in a big Broad street
building, every sort of safeguard is
taken, and ho ?B a di?Scult person to
sees except by appointment. On this
occasion! however, he waa not ic his
office, bat afc horns, alone in the libra
?y, awaiting with some trepidation
the e ourse of e vee t s up- Bt al rs, w h t re
great things were happening. t Des
'te his anxiety, however, his mind
1, ;and he fell to speculating
o o* hs ai<o?M ^s?-rs5 his ?asi
Vegetable Preparalionfor As
similating the Food andBcguia
Ung the Stomachs andBowcls of
For Infants and Children
The Kind You Have
I NI AN rs /( HU.IWIIN
ness andRest.Contams neither
Opium.Morplime nor Mineral.
NOT "NARC OTIC.
sf Ix. Senna *
OxArlU Sadr -
jtatM Sc.-;! f
Www ww rhnvrt
Aperfeci Remedy f or Constipa
tion, Sour StouTach.Diarrhoca
Worms .Convulsions .Feveri s tv
ness and Loss OF SLEEP.
FacSinylo Signature of
11 I I > 1111 ?...
Ts* osrtTAUN OOM re NT. Mew TONK Om.
In'the Piedmont Belt of the South ?
Anderson County la the HUB of the Piedmont Belt,
and you can select from the following and let me near from
In tho City of Anderson :
o House and Lot on North Hain Street
House and Lot on South Main Street.
. .?. Vacant Lot on Sottth Main Street,
?u Centerviiie Township :,
155 acres, improved ; also, 67 aeres.
In Broadway Township :
. . 51 acree.
In Pendleton Township : 1
In Fork Township ; *
' 104, 900,105 and 52 aere Tracta.
In Hall Township:
ALL MORE OB LESS WELL IMPROVED.
In Pi ck ens County I have 285 aurea in one body and 75 acree in ano th er.
In Ooonee County I have several Tracts, running 104,418,75, 385, 136,
109,166-all in Center Township.
There ara n? better lands to produce iuaa I oner you above, and .if you
ar? interested in buying or selling lands in the city or country, see me an d
Icu no tell you what I have to oner.
Tours for building up the country and city, J
JOS. J. FRET WELL, Anderson, 9. O.
.A.. Ov STRIOKI^AJSTD,
Office?ter gftrmersTandilirerchanta Bank, Anderson, 8.0.
Vm?i G. BROWN, Pres, and Ireaa. | B. F, MATJIdMN, Vloo President,
fe'^t : A. 8. FARMER, Secretary.
The 'Anderson Real Estate
and Investment Co.,
Ont teeilMeafo* handling your ?y??erty aro ^rfsct, as
w? ara larg* advertisers all ov?i ^ eonatryc Bight now
This Establishment has been Selling'
IN ANDERSON for moro than forty years. Daring all that timo competitors
bavo come and gone, but wo have remained right hero. Wo havo always sold
dh?apor than any others, and durirg thoso long years wo havo not had ono dis
?atiBfiod customer. Mistakes will sometimes ooour, and if at any time wo
found that a customer waa dissatisfied wo did not reBt until we had mado him
mtisficd. This policy, rigidly adhered to, has made us friends, true and lasi
ng, and wo can say with pride, but without boasting, that wo have tho confi
lenoo of tho people of this section. Wo have a larger Stock of Goode this
joas?n than we havo ever had, and wc pledge you our word that wo have never
jold Furnituro at as close a margin of profit as wc arc doing now. TII?B is
proven by tho faot that wo are selling Furniture not only all over Anderson
Jounty but in every Town in thc Piedmont section. Come and BOO us. Your
?aron,ts aaved inonoy by buying from us, and you and your ohildren oan eave
noncy by buying fcoje too. We carry EVERYTHING in tho Furniture lino,
C. F. TOLLY & SON, Depot Street.
Thc Ula .Hcliablo Furnituro Dealers
MASTIC MIXED PAINT.
We Want to Sell You Your Paint.
Come in to see un, and let uo tell you all about it.
. We have sold this Paint for many years, and. all have been pleased who
used it We have a fine aelection of colors, and will gladly give you a card
showing them if you will call in and request same. Also, a full line of
Varnishes, Stains, Floor Faints.
Furnitur? Polish, Faint Brushes, Etc.
Next "to Bank of Anderson.
Now is a good time to buy a new Buggy and Harness
and we want you to look at our large stock of tho latest and
best up-to-date styles, and it will be no trouble for you to
make a selection. Our work is all sold under guarantee. We
have extra bargains to offer. Give us a trial. Our prices are
low and terms to suit. *
THE J. S. FOWLER COMPANY.
P. 8.-We have a few last Fall's Jobs to go at Cost.
THE SOUTH'S GREATEST SYSTEM!
??DsxcellecL Dining Car Service.
Through Pullman SleepingiCarsIon all Trains.! I
Convenient Schedules on all Local Trains.
gg, W?STER TOURIST BATES are now in effect' to all Florida Pointa
For full information as to rates, routes, etc, consult nearest Southern
Railway Ticket Agent, or ' \
R. W. HUNT, Division Passenger Agent/.Charleston, & ?L
BBOOES MORGAN, Asst Gen. Pas. Agent, Atlanta, Ga,
s *? ii
I I S S S
ONE CAR OF HOG- FEED.
Have just received one Oar Load of HOG FEED
(Shorts) at very close prices. Come before^theyfare
all gone. Now is the time for throwing-.
Arrant", your premises to prevent a case of lever or
some other disease, that will cost you very much more
than the price of a barrel of Lime ($1.00.) * We have
a fresh shipment in stock, and will be glad to tend?yoa
soma, If you contemplate building a barn or. any
other building, see us before buying your- '
'As we sell the veryibest^ualitiepConly
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th be sure that your family ia protected in
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Drop in and ase na about it,